Section 9. Pacific ICAO Region
Provide air traffic control services in the Pacific ICAO Region with the procedures and minima contained in this section except when noted otherwise.
8-9-2. VERTICAL SEPARATION
Provide vertical separation in accordance with Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment and Verification, except when aircraft operate within airspace where composite separation and procedures are authorized, apply the minima specified in para 8-9-5, Composite Separation Minima.
8-9-3. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION
a. Minima based on time:
1. 15 minutes between aircraft; or
2. 10 minutes between turbojet aircraft whether in level, climbing or descending flight, provided that the aircraft concerned follow the same track or continuously diverging tracks until some other form of separation is provided; or
3. The prescribed minima in accordance with para 8-3-3, Mach Number Technique.
4. Reciprocal track aircraft - Where lateral separation is not provided, vertical separation must be provided at least 10 minutes before and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass or are estimated to have passed.
b. Minima based on distance using Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C):
1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8-9-1, ADS-C Criteria, between aircraft on the same track within airspace designated for Required Navigation Performance (RNP), provided:
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is established, and
(b) The required ADS-C periodic reports are maintained and monitored by an automated flight data processor (e.g., Ocean21);
2. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the altitude(s) occupied by another aircraft provided that:
(a) An ADS-C position report on at least one of the aircraft has been received beyond the passing point, and
(b) The aircraft have passed each other by the applicable separation minimum.
3. When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the controller must take action to obtain an ADS-C report.
4. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the time the original report was due, the controller must take action to apply another form of separation.
c. Minima based on distance without ADS-C:
1. Apply 50 NM between aircraft cruising, climbing or descending on the same track or reciprocal track that meet the requirements for and are operating within airspace designated for RNP-10 operations provided:
(a) Direct controller/pilot communication via voice or CPDLC is maintained; and
(b) Separation is established by ensuring that at least 50 NM longitudinal separation minima exists between aircraft positions as reported by reference to the same waypoint.
(1) Same track aircraft - whenever possible ahead of both; or
(2) Reciprocal track aircraft - provided that it has been positively established that the aircraft have passed each other.
2. Distance verification must be obtained from each aircraft at least every 24 minutes to verify that separation is maintained.
3. If an aircraft fails to report its position within 3 minutes after the expected time, the controller must take action to establish communication. If communication is not established within 8 minutes after the time the report should have been received, the controller must take action to apply another form of separation.
d. Minima based on DME/RNAV:
Apply the following DME/RNAV minima in Control 1234H, Control 1487H and the Norton Sound High Control areas to turbojet aircraft established on or transitioning to the North Pacific (NOPAC) Route System.
1. 30 NM between aircraft when DME reports or radar observations are used to establish the distance, otherwise at least 40 NM based on RNAV must be applied; and
2. Unless both aircraft are radar identified, both aircraft must provide DME/RNAV distance reports via direct voice that indicates the appropriate separation exists; and
3. Application of DME/RNAV separation without direct voice communications may not continue for more than 90 minutes; and
4. The preceding aircraft is assigned the same or greater Mach number than the following aircraft; and
5. Both aircraft must be advised of the other aircraft involved, including the distance relative to the flights.
8-9-4. LATERAL SEPARATION
a. Within areas where Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP-10) separation and procedures are authorized, apply 50 NM to RNP-10 approved aircraft.
b. Apply 30 NM to RNP-4 approved aircraft operating within airspace designated for RNP-4 when direct controller/pilot communications, via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC), and the required ADS-C contracts are maintained and monitored by an automated flight data processor (e.g., Ocean21).
8-9-5. COMPOSITE SEPARATION MINIMA
Provide composite separation within the Central East Pacific (CEP) and North Pacific (NOPAC) composite route systems and where designated by facility directive in the Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) at and above FL 290 as follows:
a. 1,000 feet vertical separation; and
b. 50 NM lateral separation.
8-9-6. COMPOSITE SEPARATION ALTITUDE ASSIGNMENT
a. Aircraft operating at or above FL 300 in a composite route system may be cleared at even flight levels. Additionally, aircraft may be cleared at even flight levels while joining, crossing, or leaving a composite route system provided such aircraft leaving the system are cleared to an appropriate odd cardinal flight level when noncomposite vertical or lateral separation is achieved.
b. Aircraft (operating at or above FL 300) leaving a composite route system at an even cardinal flight level do not have to be assigned an odd cardinal flight level provided:
1. The aircraft is being provided radar service; and
2. The aircraft will be cleared for descent and approach to an airport within the facility's domestic FIR; and
3. There is an operational advantage.
c. Aircraft operating on unidirectional routes or traffic flows may be assigned altitudes other than the appropriate altitude for direction of flight provided that 2,000 feet vertical separation is maintained between aircraft operating on the same route.
8-9-7. COMPOSITE SEPARATION APPLICATION
Provide composite separation in the CEP and the North Pacific (NOPAC) composite route systems and where designated by facility directive in the Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) as follows:
a. Clear an aircraft to join an outer route of the composite route system at other than the normal entry point provided:
1. Longitudinal or noncomposite vertical separation exists between that aircraft and any other aircraft on that route; and
2. Composite separation exists between that aircraft and any other aircraft on the next adjacent route.
b. Clear an aircraft to leave an outer route of the composite route system at other than the normal exit point provided its course diverges so that lateral spacing from the route system increases until noncomposite separation exists between that aircraft and any other aircraft in the composite route system.
c. Clear an aircraft to change from one route to an adjacent route within the composite route system provided:
1. Longitudinal or noncomposite vertical separation is maintained between that aircraft and any other aircraft on the route being vacated until that aircraft is established on the route to which it is proceeding; and
2. Longitudinal or noncomposite vertical separation exists between that aircraft and any other aircraft on the route to which that aircraft is proceeding; and
3. Composite separation exists between that aircraft and any other aircraft on the next adjacent route.
d. Clear an aircraft to cross the composite route system provided longitudinal or noncomposite vertical or lateral separation exists between that aircraft and any other aircraft in the composite route system.
e. Clear aircraft to transition to or from the composite route system from an Oceanic Transition Route (OTR) provided:
1. The OTR is charted on aeronautical charts; and
2. Composite separation is maintained between that aircraft and any other aircraft within the composite route system; and
3. Composite separation is maintained between that aircraft and any other aircraft on adjacent OTRs.
f. Clear an aircraft to change altitude on a route if noncomposite separation exists between that aircraft and others operating on that route regardless of other aircraft operating on adjacent routes in the system. Pilot's discretion climbs and descents are not authorized when applying composite separation.
8-9-8. PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER DEVIATIONS AND OTHER CONTINGENCIES IN OCEANIC CONTROLLED AIRSPACE
Aircraft must request an ATC clearance to deviate. Since aircraft will not fly into known areas of weather, weather deviation requests should take priority over routine requests. If there is no traffic in the horizontal dimension, ATC must issue clearance to deviate from track; or if there is conflicting traffic in the horizontal dimension, ATC separates aircraft by establishing vertical separation. If there is conflicting traffic and ATC is unable to establish standard separation, ATC must:
a. Advise the pilot unable to issue clearance for requested deviation;
b. Advise the pilot of conflicting traffic; and
c. Request pilot's intentions.
2. In the event that pilot/controller communications cannot be established or a revised AT clearance is not available, pilots will follow the procedures outlined in the Regional Supplementary Procedures, ICAO Doc 7030 and Chart Supplements.