Chapter 12. Canadian Airspace Procedures
Section 1. General Control
Where control responsibility within Canadian
airspace has been formally delegated to the FAA by
the Transport Canada Aviation Group, apply basic
FAA procedures except for the Canadian procedures
contained in this chapter.
In 1985, the U.S. and Canada established an agreement
recognizing the inherent safety of the ATC procedures
exercised by the other country. This agreement permits the
use of ATC procedures of one country when that country is
exercising ATC in the airspace over the territory of the
other country insofar as they are not inconsistent with, or
repugnant to, the laws and regulations or unique
operational requirements of the country over whose
territory such airspace is located. Accordingly, this
chapter was revised to include only those Canadian
procedures that must be used because of a Canadian
regulatory or unique operational requirement.
12-1-2. AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION
a. Class A airspace. Controlled airspace within
which only IFR flights are permitted. Airspace
designated from the base of all controlled high level
airspace up to and including FL 600.
b. Class B airspace. Controlled airspace within
which only IFR and Controlled VFR (CVFR) flights
are permitted. Includes all controlled low level
airspace above 12,500 feet ASL or at and above the
minimum en route IFR altitude, (whichever is higher)
up to but not including 18,000 feet ASL. ATC
procedures pertinent to IFR flights must be applied to
The CVFR pilot is responsible to maintain VFR flight and
visual reference to the ground at all times.
c. Class C airspace. Controlled airspace within
which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but
VFR flights require a clearance from ATC to enter.
d. Class D airspace. Controlled airspace within
which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but
VFR flights do not require a clearance from ATC to
enter, however, they must establish two-way
communications with the appropriate ATC agency
prior to entering the airspace.
e. Class E airspace. Airspace within which both
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but for VFR flight
there are no special requirements.
f. Class F airspace. Airspace of defined dimensions within which activities must be confined
because of their nature, or within which limitations
are imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a
part of those activities, or both. Special use airspace
may be classified as Class F advisory or Class F
g. Class G airspace. Uncontrolled airspace
within which ATC has neither the authority nor
responsibility for exercising control over air traffic.
12-1-3. ONE THOUSAND-ON-TOP
Clear an aircraft to maintain “at least 1,000 feet-on-top” in lieu of “VFR-on-top,” provided:
a. The pilot requests it.
It is the pilot's responsibility to ensure that the requested
operation can be conducted at least 1,000 feet above all
cloud, haze, smoke, or other formation, with a flight
visibility of 3 miles or more. A pilot's request can be
considered as confirmation that conditions are adequate.
b. The pilot will not operate within Class A or
Class B airspace.
Apply a lateral, longitudinal, or vertical separation
minimum between aircraft operating in accordance
with an IFR or CVFR clearance, regardless of the
12-1-5. DEPARTURE CLEARANCE/COMMUNICATION FAILURE
Base controller action regarding radio failures
in Canadian airspace on the requirement for pilots to
comply with Canadian Airspace Regulations, which
are similar to 14 CFR Section 91.185; however, the
following major difference must be considered when
planning control actions. Except when issued
alternate radio failure instructions by ATC, pilots will
adhere to the following: If flying a turbine-powered
(turboprop or turbojet) aircraft and cleared on
departure to a point other than the destination,
proceed to the destination airport in accordance with
the flight plan, maintaining the last assigned altitude
or flight level or the minimum en route IFR altitude,
whichever is higher, until 10 minutes beyond the
point specified in the clearance (clearance limit), and
then proceed at altitude(s) or flight level(s) filed in the
flight plan. When the aircraft will enter U.S. airspace
within 10 minutes after passing the clearance limit,
the climb to the flight planned border crossing
altitude is to be commenced at the estimated time of
crossing the Canada/U.S. boundary.
12-1-6. PARACHUTE JUMPING
Do not authorize parachute jumping without prior
permission from the appropriate Canadian authority.
Canadian regulations require written authority from the
Ministry of Transport.
12-1-7. SPECIAL VFR (SVFR)
Pilots do not have to be IFR qualified to fly SVFR at night,
nor does the aircraft have to be equipped for IFR flight.
a. Within a control zone where there is an airport
controller on duty, approve or refuse a pilot's request
for SVFR on the basis of current or anticipated IFR
traffic only. If approved, specify the period of time
during which SVFR flight is permitted.
b. Within a control zone where there is no airport
controller on duty, authorize or refuse an aircraft's
request for SVFR on the basis of:
1. Current or anticipated IFR traffic, and
2. Official ceiling and visibility reports.
c. Canadian SVFR weather minimums for:
1. Aircraft other than helicopters. Flight visibility (ground visibility when reported) 1 mile.
2. Helicopters. Flight visibility (ground visibility when available) 1/2 mile.