U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Air Traffic Organization Policy

ORDER
JO 7110.65
U
Effective Date:
February 9, 2012
 
     
Subject:  Air Traffic Control
     Includes:  Change 1 effective 7/26/12, Errata to Change 1 effective 7/26/12,
    Change 2 effective 3/7/13, and Errata to Change 2 effective 3/7/13.
    Change 3 effective 8/22/13.
 

Section 2. Terms of Reference

1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

As used in this order:

a. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.

b. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.

c. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.

d. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.

e. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.

f. Singular words include the plural.

g. Plural words include the singular.

h. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.

i. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.

j. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.

k. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.

l. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.

m. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.

n. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms – Runway and Helipad.)

o. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:

1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and

2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and

3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:

(a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or

(b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or

(c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or

(d) Operate within Class G airspace.

(e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.

NOTE-
1. A pilot's use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.

2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.

p. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.

FIG 1-2-1
Divergence

atc0102_At Anchor0

1-2-2. COURSE DEFINITIONS

The following definitions must be used in the application of the separation criteria in this order.

NOTE-
The term “protected airspace,” as used in this paragraph, is the airspace equal to one half the required applicable lateral separation on either side of an aircraft along its projected flight path. If the protected airspace of two aircraft does not overlap, applicable lateral separation is ensured.

a. SAME COURSES are courses whose protected airspaces are coincident, overlap, or intersect and whose angular difference is less than 45 degrees. (See FIG 1-2-1.)

b. CROSSING COURSES are intersecting courses whose angular difference is 45 through 135 degrees inclusive. (See FIG 1-2-1.)

c. OPPOSITE/RECIPROCAL COURSES are courses whose protected airspaces are coincident, overlap, or intersect and whose angular difference is greater than 135 degrees through 180 degrees inclusive. (See FIG 1-2-1.)

1-2-3. NOTES

Statements of fact, or of a prefatory or explanatory nature relating to directive material, are set forth as notes.

1-2-4. REFERENCES

As used in this order, references direct attention to an additional or supporting source of information such as FAA, NWS, and other agencies' orders, directives, notices, CFRs, and Advisory Circulars (ACs).

1-2-5. ANNOTATIONS

Revised, reprinted, or new pages are marked as follows:

a. The change number and the effective date are printed on each revised or additional page.

b. A page that does not require a change is reprinted in its original form.

c. Bold vertical lines in the margin of changed pages indicate the location of substantive revisions to the order. Bold vertical lines adjacent to the title of a chapter, section, or paragraph means that extensive changes have been made to that chapter, section, or paragraph.

d. Paragraphs/sections annotated with EN ROUTE, OCEANIC, or TERMINAL are only to be applied by the designated type facility. When they are not so designated, the paragraphs/sections apply to all types of facilities (en route, oceanic, and terminal).

e. The annotation, USAF for the U.S. Air Force, USN for the U.S. Navy, and USA for the U.S. Army denotes that the procedure immediately following the annotation applies only to the designated service.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-12, Military Procedures.

f. WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION inserted within a paragraph means that the remaining information in the paragraph requires the application of wake turbulence procedures.

g. The annotation PHRASEOLOGY denotes the prescribed words and/or phrases to be used in communications.

NOTE-
Controllers may, after first using the prescribed phraseology for a specific procedure, rephrase the message to ensure the content is understood. Good judgment must be exercised when using nonstandard phraseology.

h. The annotation EXAMPLE provides a sample of the way the prescribed phraseology associated with the preceding paragraph(s) will be used. If the preceding paragraph(s) does (do) not include specific prescribed phraseology, the EXAMPLE merely denotes suggested words and/or phrases that may be used in communications.

NOTE-
The use of the exact text contained in an example not preceded with specific prescribed phraseology is not mandatory. However, the words and/or phrases are expected, to the extent practical, to approximate those used in the example.

1-2-6. ABBREVIATIONS

As used in this manual, the following abbreviations have the meanings indicated. (See TBL 1-2-1.)

TBL 1-2-1
FAA Order JO 7110.65 Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

AAR

Airport acceptance rate

AC

Advisory Circular

ACC

Area Control Center

ACD

ARTS Color Display

ACE-IDS

ASOS Controller Equipment- Information Display System

ACL

Aircraft list

ACLS

Automatic Carrier Landing System

ADC

Aerospace Defense Command

ADIZ

Air Defense Identification Zone (to be pronounced “AY DIZ”)

ADS

Automatic Dependent Surveillance

ADS-B

Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast

ADS-C

Automatic Dependent Surveillance Contract

AFP

Airspace Flow Program

AFSS

Automated Flight Service Station

AIDC

ATS Interfacility Data Communications

AIM

Aeronautical Information Manual

AIRMET

Airmen's meteorological information

ALERFA

Alert phase code (Alerting Service)

ALNOT

Alert notice

ALS

Approach Light System

ALTRV

Altitude reservation

AMASS

Airport Movement Area Safety System

AMB

Ambiguity-A disparity greater than 2 miles exists between the position declared for a target by ATTS and another facility's computer declared position during interfacility handoff

AMVER

Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System

ANG

Air National Guard

APR

ATC preferred route

APREQ

Approval Request

ARINC

Aeronautical Radio Incorporated

ARIP

Air refueling initial point

ARSR

Air route surveillance radar

ARTCC

Air Route Traffic Control Center

ARTS

Automated Radar Terminal System

ASD

Aircraft Situation Display

ASDE

Airport surface detection equipment

ASDE-X

Airport Surface Detection Equipment System - Model X

ASF

Airport Stream Filters

ASOS

Automated Surface Observing System

ASR

Airport surveillance radar

ATC

Air traffic control

ATCAA

ATC assigned airspace

ATCSCC

David J. Hurley Air Traffic Control System Command Center

ATD

Along-Track Distance

ATIS

Automatic Terminal Information Service

ATO

Air Traffic Organization

ATO COO

Air Traffic Organization Chief Operating Officer

ATS

Air Traffic Service

AWOS

Automated Weather Observing System

BAASS

Bigelow Aerospace Advanced Space Studies

BASE

Cloud base

CA

Conflict Alert

CARCAH

Chief, Aerial Reconnaissance Coordination, All Hurricanes

CARF

Central Altitude Reservation Function

CARTS

Common ARTS

CAT

Clear air turbulence

CDT

Controlled departure time

CENRAP

Center Radar ARTS Presentation

CEP

Central East Pacific

CERAP

Combined Center/RAPCON

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CFR Call for Release

CIC

Controller-in-Charge

CNS

Continuous

CPDLC

Controller Pilot Data Link Communications

CPME

Calibration Performance Monitor Equipment

CTA

Control Area

CTRD

Certified Tower Radar Display

CVFP

Charted Visual Flight Procedure

CWA

Center Weather Advisory

DARC

Direct Access Radar Channel

DETRESFA

Distress Phase code (Alerting Service)

DH

Decision height

DL

Departure List

DME

Distance measuring equipment compatible with TACAN

DOE

Department of Energy

DP

Instrument Departure Procedure

DR

Dead reckoning

DRT

Diversion recovery tool

DSR

Display System Replacement

DTAS

Digital Terminal Automation Systems

DTM

Digital Terrain Map

DVFR

Defense Visual Flight Rules

DVRSN

Diversion

EA

Electronic Attack

EAS

En Route Automation System

EDCT

Expect Departure Clearance Time

EFC

Expect further clearance

ELP

Emergency Landing Pattern

ELT

Emergency locator transmitter

EOS

End Service

EOVM

Emergency obstruction video map

ERIDS

En Route Information Display System

ETA

Estimated time of arrival

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FAAO

FAA Order

FANS

Future Air Navigation System

FDIO

Flight Data Input/Output

FDP

Flight data processing

FIR

Flight Information Region

FL

Flight level

FLIP

Flight Information Publication

FLM

Front-Line Manager

FLY

Fly or flying

FMS

Flight Management System

FMSP

Flight Management System Procedure

FSM

Flight Schedule Monitor

FSS

Flight Service Station

GCA

Ground controlled approach

GNSS

Global Navigation Satellite System

GPD

Graphics Plan Display

GPS

Global Positioning System

GS

Ground stop

HAR

High Altitude Redesign

HERT

Host Embedded Route Text

HF/RO

High Frequency/Radio Operator

HIRL

High intensity runway lights

IAFDOF

Inappropriate Altitude for Direction of Flight

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

IDENT

Aircraft identification

IDS

Information Display System

IFR

Instrument flight rules

IFSS

International Flight Service Station

ILS

Instrument Landing System

INCERFA

Uncertainty Phase code (Alerting Service)

INREQ

Information request

INS

Inertial Navigation System

IR

IFR military training route

IRU

Inertial Reference Unit

ITWS

Integrated Terminal Weather System

JATO

Jet assisted takeoff

LAHSO

Land and Hold Short Operations

LOA

Letter of Agreement

LLWAS

Low Level Wind Shear Alert System

LLWAS NE

Low Level Wind Shear Alert System Network Expansion

LLWAS-RS

Low Level Wind Shear Alert System Relocation/Sustainment

LLWS

Low Level Wind Shear

L/MF

Low/medium frequency

LORAN

Long Range Navigation System

Mach

Mach number

MALS

Medium Intensity Approach Light System

MALSR

Medium Approach Light System with runway alignment indicator lights

MAP

Missed approach point

MARSA

Military authority assumes responsibility for separation of aircraft

MCA

Minimum crossing altitude

MCI

Mode C Intruder

MDA

Minimum descent altitude

MDM

Main display monitor

MEA

Minimum en route (IFR) altitude

MEARTS

Micro En Route Automated Radar Tracking System

METAR

Aviation Routine Weather Report

MIA

Minimum IFR altitude

MIAWS

Medium Intensity Airport Weather System

MIRL

Medium intensity runway lights

MLS

Microwave Landing System

MNPS

Minimum Navigation Performance Specification

MNT

Mach Number Technique

MOA

Military operations area

MOCA

Minimum obstruction clearance altitude

MRA

Minimum reception altitude

MSAW

Minimum Safe Altitude Warning

MSL

Mean sea level

MTI

Moving target indicator

MTR

Military training route

MVA

Minimum vectoring altitude

NADIN

National Airspace Data Interchange Network

NAR

National Automation Request

NAS

National Airspace System

NAT

ICAO North Atlantic Region

NBCAP

National Beacon Code Allocation Plan

NDB

Nondirectional radio beacon

NHOP

National Hurricane Operations Plan

NM

Nautical mile

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOPAC

North Pacific

NORAD

North American Aerospace Defense Command

NOS

National Ocean Service

NOTAM

Notice to Airmen

NRP

North American Route Program

NRR

Nonrestrictive Route

NRS

Navigation Reference System

NTZ

No transgression zone

NWS

National Weather Service

NWSOP

National Winter Storm Operations Plan

ODALS

Omnidirectional Approach Lighting System

ODP

Obstacle Departure Procedure

OID

Operator Interface Device

ONER

Oceanic Navigational Error Report

OS

Operations Supervisor

OTR

Oceanic transition route

PAPI

Precision Approach Path Indicators

PAR

Precision approach radar

PAR

Preferred arrival route

PBCT

Proposed boundary crossing time

P/CG

Pilot/Controller Glossary

PDAR

Preferential departure arrival route

PDC

Pre-Departure Clearance

PDR

Preferential departure route

PIDP

Programmable indicator data processor

PPI

Plan position indicator

PTP

Point-to-point

PVD

Plan view display

RA

Radar Associate

RAIL

Runway alignment indicator lights

RAPCON

Radar Approach Control Facility (USAF)

RATCF

Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (USN)

RBS

Radar bomb scoring

RCC

Rescue Coordination Center

RCLS

Runway Centerline System

RCR

Runway condition reading

RDP

Radar data processing

RE

Recent (used to qualify weather phenomena such as rain, e.g. recent rain = RERA)

REIL

Runway end identifier lights

RNAV

Area navigation

RNP

Required Navigation Performance

RTQC

Real-Time Quality Control

RVR

Runway visual range

RVSM

Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum

RVV

Runway visibility value

SAA

Special Activity Airspace

SAR

Search and rescue

SATCOM

Satellite Communication

SELCAL

Selective Calling System

SFA

Single frequency approach

SFO

Simulated flameout

SID

Standard Instrument Departure

SIGMET

Significant meteorological information

SPA

Special Posting Area

SPECI

Nonroutine (Special) Aviation Weather Report

STAR

Standard terminal arrival

STARS

Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System

STMC

Supervisory Traffic Management Coordinator

STMCIC

Supervisory Traffic Management Coordinator-in-charge

STOL

Short takeoff and landing

SURPIC

Surface Picture

SVFR

Special Visual Flight Rules

TAA

Terminal arrival area

TAS

Terminal Automation Systems

TACAN

TACAN UHF navigational aid (omnidirectional course and distance information)

TAWS

Terrain Awareness Warning System

TCAS

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System

TCDD

Tower cab digital display

TDLS

Terminal Data Link System

TDW

Tower display workstation

TDWR

Terminal Doppler Weather Radar

TDZL

Touchdown Zone Light System

TFMS

Traffic Flow Management System

TMC

Traffic Management Coordinator

TMU

Traffic Management Unit

TRACON

Terminal Radar Approach Control

TRSA

Terminal radar service area

UFO

Unidentified flying object

UHF

Ultra high frequency

URET

User request evaluation tool

USA

United States Army

USAF

United States Air Force

USN

United States Navy

UTC

Coordinated universal time

UTM

Unsuccessful transmission message

UUA

Urgent pilot weather report

VFR

Visual flight rules

VHF

Very high frequency

VMC

Visual meteorological conditions

VNAV

Vertical Navigation

VOR

VHF navigational aid (omnidirectional course information)

VOR/DME

Collocated VOR and DME navigational aids (VHF course and UHF distance information)

VORTAC

Collocated VOR and TACAN navigation aids (VHF and UHF course and UHF distance information)

VR

VFR military training route

VSCS

Voice Switching and Control System

WAAS

Wide Area Augmentation System

WARP

Weather and Radar Processing

WATRS

West Atlantic Route System

WSO

Weather Service Office

WSP

Weather System Processor

WST

Convective SIGMET

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