U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

ORDER
JO 7110.10W
Effective Date:
March 7, 2013
 
     
Subject:  Flight Services
  Includes:  Change 1 effective 8/22/13
 

Chapter 10. Airport Lighting and Visibility Aids (Alaska Only)

Section 1. General

10-1-1. AIRPORT LIGHTING

a. General Lighting. Operate airport lighting in accordance with associated tables except:

1. As requested by the pilot.

2. As required by facility directives or letters of agreement to meet local conditions or requirements.

3. As specialist deems necessary if not contrary to pilot's request or local directives.

b. Emergency Lighting. When it appears that an emergency has or will occur, provide for the operation of all appropriate airport lighting aids in accordance with local procedures and/or as required.

10-1-2. OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS

If controls are provided, operate the lights between sunset and sunrise.

10-1-3. ROTATING BEACON

If controls are provided, turn on the rotating beacon:

a. Between sunset and sunrise.

b. Between sunrise and sunset when the reported ceiling or visibility is below basic VFR minima.

10-1-4. APPROACH LIGHTS

Operate approach lights:

a. Between sunset and sunrise when one of the following conditions exists:

1. They serve the landing runway.

2. They serve a runway to which an approach is being made but aircraft will land on another runway.

b. Between sunrise and sunset when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet or the prevailing visibility is 5 miles or less and approaches are being made to:

1. A landing runway served by the lights.

2. A runway served by the lights but aircraft are landing on another runway.

3. The airport, but landing will be made on a runway served by the lights.

c. As requested by the pilot.

d. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot's request.

NOTE-
In the interest of energy conservation, the approach lighting system should be turned off when not needed for aircraft operations.

10-1-5. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM NTENSITY SETTINGS (ALS)

Operate intensity controls in accordance with the values depicted. (See TBL 10񩧽.)

TBL 10-1-1
ALS Intensity Setting

Step

Visibility (Applicable to runway served by lights)

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile.*

When requested.

4

1 to but not including 3 miles.

When requested.

3

3 to but not including 5 miles.

Less than 1 mile.*

2

5 to but not including 7 miles.

1 to 3 miles inclusive.

1

When requested.

Greater than 3 miles.

* and/or 6,000 feet or less of RVR on the runway served by the ALS and RVR.

Note.- Daylight steps 2 and 3 provide recommended settings applicable to conditions in ALS Intensity Settings.

10-1-6. SEQUENCED FLASHING LIGHTS (SFL)

Operate sequenced flashing lights when the visibility is less than 3 miles and instrument approaches are being made to the runway served by the associated ALS.

NOTE-
SFLs are a component of the ALS and cannot be operated when the ALS is off.

10-1-7. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS

Operate the runway edge light system(s) serving the runway(s) in use as follows:

a. Between sunset and sunrise.

1. For departures when an aircraft calls for airport advisory or requests the lights be turned on until the aircraft reports departing the airport area or 15 minutes after the last contact with the aircraft.

2. For arrivals when an aircraft calls for airport advisory or when the associated approach control advises that an aircraft is on approach until the aircraft reports/is observed clear of the runway or 15 minutes after last radio contact or arrival time.

b. Between sunrise and sunset, turn the lights on when the surface visibility is less than 2 miles as described in subparagraphs 10񩨃a1 and a2.

c. The specialist considers it necessary, or it is requested by a pilot and no other known aircraft will be adversely affected.

d. Do not turn on the runway edge lights when a NOTAM closing the runway is in effect.

e. Alaska. The runway lights should remain on from the end of civil twilight to the beginning of civil twilight. If the runway lights are operated part璽ime in this period, broadcast a warning over the airport advisory frequency 2 minutes before turning the lights off.

10-1-8. CHANGING LIGHTED RUNWAYS

a. To switch lights:

1. Advise all known aircraft that the lights are to be changed, specifying the runway to be lighted.

2. Turn on the lights for the new runway 30 seconds before turning off the other runway lights, equipment permitting.

b. When a pilot requests that other than the favored runway be lighted and two runways cannot be lighted simultaneously, comply with the request if you have no knowledge of the lighted runway being in use. Advise all known aircraft.

10-1-9. SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH AND RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT OPERATION

Turn on the runway edge lights for the runway in use whenever the associated approach lights are on. If multiple runway light selection is not possible, you may leave the approach lights on and switch the runway lights to another runway to accommodate another aircraft.

10-1-10. MEDIUMINTENSITY APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM WITH RUNWAY ALIGNMENT INDICATOR LIGHTS (MALSR)/OMNIDIRECTIONAL APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM (ODALS)

Operate MALSR/ODALS that have separate on璷ff and intensity setting controls in accordance with TBL 10񩧾 and TBL 10񩧿.

NOTE-
Application concerns use for takeoffs/landings/approaches and does not preclude turning lights on for use of unaffected portions of a runway for taxiing aircraft, surface vehicles, maintenance, repair, etc.

TBL 10-1-2
Two-Step MALS/One-Step RAIL

Setting

Visibility

Day

Night

MALS HI-RAIL ON

Less than 3 miles.

Less than 3 miles.*

MALS LOW

When requested.

3 miles or more.

*At locations providing part-time flight service, the MALSR must be set to low intensity during the hours of darkness when the station is unmanned.

TBL 10-1-3
Three-Step MALS/Three-Step RAIL

Setting

Visibility

Day

Night

3

Less than 2 miles.

Less than 1 mile.

2

2 to 5 miles inclusive.

1 to but not including 3 miles.*

1

When requested.

3 miles or more.

*At locations providing part-time flight service, the air-to-ground radio link must be activated during the hours of darkness when the station is unmanned. If there is no radio air-to-ground control, the MALSR must be set on intensity step #2 during the hours of darkness when the station is unmanned. (Reference- FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-6-4, Approach Light Systems.)

10-1-11. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS (HIRL) ASSOCIATED WITH MALSR

Operate HIRL that controls the associated MALSR in accordance with the intensity setting in TBL 10񩨀.

TBL 10-1-4
HIRL Associated with MALSR

Step

Visibility

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile.

When requested.

4

1 to but not including 2 miles.

Less than 1 mile.

3

2 to but not including 3 miles.

1 to but not including 3 miles.

2

When requested.

3 to 5 miles inclusive.

1

When requested.

More than 5 miles.

NOTE-
When switching from a given brightness step setting to a lower setting, rotation of the brightness control to a point below the intended step setting and then back to the appropriate step setting will ensure that the MALSR will operate at the appropriate brightness.

10-1-12. MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS (MIRL)

Operate MIRL or MIRL which control the associated MALSR in accordance with the TBL 10񩨁.

TBL 10-1-5
MIRL Intensity Setting

Step

Visibility

Day

Night

3

Less than 2 miles.

Less than 1 mile.

2

2 to 3 miles.

1 to 3 miles.

1

When requested.

More than 3 miles.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.10, para 10񩧽1 Note.

10-1-13. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY, RUNWAY CENTERLINE (RCLS), AND TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTS (TDZL)

Operate high intensity runway and associated runway centerline and touch璬own zone lights in accordance with TBL 10񩨂.

TBL 10-1-6
HIRL, RCLS, TDZL Intensity Setting

Step

Visibility

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile.*

When requested.

4

1 to but not including 2 miles.

Less than 1 mile.

3

2 to but not including 3 miles.

1 to but not including 3 miles.

2

When requested.

3 to 5 miles inclusive.

1

When requested.

More than 5 miles.

* and/or appropriate RVR/RVV equivalent.

10-1-14. HIRL CHANGES AFFECTING RVR

Keep the appropriate approach controller or Precision Approach Radar (PAR) controller informed, in advance if possible, of HIRL changes that affect RVR.

10-1-15. HIGH SPEED TURNOFF LIGHTS

Operate high speed turnoff lights whenever the associated runway lights are used for arriving aircraft. Leave them on until the aircraft has either entered a taxiway or passed the last light.

10-1-16. RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS (REIL)

When separate on璷ff controls are provided, operate runway end identifier lights when the associated runway lights are lighted. Turn the REIL off after:

a. An arriving aircraft has landed.

b. A departing aircraft has left the traffic pattern area.

c. It is determined that the lights are of no further use to the pilot.

d. Operate intensity setting in accordance with the values in TBL 10񩨃 except as prescribed in subparas b and c above.

TBL 10-1-7
REIL Intensity Setting, Two-Step System

Step

Visibility

Day

Night

3

Less than 2 miles.

Less than 1 mile.

2

2 to 5 miles.

1 to but not including 3 miles.

1

When requested.

3 miles or more

10-1-17. TAXIWAY LIGHTS

Operate taxiway lights serving the taxiways, or portions thereof, in use between sunset and sunrise before an aircraft taxies onto the taxiway (normally at the time taxi information is issued) and until it taxies off it. Operate taxiway lights in accordance with TBL 10񩨄, TBL 10񩨅, or TBL 10񩧽0

TBL 10-1-8
Three Step Taxiway Lights

Step

Visibility

Day

Night

3

Less than 1 mile.

When requested.

2

When requested.

Less than 1 mile.

1

When requested.

1 mile or more

TBL 10-1-9
Five Step Taxiway Lights

Step

Visibility

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile.

When requested.

4

When requested.

Less than 1 mile.

3

When requested.

1 mile or more.

1 & 2

When requested.

When requested.

TBL 10-1-10
One Step Taxiway Lights

Day

Night

Less than 1 mile.

On

10-1-18. VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATORS (VASIs)

The VASI system with remote on璷ff switching must be operated when it serves the runway in use and where intensities are controlled in accordance with TBL 10񩧽1 and TBL 10񩧽2.

TBL 10-1-11
VASI Intensity Setting, Two-Step System

Step

Period

Condition

High

Day

Sunrise to
sunset

Low

Night

Sunrise to
sunset

TBL 10-1-12
VASI Intensity Setting, Three-Step System

Step

Period

Condition

High

Day

Sunrise to sunset

Medium

Twilight

From sunset to 30 minutes after sunset and
from 30 minutes before sunrise to sunrise,
*and during twilight in Alaska.

Low

Night

Sunset to sunrise.

NOTE-
1.  During a 1瓂ear period, twilight may vary 26 to 43 minutes between 25 and 49 degrees N latitude.

2. The basic FAA standard for VASI systems permits independent operation by means of photoelectric device. This system has no on璷ff control feature and is intended for continuous operation. Other VASI systems in use include those that are operated remotely from the control tower. These systems may consist of either a photoelectric intensity control with only an on璷ff switch, a two璼tep intensity system, or a three璼tep intensity system.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10񫊝, Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) Systems.

10-1-19. VISIBILITY AIDS GENERAL

a. Where RVR/ RVV equipment is operational, irrespective of subsequent operation or nonoperation of navigational or visual aids for the application of RVR/RVV as a takeoff or landing minima, furnish the values for the runway in use in accordance with para 10-1-20, RVR/RVV.

b. Issue current touchdown RVR/RVV for the runway(s) in use:

1. When prevailing visibility is 1 mile or less regardless of the value indicated.

2. When RVR/RVV indicates a reportable value regardless of the prevailing visibility.

NOTE-
Reportable values are: RVR 6,000 feet or less; RVV 11/2 miles or less.

3. When it is determined from a reliable source that the indicated RVR value differs by more than 400 feet from the actual conditions within the area of the transmissometer, the RVR data is not acceptable and must not be reported.

NOTE-
A reliable source is considered to be a certified weather observer, air traffic controller, or pilot.

4. When the observer has reliable reports, or has otherwise determined that the instrument values are not representative of the associated runway, the data must not be used.

10-1-20. RVR/RVV

a. Provide RVR/RVV information by stating the runway, the abbreviation RVR/RVV, and the indicated value. When issued along with other weather elements, transmit these values in the normal sequence used for weather reporting.

b. When two or more RVR systems serve the runway in use, report the indicated values for the different systems in terms of touchdown, mid, and rollout as appropriate.

c. When there is a requirement to issue an RVR/RVV value and a visibility condition greater or less than the reportable values of the equipment is indicated, state the condition as 揗ORE THAN or 揕ESS THAN the appropriate minimum or maximum readable value.

d. When a readout indicates a rapidly varying visibility condition (1,000 feet or more for RVR; one or more reportable values for RVV), report the current value followed by the range of visibility variance.

10-1-21. OPERATION OF LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR

Align the landing direction indicator with the favored or designated runway.

 
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