Chapter 5. Radar
Section 1. General
5-1-1. PRESENTATION AND EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
Provide radar service only if you are personally satisfied that the radar presentation and equipment performance is adequate for the service being provided.
5-1-2. ALIGNMENT ACCURACY CHECK
During relief briefing, or as soon as possible after assuming responsibility for a control position, check the operating equipment for alignment accuracy and display acceptability. Recheck periodically throughout the watch.
a. Check the alignment of the radar video display by assuring that the video/digital map or overlay is properly aligned with a permanent target of known range and azimuth on the radar display. Where possible, check one permanent target per quadrant.
b. Accuracy of the radar video display must be verified for digitized radar systems by using the moving target indicator (MTI) reflectors, fixed location beacon transponders (Parrots), beacon real-time quality control (RTQC) symbols or calibration performance monitor equipment (CPME) beacon targets.
c. In Digital Terminal Automation Systems (DTAS) conducts continuous self-monitoring of alignment accuracy; therefore, controller alignment checks are not required.
d. Radar Data Processing (RDP) alignment checking is accomplished by the operational program as part of the certification procedures for system startup and then on a real-time basis during operational hours.
e. Ensure the situation display center and altitude limits for the system are appropriate for the operating position.
5-1-3. RADAR USE
Use radar information derived from primary and secondary radar systems.
a. Secondary radar may be used as the sole display source as follows:
1. In Class A airspace.
2. Outside Class A airspace, or where mix of Class A airspace/non-Class A airspace exists, only when:
(a) Additional coverage is provided by secondary radar beyond that of the primary radar, or
(b) The primary radar is temporarily unusable or out of service. Advise pilots when these conditions exist, or
2. This provision is to authorize secondary radar only operations where there is no primary radar available and the condition is temporary.
(c) A secondary radar system is the only source of radar data for the area of service. When the system is used for separation, beacon range accuracy is assured, as provided in para 5-1-4, Beacon Range Accuracy. TERMINAL. Advise pilots when these conditions exist.
b. TERMINAL. Do not use secondary radar only to conduct surveillance (ASR) final approaches unless an emergency exists and the pilot concurs.
5-1-4. BEACON RANGE ACCURACY
a. You may use beacon targets for separation purposes if beacon range accuracy is verified by one of the following methods:
2. Narrowband and Full Digital Automation Systems: Technical operations personnel verify beacon range accuracy for automated narrowband display equipment and Full Digital Terminal Automation Systems. Consequently, further verification by the controller is unnecessary.
1. Correlate beacon and primary targets of the same aircraft (not necessarily the one being provided separation) to assure that they coincide.
2. When beacon and primary targets of the same aircraft do not coincide, correlate them to assure that any beacon displacement agrees with the specified distance and direction for that particular radar system.
3. Refer to beacon range monitoring equipment where so installed.
b. If beacon range accuracy cannot be verified, you may use beacon targets only for traffic information.
5-1-5. ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA) ACTIVITY
a. Refer all EA activity requests to the appropriate center supervisor.
b. When EA activity interferes with the operational use of radar:
1. EN ROUTE. Request the responsible military unit or aircraft, if initial request was received directly from pilot, to suspend the activity.
2. TERMINAL. Request suspension of the activity through the ARTCC. If immediate cessation of the activity is required, broadcast the request directly to the EA aircraft on the emergency frequency. Notify the ARTCC of direct broadcast as soon as possible.
c. When previously suspended activity will no longer interfere:
1. EN ROUTE. Inform the NORAD unit or aircraft that it may be resumed.
2. TERMINAL. Inform the ARTCC or aircraft that it may be resumed. Obtain approval from the ARTCC prior to broadcasting a resume clearance directly to the aircraft.
d. In each stop request, include your facility name, type of EA activity (chaff dispensing- “stream”/“burst” or electronic jamming- “buzzer”), radar band affected and, when feasible, expected duration of suspension.
5-1-6. SERVICE LIMITATIONS
a. When radar mapping is not available, limit radar services to:
1. Separating identified aircraft targets.
2. Vectoring aircraft to intercept a PAR final approach course.
3. Providing radar service in areas that ensure no confliction with traffic on airways, other ATC areas of jurisdiction, restricted or prohibited areas, terrain, etc.
b. EN ROUTE. When the position symbol associated with the full data block falls more than one history behind the actual aircraft target or there is no target symbol displayed, the Mode C information in the full data block must not be used for the purpose of determining separation.
c. Report radar malfunctions immediately for corrective action and for dispatch of a Notice to Airmen. Advise adjacent ATC facilities when appropriate.
5-1-7. ELECTRONIC CURSOR
a. An electronic cursor may be used to aid in identifying and vectoring an aircraft and to give finer delineation to a video map. Do not use it as a substitute for a video map or map overlay; e.g., to form intersections, airway boundaries, final approach courses, etc.
b. Fixed electronic cursors may be used to form the final approach course for surveillance approaches conducted by military operated mobile radar facilities.
5-1-8. MERGING TARGET PROCEDURES
a. Except while they are established in a holding pattern, apply merging target procedures to all radar identified:
1. Aircraft at 10,000 feet and above.
2. Turbojet aircraft regardless of altitude.
3. Presidential aircraft regardless of altitude.
c. When both aircraft in subpara b are in RVSM airspace, and vertically separated by 1,000 feet, if either pilot reports they are unable to maintain RVSM due to turbulence or mountain wave, vector either aircraft to avoid merging with the target of the other aircraft.
d. If the pilot requests, vector his/her aircraft to avoid merging with the target of previously issued traffic.
e. If unable to provide vector service, inform the pilot.
5-1-9. HOLDING PATTERN SURVEILLANCE
Provide radar surveillance of outer fix holding pattern airspace areas, or any portions thereof, shown on your radar scope (displayed on the video map or scribed on the map overlay) whenever aircraft are holding there. Attempt to detect any aircraft that stray outside the area. If you detect an aircraft straying outside the area, assist it to return to the assigned airspace.
5-1-10. DEVIATION ADVISORIES
Inform an aircraft when it is observed in a position and on a track which will obviously cause the aircraft to deviate from its protected airspace area. If necessary, assist the aircraft to return to the assigned protected airspace.
5-1-11. RADAR FIX POSTING
A controller is required to manually record at least once the observed or reported time over a fix for each controlled aircraft in their sector of responsibility only when the flight progress recording components of the EAS FDP are not operational.
5-1-12. POSITION REPORTING
If necessary, you may request an aircraft to provide an estimate or report over a specific fix. After an aircraft receives the statement “radar contact” from ATC, it discontinues reporting over compulsory reporting points. It resumes normal position reporting when ATC informs it “radar contact lost” or “radar service terminated.”
a. When required, inform an aircraft of its position with respect to a fix or airway.
5-1-13. RADAR SERVICE TERMINATION
a. Inform aircraft when radar service is terminated.
b. Radar service is automatically terminated and the aircraft needs not be advised of termination when:
2. Termination of radar monitoring where PAR equipment is used to monitor approaches is prescribed in para 5-13-3, Monitor Information.
1. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or where basic radar service is provided.
2. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or contact approach has landed or has been instructed to change to advisory frequency.
3. At tower-controlled airports where radar coverage does not exist to within 1/2 mile of the end of the runway, arriving aircraft must be informed when radar service is terminated.
4. TERMINAL. An arriving VFR aircraft receiving radar service to a tower-controlled airport within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or where basic radar service is provided has landed, or to all other airports, is instructed to change to tower or advisory frequency.
5. TERMINAL. An aircraft completes a radar approach.