Section 1. General
5-1-1. PRESENTATION AND EQUIPMENT
Provide radar service only if you are personally
satisfied that the radar presentation and equipment
performance is adequate for the service being
The provision of radar service is not limited to the distance
and altitude parameters obtained during the commissioning flight check.
5-1-2. ALIGNMENT ACCURACY CHECK
During relief briefing, or as soon as possible after
assuming responsibility for a control position, check
the operating equipment for alignment accuracy and
display acceptability. Recheck periodically throughout the watch.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 3, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10, and
Comparable Military Directives.
a. Check the alignment of the radar video display
by assuring that the video/digital map or overlay is
properly aligned with a permanent target of known
range and azimuth on the radar display. Where
possible, check one permanent target per quadrant.
b. Accuracy of the radar video display must be
verified for digitized radar systems by using the
moving target indicator (MTI) reflectors, fixed
location beacon transponders (Parrots), beacon
real-time quality control (RTQC) symbols or
calibration performance monitor equipment (CPME)
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3-8-1, Tolerance for Radar Fix Accuracy.
c. In Digital Terminal Automation Systems
(DTAS) conducts continuous self-monitoring of
alignment accuracy; therefore, controller alignment
checks are not required.
d. Radar Data Processing (RDP) alignment
checking is accomplished by the operational program
as part of the certification procedures for system
startup and then on a real-time basis during
e. Ensure the situation display center and altitude
limits for the system are appropriate for the operating
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-14-5, Selected Altitude Limits.
5-1-3. RADAR USE
Use radar information derived from primary and
secondary radar systems.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-1-4, Beacon Range Accuracy.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-2-15, Inoperative or
a. Secondary radar may be used as the sole display
source as follows:
1. In Class A airspace.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-2-16, Failed Transponder in Class
14 CFR Section 91.135, Operations in Class A Airspace.
2. Outside Class A airspace, or where mix of
Class A airspace/non-Class A airspace exists, only
(a) Additional coverage is provided by
secondary radar beyond that of the primary radar, or
(b) The primary radar is temporarily unusable
or out of service. Advise pilots when these conditions
PRIMARY RADAR UNAVAILABLE (describe location).
RADAR SERVICES AVAILABLE ON TRANSPONDER
EQUIPPED AIRCRAFT ONLY.
1. Advisory may be omitted when provided on ATIS and
pilot indicates having ATIS information.
2. This provision is to authorize secondary radar only
operations where there is no primary radar available and
the condition is temporary.
(c) A secondary radar system is the only
source of radar data for the area of service. When the
system is used for separation, beacon range accuracy
is assured, as provided in para 5-1-4, Beacon Range
Accuracy. TERMINAL. Advise pilots when these
Advisory may be omitted when provided on ATIS or by
other appropriate notice to pilots.
b. TERMINAL. Do not use secondary radar only
to conduct surveillance (ASR) final approaches
unless an emergency exists and the pilot concurs.
5-1-4. BEACON RANGE ACCURACY
a. You may use beacon targets for separation
purposes if beacon range accuracy is verified by one
of the following methods:
1. The check for verification of beacon range accuracy
accomplished by correlation of beacon and primary radar
targets of the same aircraft is not a check of display
accuracy. Therefore, it is not necessary that it be done using
the same display with which separation is being provided,
nor the same targets being separated.
2. Narrowband and Full Digital Automation Systems:
Technical operations personnel verify beacon range
accuracy for automated narrowband display equipment
and Full Digital Terminal Automation Systems. Consequently, further verification by the controller is
1. Correlate beacon and primary targets of the
same aircraft (not necessarily the one being provided
separation) to assure that they coincide.
2. When beacon and primary targets of the same
aircraft do not coincide, correlate them to assure that
any beacon displacement agrees with the specified
distance and direction for that particular radar
3. Refer to beacon range monitoring equipment
where so installed.
b. If beacon range accuracy cannot be verified,
you may use beacon targets only for traffic
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-1-3, Radar Use.
5-1-5. ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA)
a. Refer all EA activity requests to the appropriate
FAAO JO 7610.4, Chapter 2, Section 7, Electronic Attack (EA) and
EA activity can subsequently result in a request to apply
EA videos to the radar system which may necessitate the
decertification of the narrowband search radar. The
Systems Engineer should be consulted concerning the
effect of EA on the operational use of the narrowband radar
prior to approving/disapproving requests to conduct
b. When EA activity interferes with the operational use of radar:
1. EN ROUTE. Request the responsible military unit or aircraft, if initial request was received
directly from pilot, to suspend the activity.
2. TERMINAL. Request suspension of the
activity through the ARTCC. If immediate cessation
of the activity is required, broadcast the request
directly to the EA aircraft on the emergency
frequency. Notify the ARTCC of direct broadcast as
soon as possible.
c. When previously suspended activity will no
1. EN ROUTE. Inform the NORAD unit or
aircraft that it may be resumed.
2. TERMINAL. Inform the ARTCC or aircraft
that it may be resumed. Obtain approval from the
ARTCC prior to broadcasting a resume clearance
directly to the aircraft.
d. In each stop request, include your facility name,
type of EA activity (chaff dispensing-
“stream”/“burst” or electronic jamming- “buzzer”),
radar band affected and, when feasible, expected
duration of suspension.
BIG PHOTO (identification, if known) (name)
To stop EA activity:
STOP STREAM/BURST IN AREA (area name) (degree and
distance from facility),
STOP BUZZER ON (frequency band or channel).
To resume EA activity:
RESUME BUZZER ON (frequency band or channel).
5-1-6. SERVICE LIMITATIONS
a. When radar mapping is not available, limit
radar services to:
1. Separating identified aircraft targets.
2. Vectoring aircraft to intercept a PAR final
3. Providing radar service in areas that ensure no
confliction with traffic on airways, other ATC areas
of jurisdiction, restricted or prohibited areas, terrain,
b. EN ROUTE. When the position symbol
associated with the full data block falls more than one
history behind the actual aircraft target or there is no
target symbol displayed, the Mode C information in
the full data block must not be used for the purpose of
c. Report radar malfunctions immediately for
corrective action and for dispatch of a Notice to
Airmen. Advise adjacent ATC facilities when
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-9, Reporting Essential Flight
FAAO JO 7210.3, Chapter 3, Chapter 7, Chapter 10 Section 5, and
Chapter 11 Section 2.
5-1-7. ELECTRONIC CURSOR
a. An electronic cursor may be used to aid in
identifying and vectoring an aircraft and to give finer
delineation to a video map. Do not use it as a
substitute for a video map or map overlay; e.g., to
form intersections, airway boundaries, final approach
b. Fixed electronic cursors may be used to form
the final approach course for surveillance approaches
conducted by military operated mobile radar
5-1-8. MERGING TARGET PROCEDURES
a. Except while they are established in a holding
pattern, apply merging target procedures to all radar
1. Aircraft at 10,000 feet and above.
2. Turbojet aircraft regardless of altitude.
P/CG Term- Turbojet Aircraft.
3. Presidential aircraft regardless of altitude.
b. Issue traffic information to those aircraft listed
in subpara a whose targets appear likely to merge
unless the aircraft are separated by more than the
appropriate vertical separation minima.
“Traffic twelve o'clock, seven miles, eastbound, MD-80, at
one seven thousand.”
“United Sixteen and American Twenty-five, traffic
twelve o'clock, one zero miles, opposite direction,
eastbound seven twenty seven at flight level three three
zero, westbound MD-Eighty at flight level three one zero.”
c. When both aircraft in subpara b are in RVSM
airspace, and vertically separated by 1,000 feet, if
either pilot reports they are unable to maintain RVSM
due to turbulence or mountain wave, vector either
aircraft to avoid merging with the target of the other
“Delta One Twenty Three, fly heading two niner zero,
vector for traffic. Traffic twelve o'clock, one zero miles,
opposite direction, MD-80 eastbound at flight level three
d. If the pilot requests, vector his/her aircraft to
avoid merging with the target of previously issued
Aircraft closure rates are so rapid that when applying
merging target procedures, controller issuance of traffic
must be commenced in ample time for the pilot to decide if
a vector is necessary.
e. If unable to provide vector service, inform the
The phraseology “Unable RVSM due turbulence (or
mountain wave)” is only intended for severe turbulence or
other weather encounters with altitude deviations of
approximately 200 feet or more.
5-1-9. HOLDING PATTERN
Provide radar surveillance of outer fix holding pattern
airspace areas, or any portions thereof, shown on your
radar scope (displayed on the video map or scribed on
the map overlay) whenever aircraft are holding there.
Attempt to detect any aircraft that stray outside the
area. If you detect an aircraft straying outside the area,
assist it to return to the assigned airspace.
5-1-10. DEVIATION ADVISORIES
Inform an aircraft when it is observed in a position
and on a track which will obviously cause the aircraft
to deviate from its protected airspace area. If
necessary, help the aircraft to return to the assigned
1. RNAV ATS routes have a width of 8 miles and laterally
protected airspace of 4 miles on each side of the route
2. Navigation system performance requirements for
operations on RNAV ATS routes require the aircraft system
be capable of remaining within 2 miles of the route
centerline. Aircraft approaching this limit may be
experiencing a navigation system error or failure.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para
4-2-5, Route or Altitude
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para
FAAO 7400.2, Para 2053. Lateral Protected Airspace Criteria for
RNAV En Route Segments
AC90100A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV)
Operations, Para 8a. Navigation System Accuracy
5-1-11. RADAR FIX POSTING
A controller is required to manually record at least
once the observed or reported time over a fix for each
controlled aircraft in their sector of responsibility
only when the flight progress recording components
of the EAS FDP are not operational.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 6-1-6, Flight Progress Strip Usage.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-1-8, Flight Progress Strip Usage.
5-1-12. POSITION REPORTING
If necessary, you may request an aircraft to provide an
estimate or report over a specific fix. After an aircraft
receives the statement “radar contact” from ATC, it
discontinues reporting over compulsory reporting
points. It resumes normal position reporting when
ATC informs it “radar contact lost” or “radar service
P/CG Term- Radar Contact.
a. When required, inform an aircraft of its position
with respect to a fix or airway.
(Number of miles) MILES FROM (fix).
(Number of miles) MILES (direction) OF (fix, airway, or
CROSSING/JOINING/DEPARTING (airway or route).
INTERCEPTING/CROSSING (name of NAVAID)
5-1-13. RADAR SERVICE TERMINATION
a. Inform aircraft when radar service is
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED (nonradar routing if
b. Radar service is automatically terminated and
the aircraft needs not be advised of termination when:
1. Termination of radar monitoring when conducting
simultaneous ILS/MLS approaches is prescribed in
para 5-9-7, Simultaneous Independent ILS/MLS
Approaches- Dual & Triple.
2. Termination of radar monitoring where PAR equipment
is used to monitor approaches is prescribed in
para 5-13-3, Monitor Information.
1. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except
within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or
where basic radar service is provided.
2. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual,
or contact approach has landed or has been instructed
to change to advisory frequency.
3. At tower-controlled airports where radar
coverage does not exist to within 1/2 mile of the end
of the runway, arriving aircraft must be informed
when radar service is terminated.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-5-6, Radar Tolerances.
4. TERMINAL. An arriving VFR aircraft receiving radar service to a tower-controlled airport
within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or
where basic radar service is provided has landed, or
to all other airports, is instructed to change to tower
or advisory frequency.
5. TERMINAL. An aircraft completes a radar
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 7-6-12, Service Provided When
Tower is Inoperative.