U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Air Traffic Organization Policy

ORDER
JO 7210.3
Y
Effective Date:
April 3, 2014
 
     
Subject:  Facility Operation and Administration
 Includes:  Change 1 and its Errata effective 7/24/14

Section 4. Services

10-4-1. AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE (ATIS)

a. ATIS provides advance noncontrol airport/terminal area and meteorological information for use by aircraft arriving and departing and operating within the terminal area. This can be accomplished by data link text, available upon request, and/or a voice message recording, which is a repetitive broadcast on a voice outlet.

b. Assign ATIS responsibilities to a specific position of operation. These must include updating ATIS messages and disseminating current messages to pertinent positions of operation.

c. Before transmitting, the voice and/or text message must be reviewed to ensure content is complete and accurate. When appropriate, the voice/text must be cross-checked to ensure the message content is the same. In a conventional, controller璸repared voice recording, the specialist must ensure:

1. The speech rate is not excessive,

2. The enunciation is of the highest quality, and

3. Each part of the message is easily understood.

d. Those facilities with runway construction must ensure ATIS message content is complete, accurate, and contains the proper information related to runway closures and available length (feet). When runway construction is underway, the review of the message should be made by a person other than the specialist who prepared the original, preferably either a supervisor or CIC.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2񬅟, Content
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3񫞅, Ground Traffic Movement
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3񬅝, Departure
Information
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3񬅠, Line Up and Wait (LUAW)
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3񬅥, Take璷ff Clearance
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3101, Landing Information
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3105, Landing Clearance
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10񪏕1, Airport Construction
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10񪏕2, Change in Runway Length Due to Construction

e. Specific sequential portions of the alphabet may be assigned between facilities or for an arrival and departure ATIS when confusion could result from using the entire alphabet for each ATIS.

1. A LOA must be established between facilities designating the ATIS codes which will be used by each facility.

2. A facility directive must be developed designating the ATIS alphabet codes which will be used by each facility or for an arrival and departure ATIS.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-9-1, Application.

EXAMPLE-
Departure ATIS codes could be assigned codes of 揂lfa through 揗ike and arrival ATIS codes assigned 揘ovember through 揨ulu. The ATIS codes may also be divided between facilities.

f. Make ATIS messages a matter of record on facility recorders. If not possible, retain a written record of each message in the facility's files for 15 days.

g. Keep messages as brief and as concise as possible. Optimum duration of up to 30 seconds should not be exceeded unless required for message content completeness.

h. During the hours of operation, part-time towers that have ATIS capabilities and ASOS/AWOS ground to air broadcast capability, must ensure that the latest METAR/SPECI weather sequence is broadcast only on ATIS. ASOS/AWOS must not be allowed to broadcast weather concurrent with ATIS.

i. During the hours of nonoperation, part-time towers that have ATIS capabilities should record for continuous broadcast the following information:

NOTE-
Those facilities that have ASOS/AWOS broadcast capability must allow the automated weather report to be broadcast on the ASOS/AWOS frequency in the one minute update mode and include the applicable information in subparas 10-4-1h, 1 thru 5 at the time of closing.

1. The local tower hours of operation.

2. ASOS/AWOS frequency.

3. The appropriate common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF).

4. The frequency for operating radio controlled approach lights.

5. The FAA facility and frequency for additional information.

EXAMPLE-
(Name of tower) tower hours of operation are (time) local time to (time) local time. The frequency for automated weather is (frequency). The common traffic advisory frequency is (frequency). Pilot operated approach lighting is available on (frequency). For additional information contact (name of approach control or center) on (frequency).

10-4-2. PRETAXI CLEARANCE PROCEDURES

a. If a need exists, facilities should develop pretaxi clearance procedures for departing IFR aircraft. Use of CD frequency is desirable for implementing such procedures. However, facilities without CD frequency may use GC frequency for pretaxi clearance if the service can be provided without derogating the primary function of GC. When developing pretaxi clearance procedures, do the following:

1. Coordinate the proposed procedures with the airport users.

2. Inform System Safety and Procedures, when procedures are implemented.

b. Include the following in pretaxi procedures:

1. The procedures are not mandatory.

2. The pilot calls CD or GC not more than 10 minutes before proposed taxi time.

3. The IFR clearance or the delay information should be issued at the time of initial callup.

4. When the IFR clearance is issued on CD frequency, the aircraft is changed to GC for taxi clearance.

5. Normally, the pilot need not inform GC of having received IFR clearance on CD frequency. Some high activity towers with unique operating position arrangements or operating conditions may require the pilot to inform GC of a portion of his/her routing or that he/she has received his/her IFR clearance.

10-4-3. GATE HOLD PROCEDURES

a. The objective of gate hold procedures is to restrict departure delays to 15 minutes or less after engine start and taxi time. Facility air traffic managers must ensure gate hold procedures and departure delay information are made available to all pilots prior to engine startup. Implement gate hold procedures when departure delays exceed or are expected to exceed 15 minutes.

b. Facility air traffic managers must meet with airport management and users to develop local gate hold procedures at airports that have identified the need and where air traffic operations dictate. Gate hold procedures, when required, will be developed in accordance with limitations imposed by local conditions. Include the following general provisions in the procedures when gatehold procedures are established.

1. Pilots must contact GC/CD prior to starting engines to receive start time or taxi time, as appropriate. The sequence for departure must be maintained in accordance with the initial callup unless modified by flow control restrictions.

2. Develop notification procedures for aircraft unable to transmit without engine(s) running.

NOTE-
Inability to contact GC/CD prior to engine start must not be justification to alter the departure sequence.

3. The operator has the final authority to decide whether to absorb the delay at the gate, have the aircraft towed to another area, or taxi to a delay absorbing area.

4. GC/CD frequency is to be monitored by the pilot. A new proposed engine start time or taxi time must be issued if the delay changes.

10-4-4. ADVISORY SERVICE TO ARRIVING VFR FLIGHTS

When it is desirable to reduce the workload at the LC position, procedures should be established whereby arriving aircraft make their first contact with the control tower on the approach control frequency, regardless of weather, provided the following conditions exist:

a. Approach control and LC positions use separate frequencies.

b. ATC service to IFR flights is not affected.

c. Use of the procedure will not hinder the operation of VFR aircraft by requiring excessive routing or spacing.

d. Consideration is given to establishing radio contact points based on time or distance rather than on landmarks with which some pilots may not be familiar.

e. Where possible, radio contact points and the routes between them and the airport are different from those used by IFR flights.

f. Pilot participation is encouraged rather than required, and compliance with the procedures is not made mandatory.

10-4-5. PRACTICE INSTRUMENT APPROACHES

a. VFR aircraft practicing instrument approaches at the approach control's primary airport must be provided IFR separation in accordance with FAAO JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, Chapter 4, Section 8, Approach Clearance Procedures.

NOTE-
The primary airport is the airport from which approach control service is provided, except for remoted facilities where the facility air traffic manager will designate the primary report.

b. IFR separation to VFR aircraft in accordance with FAAO JO 7110.65, Chapter 4, Section 8, Approach Clearance Procedures, must be provided to all secondary airports under the approach control's jurisdiction to the extent possible within existing resources. Where separation service is provided to an airport with a FSS that provides LAA, or a nonapproach control tower, provisions for handling such aircraft must be included in a LOA.

c. Where standard separation is not provided to VFR aircraft conducting practice approaches, instruct the aircraft to maintain VFR and provide traffic information.

d. At airports where the tower does not provide approach control service, handle practice instrument approaches in accordance with a LOA between the tower and the facility providing approach control service.

e. Facilities must issue a letter to airmen advising the users of those airports where standard separation is provided for VFR aircraft conducting practice instrument approaches. The letter should specify which facility will handle the aircraft practicing instrument approaches and include the appropriate frequencies.

REFERENCE-
Para 4-5-2, Letters to Airmen.

10-4-6. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT APPROACHES

a. Independent approaches may be conducted when:

1. Dual parallel runway centerlines are at least 4,300 feet apart.

2. Triple parallel centerlines are at least 5,000 feet apart and the airport field elevation is less than 1,000 feet MSL.

b. Specially-designed instrument approach procedures annotated with 搒imultaneous approaches authorized with Rwy XX" are authorized for simultaneous independent approaches.

c. Equipment required to maintain communication, navigation, and surveillance systems is operational with the glide slope exception as noted below.

d. During glide slope outages, facilities may continue to conduct simultaneous independent approaches without vertical guidance for a period of no more than 29 days, provided the following requirements are identified in an Air Traffic Safety Oversight Service (AOV) approved contingency plan. At a minimum, the following special provisions, conditions, and limitations must be identified in the plan, if applicable, along with any other facility-specific requirements:

1. An LOA with the ATCT (or facility directive for a combined facility) must contain a description of the procedures, requirements, and any limitations as specified in the facility contingency plan for glide slope out of service procedures.

2. The ATC facility must notify Technical Operations personnel of the glide slope outage.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 3-5-2, System Component Malfunctions

3. The ATC facility must notify arriving pilots that the glide slope is out of service. This can be accomplished via the ATIS broadcast.

4. Any other requirements specified in the local facility contingency plan for glide slope out procedures must be complied with before conducting simultaneous independent approach procedures.

5. Controllers must be trained and provided annual refresher training concerning the application of these procedures.

6. The ATC facility must record when the glide slope outage occurs and any adverse impact on the operation on FAA Form 7230-4, Daily Record of Facility Operation.

7. Any loss of separation or break out associated with operations under a contingency plan for glide slope out must be reported to the Director, Terminal Operations, Headquarters.

8. The facility must have radar coverage down to the decision altitude or minimum descent altitude, as applicable.

9. Approaches must be terminated to the runway without a glide slope whenever the reported visibility is below the straight-in localizer minimum for that runway.

10. Any required equipment for the approach with the glide slope out of service must be operational, such as DME or VORTAC.

e. Simultaneous approaches with the glide slope unusable must be discontinued after 29 days unless a waiver has been submitted to and approved by FAA HQ. (See Appendix 4.)

f. When simultaneous approaches are being conducted, the pilot is expected to inform approach control, prior to departing an outer fix, if the aircraft does not have the appropriate airborne equipment or they do not choose to conduct a simultaneous approach. Provide individual handling to such aircraft.

10-4-7. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT CLOSE PARALLEL APPROACHES HIGH UPDATE RADAR NOT REQUIRED

TERMINAL

a. Simultaneous close parallel approaches may only be conducted where instrument approach charts specifically authorize simultaneous approaches to parallel runways.

b. Apply the following minimum separation when conducting simultaneous independent close parallel approaches:

1. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between aircraft during turn璷n to parallel final approach courses.

NOTE-
Communications transfer to the tower controller's frequency will be completed prior to losing vertical separation between aircraft.

2. Parallel runway centerlines are separated by a minimum of 3,600 feet or more, and the airport elevation is less than 2,000' MSL.

3. Provide the minimum applicable radar separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5񪶰, Minima

c. A high璻esolution color monitor with alert algorithms, such as the final monitor aid, must be used to monitor close parallel approaches.

d. In addition to subparagraphs a through c above, facility ATMs must ensure that operational personnel comply with the procedures specified in FAA Order JO 7110.65, paragraph 5񬅥d through 5񬅥f.

REFERENCE-
FAA O JO 7110.65, Para 5񬅥, Simultaneous Independent Close Parallel Approaches High Update Radar Not Required

e. Facility managers must verify that adequate radar coverage exists to safely perform simultaneous approach operations to closely space runways.

10-4-8. Simultaneous widely-spacEd parallel operations

The concept for conducting simultaneous independent approaches to widely璼paced parallel runways without final monitors is:

a. Specially璬esigned instrument approach procedures annotated with 揝imultaneous Approaches Authorized with Rwy XX are authorized for simultaneous independent approaches to widely spaced parallel runways.

1. A separate approach system is required for each parallel runway. A minimum distance of more than 9,000 feet between centerlines is required when dual approaches are used at field elevations at or below 5,000 feet MSL, or 9,200 feet between runway centerlines is required with a field elevation above 5,000 feet MSL. Other integral parts of the total Simultaneous Approach System include radar, communications, ATC procedures, and appropriate airborne equipment.

2. When simultaneous approaches are being conducted, the pilot is expected to inform approach control prior to departing an outer fix if the aircraft does not have the appropriate airborne equipment or they do not choose to conduct a simultaneous approach. Provide individual handling to such aircraft.

3. Closely monitor weather activity that could impact the final approach course. Weather conditions in the vicinity of either final approach course may dictate a change of the approach in use. (See subpara 10񩨂b Note, Selecting Active Runways).

4. All turn璷ns and final approaches are monitored by radar. Since the primary responsibility for navigation rests with the pilot, instructions from the controller are limited to those necessary to ensure separation between aircraft. Information and instructions are issued as necessary to contain the aircraft on the final approach course. Aircraft which are observed deviating from the assigned final approach course are instructed to alter course left or right, as appropriate, to return to the desired course. Unless altitude separation is assured between aircraft, immediate action must be taken by the controller monitoring the adjacent parallel approach course to require the aircraft in potential conflict to alter its flight path to avoid the deviating aircraft.

5. Missed approach procedures are established with climbs on diverging courses. To reduce the possibility of error, the missed approach procedure for a single runway operation should be revised, as necessary, to be identical with that of a simultaneous approach operation.

b. The following minimum radar and communications equipment must be provided for monitoring simultaneous approaches:

1. One separate airport surveillance radar display of a model currently certified for ATC functions.

2. Establish separate radar and local control positions for each final approach course.

3. Facility directives must define the position responsible for providing the minimum applicable longitudinal separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.

c. Record the time the operation begins and ends on the facility log.

d. Where possible, establish standard breakout procedures for each simultaneous operation. If traffic patterns and airspace permit, the standard breakout altitude should be the same as the missed approach altitude.

e. If there is an aircraft deviation requiring the utilization of breakout procedures, or if there is a loss of separation, specifically a compression on final error, forward a copy of that QAR to the Terminal Procedures Group via email at 9瑼TOT璈Q璖afety璕isk璏anagement. This requirement must be written into each facility SOP.

10-4-9. PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR-SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT APPROACHES

a. Precision Runway Monitor-Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (PRM-SOIA) may be conducted at airports with dual parallel runways with centerlines separated by at least 750 feet and less than 3,000 feet, with one straight-in Instrument Landing System (ILS)/Microwave Landing System (MLS) and one Localizer Directional Aid (LDA), offset by 2.5 to 3.0 degrees using a PRM system with a 1.0 second radar update system in accordance with the provisions of an authorization issued by the Director of Terminal Safety and Operations Support in coordination with AFS. A high-resolution color monitor with alert algorithms, such as a final monitor aid (FMA) must be required.

b. Notification procedures for pilots unable to accept an ILS PRM or LDA PRM approach clearance can be found on the Attention All Users Page (AAUP) of the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) for the specific airport PRM approach.

c. Closely monitor weather activity that could impact the final approach course. Weather conditions in the vicinity of either final approach course may dictate a change of the approach in use. (See para 10-1-6, Selecting Active Runways, subpara b Note.)

d. All turn-ons and final approaches are monitored by radar. Since the primary responsibility for navigation rests with the pilot, instructions from the controller are limited to those necessary to ensure separation between aircraft and to prevent aircraft from penetrating the NTZ. Information and instructions are issued, as necessary, to contain the aircraft's flight path within the Normal Operating Zone (NOZ). Aircraft which are observed approaching the No Transgression Zone (NTZ) are instructed to alter course left or right, as appropriate, to return to the desired course. Unless altitude separation is assured between aircraft, immediate action must be taken by the controller monitoring the adjacent parallel approach course to require the aircraft in potential conflict to alter its flight path to avoid the deviating aircraft.

e. Missed approach procedures are established with climbs on diverging courses. To reduce the possibility of error, the missed approach procedure for a single runway operation should be revised, as necessary, to be identical with that of the PRM-SOIA operation.

f. Where possible, establish standard breakout procedures for each simultaneous operation. If traffic patterns and airspace permit, the standard breakout altitude should be the same as the missed approach altitude.

g. The following requirements must be met for conducting PRM-SOIA:

1. All PRM, FMA, ILS, LDA with glideslope, distance measuring equipment, and communications frequencies must be fully operational.

2. The common NOZ and NTZ lines between the final approach course centerlines must be depicted on the radar video map. The NTZ must be 2,000 feet wide and centered an equal distance from the final approach centerlines. The remaining spaces between the final approach courses are the NOZs associated with each course.

3. Establish monitor positions for each final approach course that have override transmit and receive capability on the appropriate control tower frequencies. A check of the override capability at each monitor position must be completed before monitoring begins. Monitor displays must be located in such proximity to permit direct verbal coordination between monitor controllers. A single display may be used for two monitor positions.

4. Facility directives must define the position responsible for providing the minimum applicable longitudinal separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.

h. Dual local control positions, while not mandatory, are desirable.

i. Where possible, establish standard breakout procedures for each simultaneous operation. If traffic patterns and airspace permit, the standard breakout altitude should be the same as the missed approach altitude.

j. Wake turbulence requirements between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses inside the LDA MAP are as follows (standard in-trail wake separation must be applied between aircraft on the same approach course):

1. When runways are at least 2,500 feet apart, there are no wake turbulence requirements between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses.

2. For runways less than 2,500 feet apart, whenever the ceiling is greater than or equal to 500 feet above the MVA, wake vortex spacing between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses need not be applied.

3. For runways less than 2,500 feet apart, whenever the ceiling is less than 500 feet above the MVA, wake vortex spacing between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses as described in FAAO JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, para 5-5-4, Minima, must be applied unless acceptable mitigating techniques and operational procedures are approved by the Director of Terminal Safety and Operations Support pursuant to an AFS safety assessment. A request for a safety assessment must be submitted to the Terminal Safety and Operations Support Office through the service area office manager. The wake turbulence mitigation techniques employed will be based on each airport's specific runway geometry and meteorological conditions and implemented through local facility directives.

4. All applicable wake turbulence advisories must be issued.

k. A local implementation team must be established at each facility conducting PRM-SOIA. The team should be comprised of representatives from the local airport sponsor and other aviation organizations. The team will monitor local operational integrity issues and report/refer issues for national consideration as appropriate.

l. For any new proposal to conduct PRM-SOIA, an operational need must be identified by the ATC facility manager, validated by the service area office manager, and forwarded to the Terminal Safety and Operations Support Office for appropriate action. The statement of operational need should identify any required site specific procedures.

10-4-10. REDUCED SEPARATION ON FINAL

Separation between aircraft may be reduced to 2.5 NM in-trail separation on the final approach course within 10 NM of the runway provided an average Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) of 50 seconds or less is documented for each runway. ROT is the length of time required for an arriving aircraft to proceed from over the runway threshold to a point clear of the runway. The average ROT is calculated by using the average of the ROT of no less than 250 arrivals. The 250 arrivals need not be consecutive but must contain a representative sample of the types of aircraft that use the runway. Average ROT documentation must be revalidated within 30 days if there is a significant change in runway/taxiway configuration, fleet mix, or other factors that may increase ROT. Revalidation need not be done for situations that are temporary in nature. Only the ROT for the affected runway(s) will need to be revalidated. All validation and revalidation documentation must be retained and contain the following information for each arrival:

a. Aircraft call sign.

b. Aircraft type.

c. Time across the threshold.

d. Time clear of the runway.

e. Items c and d above may be omitted if using a stopwatch. Record the total number of seconds required for an aircraft to proceed from over the landing threshold to a point clear of the runway when using a stopwatch.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Subpara 5-5-4f, Minima.

10-4-11. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES (MIA)

At terminal facilities that require minimum IFR altitude (MIA) charts, determine MIA information for each control sector and display them at the sector. This must include off-airway minimum IFR altitude information to assist controllers in applying 14 CFR Section 91.177 for off-airway vectors and direct route operations. Facility air traffic managers must determine the appropriate chart/map method for displaying this information at the sector. Forward charts and chart data records to Technical Operations Aviation System Standards, National Flight Procedures, for certification and annual review.

NOTE-
1. For guidance in the preparation and review of Minimum IFR Altitude charts see FAAO 7210.37, En Route Minimum IFR Altitude (MIA) Sector Charts.

2. This may be accomplished by appending the data on sector charts or MVA charts; Special translucent sectional charts are also available. Special ordering information is contained in FAAO 1720.23, Distribution of Aeronautical Charts and Related Flight Information Publications. (Reference - para 3-8-2.)

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