U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

ORDER
JO 7110.10X
Effective Date:
April 3, 2014
 
     
Subject:  Flight Services
 

Section 3. Radio Communications

4-3-1. FREQUENCY USE

a. Use radio frequencies for the specific purposes for which they are intended. A frequency may be used for more than one function when required. Use the minimum number of frequencies to conduct communications. Request pilots file flight plans on discrete frequencies when possible.

b. Monitor assigned radio frequencies continuously. Keep speaker volumes at a level sufficient to hear all transmissions.

4-3-2. AUTHORIZED TRANSMISSIONS

a. Transmit only those messages necessary for safe and efficient use of the National Airspace System (NAS).

1. Relay operational information to an aircraft or its company, as requested, when abnormal conditions necessitate such requests. Do not agree to handle such messages on a regular basis.

2. Relay official FAA messages as required.

b. Inform an aircraft of the source of any message you relay from an appropriate authority.

c. Use the words or phrases in radio communications as contained in the PCG.

4-3-3. RADIO MESSAGE FORMAT

a. Use the following format for radio communications with an aircraft:

1. Identification of aircraft.

2. Identification of the calling unit.

3. The type of message to follow when this will assist the pilot.

4. The word “over,” if required.

b. Specialist initiated call. State the prefix , for example “November” when establishing initial communications with U.S.-registered aircraft followed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) phonetic pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration. The specialist may state the aircraft type, the model, the manufacturer's name, followed by the ICAO phonetic pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration if used by the pilot on the initial or subsequent call.

EXAMPLE-
Specialist initiated call:

“November One Two Three Four Golf, Juneau Radio, over.”
“Piper Three Four Seven Seven Papa, Fort Worth Radio, A­T­C clearance, over.”

c. Replying to call up from aircraft. Identification of the aircraft initiating the call up. Use the full identification in reply to aircraft with similar sounding identifications. For other aircraft, use the same identification the pilot used in initial call up; then use the correct identification after communication has been established. The specialist may state the aircraft type, model, or manufacturer's name followed by the ICAO phonetic pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration if used by the pilot.

EXAMPLE-
Responding to pilot's initial or subsequent call:

“Jet Commander One Two Three Four Papa.”

“Bonanza One Two Three Four Tango.”

“November Six Three Eight Mike Foxtrot.”

d. The word “heavy” must be used as part of the identification in communications with or about heavy jet aircraft.

PHRASEOLOGY-
UNITED FIFTY­EIGHT HEAVY
.

NOTE-
1. Most airlines use the word “heavy” following the company prefix and trip number when establishing communications or when changing frequencies.

2. When in radio­telephone communications with “Air Force One,” do not add the “heavy” designator to the call sign. State only the call sign “Air Force One” regardless of the type of aircraft.

e. Preface a clearance or instruction intended for a specific aircraft with the identification of that aircraft.

f. Emphasize appropriate digits, letters, or similar sounding words to aid in distinguishing between similar sounding aircraft identifications. Additionally, notify each pilot concerned when communicating with aircraft having similar sounding identifications.

EXAMPLE-
“American Five Twenty­one and American Twenty­one, transmissions being made to each of you on this frequency.”

“Advisory to Cessna One Three Two Four, transmissions to Cessna One Two Three Four also being made on this frequency.”

4-3-4. ABBREVIATED TRANSMISSION

Transmissions may be abbreviated as follows:

a. Use the identification prefix and the last three digits or letters of the aircraft identification after communications have been established. Do not abbreviate similar sounding aircraft identifications or the identification of an air carrier or other civil aircraft having an FAA­authorized call sign.

b. Omit the facility identification after communication has been established.

c. Transmit the message immediately after the call up (without waiting for the aircraft's reply) when the message is short and receipt is generally assured.

d. Omit the word “over” if the message obviously requires a reply.

4-3-5. ROUTINE RADIO CONTACTS

Record information received from or given to the pilot. Prior to terminating the contact, provide the following information if it is pertinent and the pilot indicates that it has not been received previously.

a. Weather Advisory. When a weather advisory such as a WA, WS, WST, CWA, or AWW which affects an aircraft's position, route, or destination.

b. Shifting to Flight Watch. During hours of flight watch operation, inflight specialists must recommend shifting to the flight watch frequency for en route advisories when weather conditions in an area along the pilot's route of flight so dictate. An example would be a pilot flying into an area of marginal weather farther along the route. It would be advantageous for the pilot to contact the flight watch specialist to pursue an alternate course of action should the need arise.

PHRASEOLOGY-
FOR ADDITIONAL EN ROUTE WEATHER, CONTACT FLIGHT WATCH (frequency).

c. NOTAM. Inform the pilot of any pertinent NOTAMs affecting the flight.

d. Altimeter Setting.

1. If the aircraft is operating below 18,000 feet MSL, issue current altimeter setting obtained from direct reading instruments or received from weather reporting stations. Use the setting for the location nearest the position of the aircraft.

2. If the aircraft is arriving or departing a local airport served by an operating control tower, issue altimeter setting on request only.

3. When a pilot acknowledges that he/she has received the AFIS broadcast, specialists may omit those items contained in the broadcasts if they are current.

4. Aircraft arriving or departing from a non­towered airport which has a commissioned automated weather reporting with ground­to­air capability must be advised to monitor the automated weather frequency for the altimeter setting.

PHRASEOLOGY-
MONITOR (location) AUTOMATED WEATHER FOR CURRENT ALTIMETER.

NOTE-
This requirement is deleted if the pilot states that he/she has the automated weather.

5. When the barometric pressure is greater than 31.00 inches Hg., Flight Standards will implement high barometric pressure procedures by NOTAM, defining the geographic area affected. When this occurs, use the following procedures:

(a) IFR aircraft. Issue the altimeter setting and advise the pilot that high pressure altimeter setting procedures are in effect. Control facilities will issue specific instructions when relaying IFR clearances and control instructions through FSS facilities when the altimeter is above 31.00 inches Hg.

(b) VFR aircraft. Issue the altimeter setting. Advise the pilot that high pressure altimeter setting procedures are in effect and to use an altimeter setting of 31.00 inches Hg en route.

PHRASEOLOGY-
ALTIMETER IN EXCESS OF THREE ONE ZERO ZERO. HIGH PRESSURE ALTIMETER SETTING PROCEDURES ARE IN EFFECT. RECOMMEND YOU SET ALTIMETER THREE ONE ZERO ZERO EN ROUTE.

NOTE-
Airports unable to accurately measure barometric pressures above 31.00 inches Hg will report the barometric pressure as missing or in excess of 31.00 inches Hg. Flight operations to or from those airports are restricted to VFR weather conditions.

REFERENCE-
AIM, Chapter 7, Section 2, Altimeter Setting Procedures
FAAO JO 7110.65 Para 2­7­2.g, Altimeter Setting Issuance Below Lowest Usable FL

e. Incorrect Cruising Altitude. If the aircraft is operating VFR at an altitude between 3,000 feet AGL to, but not including FL180, and reports at an incorrect cruising altitude for the direction of flight, issue a VFR cruising altitude advisory.

PHRASEOLOGY-
V­F­R CRUISING LEVELS FOR YOUR DIRECTION OF FLIGHT ARE: (Odd/Even) ALTITUDES PLUS FIVE HUNDRED FEET.

NOTE-
Facilities located in those areas where VFR altitude separation is below 3,000 feet AGL or above FL 180 must provide appropriate phraseology examples for local use.

f. Altimeter Setting in Millibars (MBs). If a request for the altimeter setting in MBs is received, use the setting for the location nearest the position of the aircraft and convert to the MBs equivalent value using a MBs conversion chart. If the Mbs setting is not a whole number, always round down. (See TBL 4­3­1.)

TBL 4-3-1
Millibar Conversion Chart

MILLIBAR CONVERSION CHART

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

inches

millibars

27.50

931.3

28.00

948.2

28.50

965.1

29.00

982.1

29.50

999.0

30.00

1015.9

30.50

1032.8

31.00

1049.8

27.51

931.6

28.01

948.5

28.51

965.5

29.01

982.4

29.51

999.3

30.01

1016.3

30.51

1033.2

31.01

1050.1

27.52

931.9

28.02

948.9

28.52

965.8

29.02

982.7

29.52

999.7

30.02

1016.6

30.52

1033.5

31.02

1050.5

27.53

932.3

28.03

949.2

28.53

966.1

29.03

983.1

29.53

1000.0

30.03

1016.9

30.53

1033.9

31.03

1050.8

27.54

932.6

28.04

949.5

28.54

966.5

29.04

983.4

29.54

1000.3

30.04

1017.3

30.54

1034.2

31.04

1051.1

27.55

933.0

28.05

949.9

28.55

966.8

29.05

983.7

29.55

1000.7

30.05

1017.6

30.55

1034.5

31.05

1051.5

27.56

933.3

28.06

950.2

28.56

967.2

29.06

984.1

29.56

1001.0

30.06

1017.9

30.56

1034.9

31.06

1051.8

27.57

933.6

28.07

950.6

28.57

967.5

29.07

984.4

29.57

1001.4

30.07

1018.3

30.57

1035.2

31.07

1052.2

27.58

934.0

28.08

950.9

28.58

967.8

29.08

984.8

29.58

1001.7

30.08

1018.6

30.58

1035.6

31.08

1052.5

27.59

934.3

28.09

951.2

28.59

968.2

29.09

985.1

29.59

1002.0

30.09

1019.0

30.59

1035.9

31.09

1052.8

27.60

934.6

28.10

951.6

28.60

968.5

29.10

985.4

29.60

1002.4

30.10

1019.3

30.60

1036.2

31.10

1053.2

27.61

935.0

28.11

951.9

28.61

968.8

29.11

985.8

29.61

1002.7

30.11

1019.6

30.61

1036.6

31.11

1053.5

27.62

935.3

28.12

952.3

28.62

969.2

29.12

986.1

29.62

1003.0

30.12

1020.0

30.62

1036.9

31.12

1053.8

27.63

935.7

28.13

952.6

28.63

969.5

29.13

986.5

29.63

1003.4

30.13

1020.3

30.63

1037.3

31.13

1054.2

27.64

936.0

28.14

952.9

28.64

969.9

29.14

986.8

29.64

1003.7

30.14

1020.7

30.64

1037.6

31.14

1054.5

27.65

936.3

28.15

953.3

28.65

970.2

29.15

987.1

29.65

1004.1

30.15

1021.0

30.65

1037.9

31.15

1054.9

27.66

936.7

28.16

953.6

28.66

970.5

29.16

987.5

29.66

1004.4

30.16

1021.3

30.66

1038.3

31.16

1055.2

27.67

937.0

28.17

953.9

28.67

970.9

29.17

987.8

29.67

1004.7

30.17

1021.7

30.67

1038.6

31.17

1055.5

27.68

937.4

28.18

954.3

28.68

971.2

29.18

988.1

29.68

1005.1

30.18

1022.0

30.68

1038.9

31.18

1055.9

27.69

937.7

28.19

954.6

28.69

971.6

29.19

988.5

29.69

1005.4

30.19

1022.4

30.69

1039.3

31.19

1056.2

27.70

938.0

28.20

955.0

28.70

971.9

29.20

988.8

29.70

1005.8

30.20

1022.7

30.70

1039.6

31.20

1056.6

27.71

938.4

28.21

955.3

28.71

972.2

29.21

989.2

29.71

1006.1

30.21

1023.0

30.71

1040.0

31.21

1056.9

27.72

938.7

28.22

955.6

28.72

972.6

29.22

989.5

29.72

1006.4

30.22

1023.4

30.72

1040.3

31.22

1057.2

27.73

939.0

28.23

956.0

28.73

972.9

29.23

989.8

29.73

1006.8

30.23

1023.7

30.73

1040.6

31.23

1057.6

27.74

939.4

28.24

956.3

28.74

973.2

29.24

990.2

29.74

1007.1

30.24

1024.0

30.74

1041.0

31.24

1057.9

27.75

939.7

28.25

956.7

28.75

973.6

29.25

990.5

29.75

1007.5

30.25

1024.4

30.75

1041.3

31.25

1058.2

27.76

940.1

28.26

957.0

28.76

973.9

29.26

990.8

29.76

1007.8

30.26

1024.7

30.76

1041.6

31.26

1058.6

27.77

940.4

28.27

957.3

28.77

974.3

29.27

991.2

29.77

1008.1

30.27

1025.1

30.77

1042.0

31.27

1058.9

27.78

940.7

28.28

957.7

28.78

974.6

29.28

991.5

29.78

1008.5

30.28

1025.4

30.78

1042.3

31.28

1059.3

27.79

941.1

28.29

958.0

28.79

974.9

29.29

991.9

29.79

1008.8

30.29

1025.7

30.79

1042.7

31.29

1059.6

27.80

941.4

28.30

958.3

28.80

975.3

29.30

992.2

29.80

1009.1

30.30

1026.1

30.80

1043.0

31.30

1059.9

27.81

941.8

28.31

958.7

28.81

975.6

29.31

992.6

29.81

1009.5

30.31

1026.4

30.81

1043.3

31.31

1060.3

27.82

942.1

28.32

959.0

28.82

976.0

29.32

992.9

29.82

1009.8

30.32

1026.8

30.82

1043.7

31.32

1060.6

27.83

942.4

28.33

959.4

28.83

976.3

29.33

993.2

29.83

1010.2

30.33

1027.1

30.83

1044.0

31.33

1061.0

27.84

942.8

28.34

959.7

28.84

976.6

29.34

992.6

29.84

1010.5

30.34

1027.4

30.84

1044.4

31.34

1061.3

27.85

943.1

28.35

960.0

28.85

977.0

29.35

993.9

29.85

1010.8

30.35

1027.8

30.85

1044.7

31.35

1061.6

27.86

943.4

28.36

960.4

28.86

977.3

29.36

994.2

29.86

1011.2

30.36

1028.1

30.86

1045.0

31.36

1062.0

27.87

943.8

28.37

960.7

28.87

977.7

29.37

994.6

29.87

1011.5

30.37

1028.4

30.87

1045.4

31.37

1062.3

27.88

944.1

28.38

961.1

28.88

978.0

29.38

994.9

29.88

1011.9

30.38

1028.8

30.88

1045.7

31.38

1062.6

27.89

944.5

28.39

961.4

28.89

978.3

29.39

995.3

29.89

1012.2

30.39

1029.1

30.89

1046.1

31.39

1063.0

27.90

944.8

28.40

961.7

28.90

978.7

29.40

995.6

29.90

1012.5

30.40

1029.5

30.90

1046.4

31.40

1063.3

27.91

945.1

28.41

962.1

28.91

979.0

29.41

995.9

29.91

1012.9

30.41

1029.8

30.91

1046.7

31.41

1063.7

27.92

945.5

28.42

962.4

28.92

979.3

29.42

996.3

29.92

1013.2

30.42

1030.1

30.92

1047.1

31.42

1064.0

27.93

945.8

28.43

962.8

28.93

979.7

29.43

996.6

29.93

1013.5

30.43

1030.5

30.93

1047.4

31.43

1064.3

27.94

946.2

28.44

963.1

28.94

980.0

29.44

997.0

29.94

1013.9

30.44

1030.8

30.94

1047.7

31.44

1064.7

27.95

946.5

28.45

963.4

28.95

980.4

29.45

997.3

29.95

1014.2

30.45

1031.2

30.95

1048.1

31.45

1065.0

27.96

946.8

28.46

963.8

28.96

980.7

29.46

997.6

29.96

1014.6

30.46

1031.5

30.96

1044.4

31.46

1065.4

27.97

947.2

28.47

964.1

28.97

981.0

29.47

998.0

29.97

1014.9

30.47

1031.8

30.97

1048.8

31.47

1065.7

27.98

947.5

28.48

964.4

28.98

981.4

29.48

998.3

29.98

1015.2

30.48

1032.2

30.98

1049.1

31.48

1066.0

27.99

947.9

28.49

964.8

28.99

981.7

29.49

998.6

29.99

1015.6

30.49

1032.5

30.99

1049.4

31.49

1066.4

4-3-6. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS TRANSFER

Transfer radio communications by specifying the following:

a. The name of the facility to be contacted and the frequency.

PHRASEOLOGY-
CONTACT (name of facility) ON (frequency).

b. In situations where an aircraft will continue to communicate with your facility, use the following:

PHRASEOLOGY-
CONTACT (name of service) ON (frequency).

4-3-7. ATC CLEARANCES, ADVISORIES, OR REQUESTS

a. Notify ATC via interphone of a pilot's request for clearance and include the departure and destination airports and, if appropriate, departing runway and time in the request. Relay, verbatim, ATC clearances, advisories, and requests received from the control facility. Give a time check to the nearest quarter minute when relaying a clearance that includes a release or void time.

NOTE-
For ATC clearances, "verbatim" means exact control instructions in the format stated in FAA Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, Chapter 4, Section 2, Clearances, and Section 3, Departure Procedures.

PHRASEOLOGY-
Aircraft on the ground:

(Facility) RADIO, CLEARANCE REQUEST.

After go­ahead from ATC,

(Aircraft identification) DEPARTING (airport), RUNWAY (number if applicable) DESTINATION (fix or airport). (If applicable), CAN BE OFF AT (time).

Aircraft airborne:

(Facility) RADIO, CLEARANCE REQUEST.

After go­ahead from ATC:

(Aircraft identification), (position), (altitude), (route), AND (destination).

b. Prefix all ATC clearances, advisories, or requests with the appropriate phrase “A­T­C CLEARS,” “A­T­C ADVISES,” etc.

c. When issuing information, relaying clearances, or instructions, ensure acknowledgement by the pilot.

d. If altitude, heading, or other items are read back by the pilot, ensure the readback is correct. If incorrect or incomplete, make corrections as appropriate.

NOTE-
Pilots may acknowledge clearances, instructions, or information by using “Wilco,” “Roger,” “Affirmative,” or other appropriate words or remarks.

REFERENCE­
PCG.

4-3-8. DEPARTURE REPORTS

a. When an IFR aircraft reports airborne or is observed airborne, transmit the aircraft identification and departure time to the control facility from which the clearance was received.

PHRASEOLOGY-
(Facility) RADIO. DEPARTURE. (Aircraft identification), (time).

NOTE-
1. This includes known VFR departure times of aircraft which are to obtain IFR clearances when airborne.

2. The requirement for transmitting departure reports may be omitted if requested by the IFR control facility, provided the procedures are specified in a Letter of Agreement.

b. When an aircraft which has filed an IFR flight plan requests a VFR departure, facilitate the request as follows:

1. If the facility/sector responsible for issuing the clearance is unable to issue a clearance, inform the pilot and suggest that the delay be taken on the ground. If the pilot insists upon taking off VFR and obtaining an IFR clearance in the air, relay the pilot's intentions and, if possible, the VFR departure time to the facility/sector holding the flight plan.

2. After obtaining approval from the facility/sector responsible for issuing the IFR clearance, an aircraft planning IFR flight may be authorized to depart VFR. Inform the pilot of the proper frequency and, if appropriate, where or when to contact the facility responsible for issuing the clearance.

(a) When requesting:

PHRASEOLOGY-
(Facility) RADIO. (Aircraft identification), REQUEST V­F­R DEPARTURE.

(b) When relaying to aircraft:

PHRASEOLOGY-
A­T­C ADVISES (aircraft identification) V­F­R DEPARTURE APPROVED. CONTACT (facility) ON (frequency) AT (location or time, if required) FOR CLEARANCE.

(c) Relaying to control facility:

PHRASEOLOGY-
(Facility) RADIO. (Aircraft identification) DEPARTED V­F­R AT (time).

4-3-9. IFR FLIGHT PROGRESS REPORTS

Relay to the appropriate ATC facility the aircraft identification, position, time, altitude, estimate of next reporting point, name of subsequent reporting point, and any pilot remarks or requests including amended flight plan data.

PHRASEOLOGY-
(Facility) RADIO. PROGRESS. (Aircraft identification), (position), (altitude), (time) (name and estimate of next reporting point) (name of subsequent reporting point) (pilot's remarks).

4-3-10. ARRIVAL/MISSED APPROACH REPORTS

Relay to the appropriate ATC facility, by the most expeditious means available, the time that an IFR aircraft lands, cancels, or executes a missed approach, and intentions, if known.

4-3-11. NONDELIVERY OF MESSAGES

Inform ATC when a message has not been delivered within:

a. Three minutes of receipt; or

b. Three minutes after the specified delivery time; or

c. A specified cancellation time.

4-3-12. BROADCAST (BLIND TRANSMISSION) OF MESSAGES

Broadcast messages as requested by ATC. If no accompanying transmitting instructions are received, transmit the message four times:

a. Once upon receipt; and

b. At approximately 3­minute intervals thereafter.

4-3-13. PENETRATION OF CLASS A AIRSPACE OR PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED AREA

a. Penetration of Class A airspace. When a VFR aircraft's position report indicates penetration of Class A airspace:

1. Inform the pilot of the Class A airspace penetration and request intentions.

PHRASEOLOGY-
YOU ARE IN CLASS A AIRSPACE. AN A­T­C CLEARANCE IS REQUIRED. REQUEST YOUR INTENTIONS.

2. Inform the control facility immediately.

3. Relay ATC instructions.

b. Penetration of PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED AREA. When an aircraft report indicates penetration of a prohibited/restricted area:

1. Inform the pilot.

PHRASEOLOGY-
YOU ARE IN A PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED AREA, AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED. REQUEST YOUR INTENTIONS.

2. Inform the control facility immediately. Relay ATC instructions.

 
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