U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

ORDER
JO 7110.10X
Effective Date:
April 3, 2014
 
     
Subject:  Flight Services
   Includes:  Change 1 effective 7/24/14

Section 2. Preflight Pilot Briefing

3-2-1. CONDUCT OF STANDARD BRIEFING

a. Brief by translating, interpreting, and summarizing available data for the intended flight. Do not read individual weather reports or forecasts unless, in your judgment, it is necessary to emphasize an important point or unless specifically requested to do so by the pilot. Obtain the following information if it is pertinent and not evident or already known:

1. Type of flight planned.

2. Aircraft identification or pilot's name.

3. Aircraft type.

4. Departure point.

5. Route of flight.

6. Destination.

7. Flight altitude(s).

8. Estimated time of departure (ETD) and estimated time en route (ETE).

b. The specialist must issue the following cautionary advisory to a pilot planning a flight outside of United States controlled airspace, unless the pilot advises they have the international cautionary advisory.

PHRASEOLOGY-
CHECK DATA AS SOON AS PRACTICAL AFTER ENTERING FOREIGN AIRSPACE, AS OUR INTERNATIONAL DATA MAY BE INACCURATE OR INCOMPLETE.

c. Using all sources of weather and aeronautical information, provide the following data when it is applicable to the proposed flight. Provide the information in subparagraphs c1 through c8 in the sequence listed except as noted.

1. Adverse Conditions. Include this element when meteorological or aeronautical conditions are reported or forecast that might influence the pilot to alter the proposed flight. Emphasize conditions that are particularly significant, such as low level wind shear, thunderstorms, reported icing, frontal zones along the route of flight, NOTAMs; for example, airport/runway closures, air traffic delays, TFRs etc. Weather advisories (WS, WA, WST, CWA, and AWW) must be given by stating the type of advisory followed by the pertinent information.

EXAMPLE-
“An AIRMET is in effect until 1400Z for moderate turbulence below 10,000 feet over the mountainous area of southern California.”
“Palmer airport closed”

NOTE-
NOTAMs in this category may be provided with NOTAMs listed in subparagraph c8.

2. VFR Flight Not Recommended (VNR). Include this statement when VFR flight is proposed and sky conditions or visibilities are present or forecast, surface or aloft, that in your judgment would make flight under visual flight rules doubtful. Describe the conditions, affected locations, and times.

PHRASEOLOGY-
VFR FLIGHT NOT RECOMMENDED

EXAMPLE-
"There are broken clouds along the entire route between niner and one one thousand feet. With the approach of a cold front, these clouds are forecast to become overcast and to lower to below seven thousand with mountains and passes becoming obscured. V­F­R flight not recommended between Salt Lake City and Grand Junction after two two zero zero ZULU.”
``V­F­R flight not recommended in the Seattle area until early afternoon. The current weather at Seattle is indefinite ceiling three hundred, visibility one, mist, and little improvement is expected before one eight zero zero ZULU."

NOTE-
This recommendation is advisory in nature. The decision as to whether the flight can be conducted safely rests solely with the pilot.

3. Synopsis. Provide a brief statement describing the type, location, and movement of weather systems and/or air masses which might affect the proposed flight. This element may be combined with adverse conditions and/or the VNR element, in any order, when it will help to more clearly describe conditions.

4. Current Conditions. Summarize from all available sources reported weather conditions applicable to the flight. This element may be omitted if the proposed time of departure is beyond 2 hours, unless the information is requested by the pilot. If AUTO appears after the date/time element and is presented as a singular report, follow the location with the word “AUTOMATED.”

5. En Route Forecast. Summarize forecast information that will affect the proposed flight; for example, area forecasts, TAFs, prognosis charts, weather advisories, etc. Provide the information in a logical order; for example, climb out, enroute, and descent.

6. Destination Forecast. Provide the destination forecast including significant changes expected within 1 hour before and after the estimated time of arrival (ETA).

7. Winds Aloft. Provide forecast winds aloft for the flight using degrees of the compass. Interpolate wind directions and speeds between levels and stations as necessary. Provide temperature information on request.

8. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). Provide NOTAM information affecting the flight:

(a) NOTAM (D). All NOTAMs (D), including SUA NOTAMs for restricted areas, aerial refueling, and night vision goggles (NVG).

NOTE-
Other SUA NOTAMs (D) such as military operations area (MOA), military training route (MTR) and warning area NOTAMs, are considered “upon request” briefing items as indicated in paragraph 3­2­1c13(a).

(b) Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs not already carried in the Notices to Airmen publication.

(c) Combine this element with adverse conditions when it would be logical and advantageous to do so.

9. Prohibited Areas P­40, P­56, and the Special Flight Rules Area (SFRA) for Washington, DC. Include this element when pertinent to the route of flight. Advise the pilot that VFR flight within 60 miles of the DCA VOR/DME requires Special Awareness Training.

10. ATC Delays. Inform the pilot of ATC delays and/or flow control advisories that might affect the proposed flight.

11. Request for PIREPs. Include this element when in your judgment, a report of actual inflight conditions is beneficial or when conditions meet criteria for solicitation of PIREPs (paragraph 9­2­5). Advise the pilot to contact Flight Watch or Flight Service to report en route conditions.

12. EFAS. When appropriate, inform pilots of the availability of Flight Watch for weather updates; for example, thunderstorms, icing.

13. Upon Request. Provide any information requested by the pilot, including, but not limited to:

(a) Special use airspace, except those listed in paragraph 3­2­1c8(a), SUA­related airspace (air traffic control assigned airspace (ATCAA)), and MTR activity. For all SUA and MTR data requests, advise the pilot that information may be updated periodically and to contact the appropriate ATC facility for additional information while in flight.

NOTE-
For the purpose of this paragraph, SUA and related airspace includes the following types of airspace: alert area, MOA, warning area and ATCAA. MTR data includes the following types of airspace: instrument flight rule (IFR) training routes (IR), VFR training routes (VR), and slow training routes (SR).

(b) Approximate density altitude data.

(c) Information regarding such items as air traffic service and rules, customs/immigration procedures, air defense identification zone (ADIZ) rules, SAR, Flight Watch, etc.

(d) Military NOTAMs.

REFERENCE-
FAAO 7930.2, Paragraph 8­3­1, Military NOTAM Availability.

(e) Special FDC instrument approach procedure changes.

3-2-2. CONDUCT OF ABBREVIATED BRIEFING

a. Provide an abbreviated briefing when a pilot requests information to supplement mass­disseminated data; update a previous briefing; or when the pilot requests that the briefing be limited to specific information. If applicable, include the statement “VFR flight not recommended” in accordance with subparagraph 3­2­1c2. The specialist must issue the following cautionary advisory to a pilot planning a flight outside of United States controlled airspace, unless the pilot advises they have the international cautionary advisory.

PHRASEOLOGY-
CHECK DATA AS SOON AS PRACTICAL AFTER ENTERING FOREIGN AIRSPACE, AS OUR INTERNATIONAL DATA MAY BE INACCURATE OR INCOMPLETE.

b. Conduct abbreviated briefings as follows:

1. When a pilot desires specific information only, provide the requested information. If adverse conditions are reported or forecast, advise the pilot. Provide details on these conditions, in accordance with subparagraph 3­2­1c1, at the pilot's request.

2. When a pilot requests an update to a previous briefing, obtain from the pilot the time the briefing was received and necessary background information. To the extent possible, limit the briefing to appreciable changes in meteorological and aeronautical conditions since the previous briefing.

3. When a pilot requests information to supplement data obtained through FSS mass­dissemination media, obtain pertinent background information, the specific items required by the pilot, and provide the information in the sequence listed in subparagraph 3­2­1c.

4. When a pilot requests to file a flight plan only, ask if he/she requires the latest information on adverse conditions along the route of flight. If so, provide the information pertinent to the route of flight in accordance with subparagraph 3­2­1c1.

5. Solicit PIREPs in accordance with subparagraph 3­2­1c11.

3-2-3. CONDUCT OF OUTLOOK BRIEFING

a. Provide an outlook briefing when the proposed departure is 6 hours or more from the time of the briefing. Conduct the briefing in accordance with subparagraph 3­2­1c. Omit items in subparagraphs c2, c4, and c7 through c12, unless specifically requested by the pilot or deemed pertinent by the specialist.

b. When the proposed flight is scheduled to be conducted beyond the valid time of the available forecast material, provide a general outlook and then advise the pilot when complete forecast data will be available for the proposed flight.

 

 
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