U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Air Traffic Organization Policy

ORDER
JO 7110.65V
Effective Date:
April 3, 2014
 
     
Subject:  Air Traffic Control
Includes: Change 1 dated 7/24/14 with Errata

Section 4. Airport Lighting

3-4-1. EMERGENCY LIGHTING

Whenever you become aware that an emergency has or will occur, take action to provide for the operation of all appropriate airport lighting aids as required.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10-4-2, Lighting Requirements.

3-4-2. RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS

When separate on-off controls are provided, operate runway end identifier lights:

a. When the associated runway lights are lighted. Turn the REIL off after:

1. An arriving aircraft has landed.

2. A departing aircraft has left the traffic pattern area.

3. It is determined that the lights are of no further use to the pilot.

b. As required by facility directives to meet local conditions.

c. As requested by the pilot.

d. Operate intensity setting in accordance with the values in TBL 3-4-1 except as prescribed in subparas b and c above.

TBL 3-4-1
REIL Intensity Setting-Three Step System

Settings

Visibility

 

Day

Night

3

Less than 2 miles

Less than 1 mile

2

2 to 5 miles inclusive

1 to but not including 3 miles

1

When requested

3 miles or more

3-4-3. VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATORS (VASI)

VASI systems with remote on-off switching must be operated when they serve the runway in use and where intensities are controlled in accordance with TBL 3-4-2 and TBL 3-4-3 except:

a. As required by facility directives to meet local conditions.

b. As required by the pilot.

TBL 3-4-2
VASI Intensity Setting-Two Step System

Step

Period/Condition

High

Day-Sunrise to sunset.

Low

Night-Sunset to sunrise.

TBL 3-4-3
VASI Intensity Setting-Three Step System

Step

Period/Condition

High

Day-Sunrise to sunset.

Medium

Twilight-From sunset to 30 minutes after sunset and from 30 minutes before sunrise to sunrise,* and during twilight in Alaska.

Low

Night-Sunset to sunrise.

*During a 1 year period, twilight may vary 26 to 43 minutes between 25 and 49N latitude.

NOTE-
The basic FAA standard for VASI systems permits independent operation by means of photoelectric device. This system has no on-off control feature and is intended for continuous operation. Other VASI systems in use include those that are operated remotely from the control tower. These systems may consist of either a photoelectric intensity control with only an on-off switch, a two step intensity system, or a three step intensity system.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-6-5, Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) Systems.
FAAO 6850.2, Visual Guidance Lighting Systems.

3-4-4. PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATORS (PAPI)

PAPI systems with remote on-off switching must be operated when they serve the runway in use and where intensities are controlled in accordance with TBL 3-4-4 except:

a. As required by local facility directives to meet local conditions.

b. As requested by the pilot.

NOTE-
The basic FAA standard for PAPI systems permits independent operation by means of photoelectric device. This system has no on-off control feature and is intended for continuous operation. Other PAPI systems in use include those that are operated remotely from the control tower. These systems may consist of either a photoelectric intensity control with only an on-off switch, or a five-step intensity system.

REFERENCE-
FAAO 6850.2, Visual Guidance Lighting Systems.

TBL 3-4-4
PAPI Intensity Setting - Five Step System

Step

Period/Condition

5

On Pilot Request

4

Day - Sunrise to sunset

3

Night - Sunset to sunrise

2

On Pilot Request

1

On Pilot Request

*During a 1 year period, twilight may vary 26 to 43 minutes between 25 and 49N latitude.

3-4-5. APPROACH LIGHTS

Operate approach lights:

a. Between sunset and sunrise when one of the following conditions exists:

1. They serve the landing runway.

2. They serve a runway to which an approach is being made but aircraft will land on another runway.

b. Between sunrise and sunset when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet or the prevailing visibility is 5 miles or less and approaches are being made to:

1. A landing runway served by the lights.

2. A runway served by the lights but aircraft are landing on another runway.

3. The airport, but landing will be made on a runway served by the lights.

c. As requested by the pilot.

d. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot's request.

NOTE-
In the interest of energy conservation, the ALS should be turned off when not needed for aircraft operations.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-4-6, ALS Intensity Settings.

3-4-6. ALS INTENSITY SETTINGS

When operating ALS as prescribed in para 3-4-5, Approach Lights, operate intensity controls in accordance with the values in TBL 3-4-5 except:

a. When facility directives specify other settings to meet local atmospheric, topographic, and twilight conditions.

b. As requested by the pilot.

c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot's request.

TBL 3-4-5
ALS Intensity Setting


Step

Visibility
(Applicable to runway served by lights)

 

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile*

When requested

4

1 to but not including 3 miles

When requested

3

3 to but not including 5 miles

Less than 1 mile*

2

5 to but not including 7 miles

1 to 3 miles inclusive

1

When requested

Greater than 3 miles

*and/or 6,000 feet or less of the RVR on the runway served by the ALS and RVR.

NOTE-
Daylight steps 2 and 3 provide recommended settings applicable to conditions in subparas b and c. At night, use step 4 or 5 only when requested by a pilot.

3-4-7. SEQUENCED FLASHING LIGHTS (SFL)

Operate Sequenced Flashing Lights:

NOTE-
SFL are a component of the ALS and cannot be operated when the ALS is off.

a. When the visibility is less than 3 miles and instrument approaches are being made to the runway served by the associated ALS.

b. As requested by the pilot.

c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot's request.

3-4-8. MALSR/ODALS

Operate MALSR/ODALS that have separate on-off and intensity setting controls in accordance with TBL 3-4-6 and TBL 3-4-7 except:

a. When facility directives specify other settings to meet local atmospheric, topographic, and twilight conditions.

b. As requested by the pilot.

c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot's request.

TBL 3-4-6
Two Step MALS/One Step RAIL/Two Step ODALS

Settings

 

Visibility

 

 

Day

Night

MALS/ODALS RAIL

Hi On

Less than
3 miles

Less than
3 miles

MALS/ODALS RAIL

Low

Off

When requested

3 miles or more

*At locations providing part-time control tower service, if duplicate controls are not provided in the associated FSS, the MALSR/ODALS must be set to low intensity during the hours of darkness when the tower is not staffed.

TBL 3-4-7
Three Step MALS/Three Step RAIL/
Three Step ODALS

Settings

Visibility

 

Day

Night

3

Less than 2 miles

Less than 1 mile

2

2 to 5 miles inclusive

1 to but not including 3 miles*

1

When requested

3 miles or more

*At locations providing part-time control tower service, if duplicate controls are not provided in the FSS on the airport, the air-to-ground radio link must be activated during the hours of darkness when the tower is unmanned. If there is no radio air-to-ground control, the MALSR/ODALS must be set on intensity setting 2 during the hours of darkness when the tower is not staffed.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-6-2, Operation of Lights When Tower is Closed.

3-4-9. ALSF-2/SSALR

a. When the prevailing visibility is 3/4 mile or less or the RVR is 4,000 feet or less, operate the ALSF-2 system as follows:

1. As requested by the pilot.

2. As you deem necessary if not contrary to pilot request.

b. Operate the SSALR system when the conditions in subpara a are not a factor.

3-4-10. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS

Operate the runway edge light system/s serving the runway/s in use as follows:

a. Between sunset and sunrise, turn the lights on:

1. For departures. Before an aircraft taxies onto the runway and until it leaves the Class B, Class C, or Class D surface area.

2. For arrivals:

(a) IFR aircraft-Before the aircraft begins final approach, or

(b) VFR aircraft-Before the aircraft enters the Class B, Class C, or Class D surface area, and

(c) Until the aircraft has taxied off the landing runway.

b. Between sunrise and sunset, turn the lights on as shown in subparas a1 and a2 when the surface visibility is less than 2 miles.

c. As required by facility directives to meet local conditions.

d. Different from subparas a, b, or c above, when:

1. You consider it necessary, or

2. Requested by a pilot and no other known aircraft will be adversely affected.

NOTE-
Pilots may request lights to be turned on or off contrary to subparas a, b, or c. However, 14 CFR Part 135 operators are required to land/takeoff on lighted runways/heliport landing areas at night.

e. Do not turn on the runway edge lights when a NOTAM closing the runway is in effect.

NOTE-
Application concerns use for takeoffs/landings/approaches and does not preclude turning lights on for use of unaffected portions of a runway for taxiing aircraft, surface vehicles, maintenance, repair, etc.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-4-15, Simultaneous Approach and Runway Edge Light Operation.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-6-3, Incompatible Light System Operation.
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-6-9, Runway Edge Lights Associated With Medium Approach Light System/Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.

3-4-11. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY, RUNWAY CENTERLINE, AND TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTS

Operate high intensity runway and associated runway centerline and touchdown zone lights in accordance with TBL 3-4-8, except:

a. Where a facility directive specifies other settings to meet local conditions.

b. As requested by the pilot.

c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot request.

TBL 3-4-8
HIRL, RCLS, TDZL Intensity Setting

Step

Visibility

 

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile*

When requested

4

1 to but not including
2 miles*

Less than 1 mile*

3

2 to but not including
3 miles

1 to but not including
3 miles*

2

When requested

3 to 5 miles inclusive

1

When requested

More than 5 miles

*and/or appropriate RVR/RVV equivalent.

3-4-12. HIRL ASSOCIATED WITH MALSR

Operate HIRL which control the associated MALSR in accordance with TBL 3-4-9, except:

a. As requested by the pilot.

b. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to the pilot's request.

TBL 3-4-9
HIRL Associated with MALSR

Step

Visibility

 

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile

When requested

4

1 to but not including 2 miles

Less than 1 mile

3

2 to but not including 3 miles

1 to but not including 3 miles

2

When requested

3 to 5 miles inclusive

1

When requested

More than 5 miles

NOTE-
When going from a given brightness step setting to a lower setting, rotation of the brightness control to a point below the intended step setting and then back to the appropriate step setting will ensure that the MALSR will operate at the appropriate brightness.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-4-14, Medium Intensity Runway Lights.

3-4-13. HIRL CHANGES AFFECTING RVR

Keep the appropriate approach controller or PAR controller informed, in advance if possible, of HIRL changes that affect RVR.

3-4-14. MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS

Operate MIRL or MIRL which control the associated MALSR in accordance with TBL 3-4-10, except:

a. As requested by the pilot.

b. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to the pilot's request.

TBL 3-4-10
MIRL Intensity Setting

Step

Visibility

 

Day

Night

3

Less than 2 miles

Less than 1 mile

2

2 to 3 miles

1 to 3 miles

1

When requested

More than 3 miles

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-4-12, HIRL Associated With MALSR.

3-4-15. SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH AND RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT OPERATION

Turn on the runway edge lights for the runway in use whenever the associated approach lights are on. If multiple runway light selection is not possible, you may leave the approach lights on and switch the runway lights to another runway to accommodate another aircraft.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-4-10, Runway Edge Lights.

3-4-16. HIGH SPEED TURNOFF LIGHTS

Operate high speed turnoff lights:

a. Whenever the associated runway lights are used for arriving aircraft. Leave them on until the aircraft has either entered a taxiway or passed the last light.

b. As required by facility directives to meet local conditions.

c. As requested by the pilot.

3-4-17. TAXIWAY LIGHTS

Operate taxiway lights in accordance with TBL 3-4-11, TBL 3-4-12, or TBL 3-4-13 except:

a. Where a facility directive specifies other settings or times to meet local conditions.

b. As requested by the pilot.

c. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot request.

TBL 3-4-11
Three Step Taxiway Lights

Step

Visibility

 

Day

Night

3

Less than 1 mile

When requested

2

When requested

Less than 1 mile

1

When requested

1 mile of more

TBL 3-4-12
Five Step Taxiway Lights

Step

Visibility

 

Day

Night

5

Less than 1 mile

When requested

4

When requested

Less than 1 mile

3

When requested

1 mile or more

1 & 2

When requested

When requested

TBL 3-4-13
One Step Taxiway Lights

Day

Night

Less than 1 mile

On

NOTE-
AC 150/5340-24, Runway and Taxiway Edge Lighting System, contains recommended brightness levels for variable setting taxiway lights.

3-4-18. OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS

If controls are provided, turn the lights on between sunset and sunrise.

3-4-19. ROTATING BEACON

If controls are provided, turn the rotating beacon on:

a. Between sunset and sunrise.

b. Between sunrise and sunset when the reported ceiling or visibility is below basic VFR minima.

3­4­20. RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS (RWSL)

TERMINAL

RWSL is equipped with automatic intensity settings and must be operated on a continuous basis except under the following conditions:

a. If a pilot or vehicle report indicates any portion of the RWSL system is on and is not able to accept an ATC clearance; then

1. ATC must visually scan the entire runway. If the runway is observed to be clear and the lights are still illuminated, then the lights must be turned off and clearance re­issued.

2. If a portion of the runway is not visible from the tower, ATC must visually scan the ASDE­X. If the runway is observed to be clear and the lights are still illuminated, then the lights must be turned off and clearance re­issued.

b. When the RWSL Operational Status displays “Lost Comm with System,” consider the RWSL system out of service until checked and confirmed to be operational by technical operations personnel.

c. Once RWSL systems are turned off, they must remain off until returned to service by technical operations personnel.

d. Upon pilot request, adjust the light intensity.

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