Section 5. Other Airspace Areas
3-5-1. Airport Advisory/Information
a. There are three advisory type services available
at selected airports.
1. Local Airport Advisory (LAA) service is
operated within 10 statute miles of an airport where
a control tower is not operating but where a FSS is
located on the airport. At such locations, the FSS
provides a complete local airport advisory service to
arriving and departing aircraft. During periods of fast
changing weather the FSS will automatically provide
Final Guard as part of the service from the time the
aircraft reports “on-final” or “taking-the-active-runway” until the aircraft reports “on-the-ground” or
Current policy, when requesting remote ATC services,
requires that a pilot monitor the automated weather
broadcast at the landing airport prior to requesting ATC
services. The FSS automatically provides Final Guard,
when appropriate, during LAA/Remote Airport Advisory
(RAA) operations. Final Guard is a value added
wind/altimeter monitoring service, which provides an
automatic wind and altimeter check during active weather
situations when the pilot reports on-final or taking the
active runway. During the landing or take-off operation
when the winds or altimeter are actively changing the FSS
will blind broadcast significant changes when the
specialist believes the change might affect the operation.
Pilots should acknowledge the first wind/altimeter check
but due to cockpit activity no acknowledgement is expected
for the blind broadcasts. It is prudent for a pilot to report
on-the-ground or airborne to end the service.
2. RAA service is operated within 10 statute
miles of specified high activity GA airports where a
control tower is not operating. Airports offering this
service are listed in the A/FD and the published
service hours may be changed by NOTAM D. Final
Guard is automatically provided with RAA.
3. Remote Airport Information Service (RAIS)
is provided in support of short term special events like
small to medium fly-ins. The service is advertised by
NOTAM D only. The FSS will not have access to a
continuous readout of the current winds and
altimeter; therefore, RAIS does not include weather
and/or Final Guard service. However, known traffic,
special event instructions, and all other services are
The airport authority and/or manager should request RAIS
support on official letterhead directly with the manager of
the FSS that will provide the service at least 60 days in
advance. Approval authority rests with the FSS manager
and is based on workload and resource availability.
AIM, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control
Towers, Paragraph 4-1-9.
b. It is not mandatory that pilots participate in the
Airport Advisory programs. Participation enhances
safety for everyone operating around busy GA
airports; therefore, everyone is encouraged to
participate and provide feedback that will help
improve the program.
3-5-2. Military Training Routes
a. National security depends largely on the
deterrent effect of our airborne military forces. To be
proficient, the military services must train in a wide
range of airborne tactics. One phase of this training
involves “low level” combat tactics. The required
maneuvers and high speeds are such that they may
occasionally make the see‐and‐avoid aspect of VFR
flight more difficult without increased vigilance in
areas containing such operations. In an effort to
ensure the greatest practical level of safety for all
flight operations, the Military Training Route (MTR)
program was conceived.
b. The MTR program is a joint venture by the FAA
and the Department of Defense (DOD). MTRs are
mutually developed for use by the military for the
purpose of conducting low‐altitude, high‐speed
training. The routes above 1,500 feet AGL are
developed to be flown, to the maximum extent
possible, under IFR. The routes at 1,500 feet AGL
and below are generally developed to be flown under
c. Generally, MTRs are established below
10,000 feet MSL for operations at speeds in excess of
250 knots. However, route segments may be defined
at higher altitudes for purposes of route continuity.
For example, route segments may be defined for
descent, climbout, and mountainous terrain. There
are IFR and VFR routes as follows:
1. IFR Military Training Routes-(IR).
Operations on these routes are conducted in
accordance with IFR regardless of weather
2. VFR Military Training Routes-(VR). Operations on these routes are conducted in
accordance with VFR except flight visibility must be
5 miles or more; and flights must not be conducted
below a ceiling of less than 3,000 feet AGL.
d. Military training routes will be identified and
charted as follows:
1. Route identification.
(a) MTRs with no segment above 1,500 feet
AGL must be identified by four number characters;
e.g., IR1206, VR1207.
(b) MTRs that include one or more segments
above 1,500 feet AGL must be identified by three
number characters; e.g., IR206, VR207.
(c) Alternate IR/VR routes or route segments
are identified by using the basic/principal route
designation followed by a letter suffix, e.g., IR008A,
2. Route charting.
(a) IFR Low Altitude En Route Chart. This
chart will depict all IR routes and all VR routes that
accommodate operations above 1,500 feet AGL.
(b) VFR Sectional Charts. These charts
will depict military training activities such as IR, VR,
MOA, Restricted Area, Warning Area, and Alert
(c) Area Planning (AP/1B) Chart (DOD
Flight Information Publication-FLIP). This chart
is published by the DOD primarily for military users
and contains detailed information on both IR and VR
AIM, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Products,
Paragraph 9-1-5, Subparagraph a.
e. The FLIP contains charts and narrative
descriptions of these routes. This publication is
available to the general public by single copy or
annual subscription from:
Aeronautical Navigation Products (AeroNav)
Federal Aviation Administration
10201 Good Luck Road
Glenn Dale, MD 20769-9700
Toll free phone: 1-800-638-8972
This DOD FLIP is available for pilot briefings at FSS
and many airports.
f. Nonparticipating aircraft are not prohibited
from flying within an MTR; however, extreme
vigilance should be exercised when conducting flight
through or near these routes. Pilots should contact
FSSs within 100 NM of a particular MTR to obtain
current information or route usage in their vicinity.
Information available includes times of scheduled
activity, altitudes in use on each route segment, and
actual route width. Route width varies for each MTR
and can extend several miles on either side of the
charted MTR centerline. Route width information for
IR and VR MTRs is also available in the FLIP AP/1B
along with additional MTR (slow routes/air refueling
routes) information. When requesting MTR information, pilots should give the FSS their position, route
of flight, and destination in order to reduce frequency
congestion and permit the FSS specialist to identify
the MTR which could be a factor.
3-5-3. Temporary Flight Restrictions
a. General. This paragraph describes the types of
conditions under which the FAA may impose
temporary flight restrictions. It also explains which
FAA elements have been delegated authority to issue
a temporary flight restrictions NOTAM and lists the
types of responsible agencies/offices from which the
FAA will accept requests to establish temporary
flight restrictions. The 14 CFR is explicit as to what
operations are prohibited, restricted, or allowed in a
temporary flight restrictions area. Pilots are responsible to comply with 14 CFR Sections 91.137, 91.138,
91.141 and 91.143 when conducting flight in an area
where a temporary flight restrictions area is in effect,
and should check appropriate NOTAMs during flight
b. The purpose for establishing a temporary
flight restrictions area is to:
1. Protect persons and property in the air or on
the surface from an existing or imminent hazard
associated with an incident on the surface when the
presence of low flying aircraft would magnify, alter,
spread, or compound that hazard (14 CFR
2. Provide a safe environment for the operation
of disaster relief aircraft (14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2)); or
3. Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing
aircraft above an incident or event which may
generate a high degree of public interest (14 CFR
4. Protect declared national disasters for
humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14 CFR
5. Protect the President, Vice President, or other
public figures (14 CFR Section 91.141).
6. Provide a safe environment for space agency
operations (14 CFR Section 91.143).
c. Except for hijacking situations, when the
provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) or (a)(2)
are necessary, a temporary flight restrictions area will
only be established by or through the area manager at
the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)
having jurisdiction over the area concerned. A
temporary flight restrictions NOTAM involving the
conditions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) will be
issued at the direction of the service area office
director having oversight of the airspace concerned.
When hijacking situations are involved, a temporary
flight restrictions area will be implemented through
the TSA Aviation Command Center. The appropriate
FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a
request, will establish a temporary flight restrictions
area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1).
d. The FAA accepts recommendations for the
establishment of a temporary flight restrictions area
under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military
major command headquarters, regional directors of
the Office of Emergency Planning, Civil Defense
State Directors, State Governors, or other similar
authority. For the situations involving 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(2), the FAA accepts recommendations from military commanders serving as regional,
subregional, or Search and Rescue (SAR) coordinators; by military commanders directing or
coordinating air operations associated with disaster
relief; or by civil authorities directing or coordinating
organized relief air operations (includes representatives of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S.
Forest Service, and State aeronautical agencies).
Appropriate authorities for a temporary flight
restrictions establishment under 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those listed above or
by State, county, or city government entities.
e. The type of restrictions issued will be kept to a
minimum by the FAA consistent with achievement of
the necessary objective. Situations which warrant the
extreme restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1)
include, but are not limited to: toxic gas leaks or
spills, flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by
rotor or propeller wash could endanger persons or
property on the surface, or if entered by an aircraft
could endanger persons or property in the air;
imminent volcano eruptions which could endanger
airborne aircraft and occupants; nuclear accident or
incident; and hijackings. Situations which warrant
the restrictions associated with 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) include: forest fires which are
being fought by releasing fire retardants from
aircraft; and aircraft relief activities following a
disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.). 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for
events and incidents that would attract an unsafe
congestion of sightseeing aircraft.
f. The amount of airspace needed to protect
persons and property or provide a safe environment
for rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally
limited to within 2,000 feet above the surface and
within a 3-nautical-mile radius. Incidents occurring
within Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace will
normally be handled through existing procedures and
should not require the issuance of a temporary flight
restrictions NOTAM. Temporary flight restrictions
affecting airspace outside of the U.S. and its
territories and possessions are issued with verbiage
excluding that airspace outside of the 12-mile coastal
g. The FSS nearest the incident site is normally the
“coordination facility.” When FAA communications
assistance is required, the designated FSS will
function as the primary communications facility for
coordination between emergency control authorities
and affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison
for the emergency control authorities if adequate
communications cannot be established between the
designated FSS and the relief organization. For
example, the coordination facility may relay
authorizations from the on‐scene emergency response official in cases where news media aircraft
operations are approved at the altitudes used by relief
h. ATC may authorize operations in a temporary
flight restrictions area under its own authority only
when flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate
ARTCC/airport traffic control tower manager will,
however, ensure that such authorized flights do not
hamper activities or interfere with the event for which
restrictions were implemented. However, ATC will
not authorize local IFR flights into the temporary
flight restrictions area.
i. To preclude misunderstanding, the implementing NOTAM will contain specific and formatted
information. The facility establishing a temporary
flight restrictions area will format a NOTAM
beginning with the phrase “FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS” followed by: the location of the temporary
flight restrictions area; the effective period; the area
defined in statute miles; the altitudes affected; the
FAA coordination facility and commercial telephone
number; the reason for the temporary flight
restrictions; the agency directing any relief activities
and its commercial telephone number; and other
information considered appropriate by the issuing
1. 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1):
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft operations
except those specified in the NOTAM.
Flight restrictions Matthews, Virginia, effective immediately until 9610211200. Pursuant to 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(1) temporary flight restrictions are in
effect. Rescue operations in progress. Only relief aircraft
operations under the direction of the Department of
Defense are authorized in the airspace at and below
5,000 feet MSL within a 2-nautical-mile radius of Laser
AFB, Matthews, Virginia. Commander, Laser AFB, in
charge (897) 946-5543 (122.4). Steenson FSS
(792) 555-6141 (123.1) is the FAA coordination facility.
2. 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2):
The following NOTAM permits flight operations in
accordance with 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2). The on‐site
emergency response official to authorize media aircraft
operations below the altitudes used by the relief aircraft.
Flight restrictions 25 miles east of Bransome, Idaho,
effective immediately until 9601202359 UTC. Pursuant to
14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) temporary flight restrictions
are in effect within a 4-nautical-mile radius of the
intersection of county roads 564 and 315 at and below
3,500 feet MSL to provide a safe environment for fire
fighting aircraft operations. Davis County sheriff's
department (792) 555-8122 (122.9) is in charge of
on‐scene emergency response activities. Glivings FSS
(792) 555-1618 (122.2) is the FAA coordination facility.
3. 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3):
The following NOTAM prohibits sightseeing aircraft
Flight restrictions Brown, Tennessee, due to olympic
activity. Effective 9606181100 UTC until 9607190200
UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) temporary
flight restrictions are in effect within a 3-nautical-mile
radius of N355783/W835242 and Volunteer VORTAC 019
degree radial 3.7 DME fix at and below 2,500 feet MSL.
Norton FSS (423) 555-6742 (126.6) is the FAA
4. 14 CFR Section 91.138:
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft except those
operating under the authorization of the official in charge
of associated emergency or disaster relief response
activities, aircraft carrying law enforcement officials,
aircraft carrying personnel involved in an emergency or
legitimate scientific purposes, carrying properly accredited news media, and aircraft operating in accordance with
an ATC clearance or instruction.
Flight restrictions Kapalua, Hawaii, effective 9605101200
UTC until 9605151500 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR
Section 91.138 temporary flight restrictions are in effect
within a 3-nautical-mile radius of N205778/W1564038
and Maui/OGG/VORTAC 275 degree radial at 14.1
nautical miles. John Doe 808-757-4469 or 122.4 is in
charge of the operation. Honolulu/HNL 808-757-4470
(123.6) FSS is the FAA coordination facility.
5. 14 CFR Section 91.141:
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft.
Flight restrictions Stillwater, Oklahoma, June 21, 1996.
Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.141 aircraft flight
operations are prohibited within a 3-nautical-mile radius,
below 2000 feet AGL of N360962/W970515 and the
Stillwater/SWO/VOR/DME 176 degree radial 3.8-nautical-mile fix from 1400 local time to 1700 local time
June 21, 1996, unless otherwise authorized by ATC.
6. 14 CFR Section 91.143:
The following NOTAM prohibits any aircraft of U.S.
registry, or pilot any aircraft under the authority of an
airman certificate issued by the FAA.
Kennedy space center space operations area effective
immediately until 9610152100 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR
Section 91.143, flight operations conducted by FAA
certificated pilots or conducted in aircraft of U.S. registry
are prohibited at any altitude from surface to unlimited,
within the following area 30-nautical-mile radius of the
Melbourne/MLB/VORTAC 010 degree radial 21-nautical-mile fix. St. Petersburg, Florida/PIE/FSS
813-545-1645 (122.2) is the FAA coordination facility and
should be contacted for the current status of any airspace
associated with the space shuttle operations. This airspace
encompasses R2933, R2932, R2931, R2934, R2935,
W497A and W158A. Additional warning and restricted
areas will be active in conjunction with the operations.
Pilots must consult all NOTAMs regarding this operation.
3-5-4. Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations
a. Procedures relating to parachute jump areas are
contained in 14 CFR Part 105. Tabulations of
parachute jump areas in the U.S. are contained in the
b. Pilots of aircraft engaged in parachute jump
operations are reminded that all reported altitudes
must be with reference to mean sea level, or flight
level, as appropriate, to enable ATC to provide
meaningful traffic information.
c. Parachute operations in the vicinity of an airport
without an operating control tower - there is no
substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of an
airport. It is essential that pilots conducting parachute
operations be alert, look for other traffic, and
exchange traffic information as recommended in
paragraph 4-1-9, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers. In
addition, pilots should avoid releasing parachutes
while in an airport traffic pattern when there are other
aircraft in that pattern. Pilots should make
appropriate broadcasts on the designated Common
Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF), and monitor
that CTAF until all parachute activity has terminated
or the aircraft has left the area. Prior to commencing
a jump operation, the pilot should broadcast the
aircraft's altitude and position in relation to the
airport, the approximate relative time when the jump
will commence and terminate, and listen to the
position reports of other aircraft in the area.
3-5-5. Published VFR Routes
Published VFR routes for transitioning around, under
and through complex airspace such as Class B
airspace were developed through a number of FAA
and industry initiatives. All of the following terms,
i.e., “VFR Flyway” “VFR Corridor” and “Class B
Airspace VFR Transition Route” have been used
when referring to the same or different types of routes
or airspace. The following paragraphs identify and
clarify the functionality of each type of route, and
specify where and when an ATC clearance is
a. VFR Flyways.
1. VFR Flyways and their associated Flyway
Planning Charts were developed from the recommendations of a National Airspace Review Task Group.
A VFR Flyway is defined as a general flight path not
defined as a specific course, for use by pilots in
planning flights into, out of, through or near complex
terminal airspace to avoid Class B airspace. An ATC
clearance is NOT required to fly these routes.
VFR Flyway Planning Chart
2. VFR Flyways are depicted on the reverse side
of some of the VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC),
commonly referred to as Class B airspace charts. (See
FIG 3-5-1.) Eventually all TACs will include a VFR
Flyway Planning Chart. These charts identify VFR
flyways designed to help VFR pilots avoid major
controlled traffic flows. They may further depict
multiple VFR routings throughout the area which
may be used as an alternative to flight within Class B
airspace. The ground references provide a guide for
improved visual navigation. These routes are not
intended to discourage requests for VFR operations
within Class B airspace but are designed solely to
assist pilots in planning for flights under and around
busy Class B airspace without actually entering
Class B airspace.
3. It is very important to remember that these
suggested routes are not sterile of other traffic. The
entire Class B airspace, and the airspace underneath
it, may be heavily congested with many different
types of aircraft. Pilot adherence to VFR rules must
be exercised at all times. Further, when operating
beneath Class B airspace, communications must be
established and maintained between your aircraft and
any control tower while transiting the Class B,
Class C, and Class D surface areas of those airports
under Class B airspace.
b. VFR Corridors.
1. The design of a few of the first Class B
airspace areas provided a corridor for the passage of
uncontrolled traffic. A VFR corridor is defined as
airspace through Class B airspace, with defined
vertical and lateral boundaries, in which aircraft may
operate without an ATC clearance or communication
with air traffic control.
2. These corridors are, in effect, a “hole”
through Class B airspace. (See FIG 3-5-2.) A classic
example would be the corridor through the Los
Angeles Class B airspace, which has been subsequently changed to Special Flight Rules airspace
(SFR). A corridor is surrounded on all sides by
Class B airspace and does not extend down to the
surface like a VFR Flyway. Because of their finite
lateral and vertical limits, and the volume of VFR
traffic using a corridor, extreme caution and vigilance
must be exercised.
3. Because of the heavy traffic volume and the
procedures necessary to efficiently manage the flow
of traffic, it has not been possible to incorporate VFR
corridors in the development or modifications of
Class B airspace in recent years.
c. Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes.
1. To accommodate VFR traffic through certain
Class B airspace, such as Seattle, Phoenix and
Los Angeles, Class B Airspace VFR Transition
Routes were developed. A Class B Airspace VFR
Transition Route is defined as a specific flight course
depicted on a TAC for transiting a specific Class B
airspace. These routes include specific ATC‐assigned
altitudes, and pilots must obtain an ATC clearance
prior to entering Class B airspace on the route.
2. These routes, as depicted in FIG 3-5-3, are
designed to show the pilot where to position the
aircraft outside of, or clear of, the Class B airspace
where an ATC clearance can normally be expected
with minimal or no delay. Until ATC authorization is
received, pilots must remain clear of Class B
airspace. On initial contact, pilots should advise ATC
of their position, altitude, route name desired, and
direction of flight. After a clearance is received, pilots
must fly the route as depicted and, most importantly,
adhere to ATC instructions.
VFR Transition Route
3-5-6. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)
a. Background. TRSAs were originally established as part of the Terminal Radar Program at
selected airports. TRSAs were never controlled
airspace from a regulatory standpoint because the
establishment of TRSAs was never subject to the
rulemaking process; consequently, TRSAs are not
contained in 14 CFR Part 71 nor are there any TRSA
operating rules in 14 CFR Part 91. Part of the Airport
Radar Service Area (ARSA) program was to
eventually replace all TRSAs. However, the ARSA
requirements became relatively stringent and it was
subsequently decided that TRSAs would have to
meet ARSA criteria before they would be converted.
TRSAs do not fit into any of the U.S. airspace classes;
therefore, they will continue to be non-Part 71
airspace areas where participating pilots can receive
additional radar services which have been redefined
as TRSA Service.
b. TRSAs. The primary airport(s) within the
TRSA become(s) Class D airspace. The remaining
portion of the TRSA overlies other controlled
airspace which is normally Class E airspace
beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and established to
transition to/from the en route/terminal environment.
c. Participation. Pilots operating under VFR are
encouraged to contact the radar approach control and
avail themselves of the TRSA Services. However,
participation is voluntary on the part of the pilot. See
Chapter 4, Air Traffic Control, for
details and procedures.
d. Charts. TRSAs are depicted on VFR sectional
and terminal area charts with a solid black line and
altitudes for each segment. The Class D portion is
charted with a blue segmented line.