U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Air Traffic Organization Policy

ORDER
JO 7110.65V
Effective Date:
April 3, 2014
 
     
Subject:  Air Traffic Control
Includes: Change 1 dated 7/24/14 with Errata

Section 7. Taxi and Ground Movement Procedures

3-7-1. GROUND TRAFFIC MOVEMENT

Issue by radio or directional light signals specific instructions which approve or disapprove the movement of aircraft, vehicles, equipment, or personnel on the movement area except where permitted in an LOA.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4-3-1, Letters of Agreement
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 4-3-2, Appropriate Subjects

a. Do not issue conditional instructions that are dependent upon the movement of an arrival aircraft on or approaching the runway or a departure aircraft established on a takeoff roll. Do not say, “Line up and wait behind landing traffic,” or “Taxi/proceed across Runway Three-Six behind departing/landing Citation.” The above requirements do not preclude issuing instructions to follow an aircraft observed to be operating on the movement area in accordance with an ATC clearance/instruction and in such a manner that the instructions to follow are not ambiguous.

b. Do not issue unconditional instructions when authorizing movement on a runway/taxiway for the purpose of airfield checks or other airport operations. Instructions must ensure positive control with specific instructions to proceed on a runway or movement area, and as necessary, hold short instructions.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-3, USE OF ACTIVE RUNWAYS
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-2, TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT OPERATIONS

EXAMPLE-
“Airport 1, proceed on Runway 26R, hold short of Runway 18L.”

“(Tower), Airport 1 at taxiway B8, request to inspect Runway 26R.” “Airport 1 proceed as requested, hold short of Runway 18L.”

“Airport 1 proceed on taxi way B, hold short of Runway 18L.”

NOTE-
The following are examples of unconditional instructions and are not approved for use: “THE FIELD IS YOURS,” “CLEARED ON ALL SURFACES,” “THE AIRPORT IS YOURS,” and “PROCEED ON ALL RUNWAYS AND TAXIWAYS.”

c. Do not use the word “cleared” in conjunction with authorization for aircraft to taxi or equipment/vehicle/personnel operations. Use the prefix “taxi,” “proceed,” or “hold,” as appropriate, for aircraft instructions and “proceed” or “hold” for equipment/vehicles/personnel.

d. Intersection departures may be initiated by a controller or a controller may authorize an intersection departure if a pilot requests. Issue the measured distance from the intersection to the runway end rounded “down” to the nearest 50 feet to any pilot who requests and to all military aircraft, unless use of the intersection is covered in appropriate directives.

NOTE-
1. Exceptions are authorized where specific military aircraft routinely make intersection takeoffs and procedures are defined in appropriate directives. The authority exercising operational control of such aircraft ensures that all pilots are thoroughly familiar with these procedures, including the usable runway length from the applicable intersection.

2. Some airports publish “declared distances” for a particular runway. These are published in the Airport Facility Directory (A/FD) or the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) and there is no requirement that facility personnel be aware of them. These distances are a means of satisfying airport design criteria and are intended to be used by pilots and/or operators for preflight performance planning only. There are no special markings, signing, or lighting associated with declared distances and they do not limit the actual runway available for use by an aircraft. Therefore, they cannot be used for any air traffic control purpose. If pilots inquire about the existence of declared distances, refer them to the A/FD or AIP.

PHRASEOLOGY-
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator) INTERSECTION DEPARTURE (remaining length) FEET AVAILABLE.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW).

e.    Do not use the term “full length” when the runway length available for departures has been temporarily shortened.  On permanently shortened runways, do not use the term “full length” until the Airport/Facility Directory is updated to include the change(s).

REFERENCE
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-11, Airport Construction
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Change in Runway Length Due to Construction

3-7-2. TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT OPERATIONS

Issue the route for the aircraft/vehicle to follow on the movement area in concise and easy to understand terms. The taxi clearance must include the specific route to follow. When a taxi clearance to a runway is issued to an aircraft, confirm the aircraft has the correct runway assignment.

NOTE-
1. A pilot's read back of taxi instructions with the runway assignment can be considered confirmation of runway assignment.

2. Movement of aircraft or vehicles on nonmovement areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator, or the airport management.

a. When authorizing an aircraft/vehicle to proceed on the movement area or to any point other than assigned takeoff runway, specify the route/taxi instructions. If it is the intent to hold the aircraft/vehicle short of any given point along the taxi route, issue the route and then state the holding instructions.

NOTE-
1. The absence of holding instructions authorizes an aircraft/vehicle to cross all taxiways that intersect the taxi route.

2. Movement of aircraft or vehicles on non-movement areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator, or the airport management.

PHRASEOLOGY-
HOLD POSITION.

HOLD FOR (reason)

CROSS (runway/taxiway)

or

TAXI/CONTINUE TAXIING/PROCEED/VIA (route),

or

ON (runway number or taxiways, etc.),

or

TO (location),

or

(direction),

or

ACROSS RUNWAY (number).

or

VIA (route), HOLD SHORT OF (location)

or

FOLLOW (traffic) (restrictions as necessary)

or

BEHIND (traffic).

EXAMPLE-
“Cross Runway Two-Eight Left, hold short of Runway Two-Eight Right.”

“Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed to the hangar.”

“Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed straight ahead then via ramp to the hangar.”

“Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed on Taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway Two-Seven.”

or

“Taxi/continue taxing/proceed on Charlie, hold short of Runway Two-Seven.”

b. When authorizing an aircraft to taxi to an assigned takeoff runway, state the departure runway followed by the specific taxi route. Issue hold short restrictions when an aircraft will be required to hold short of a runway or other points along the taxi route.

NOTE-
If the specific taxi route ends into a connecting taxiway with the same identifier (for example, taxiway “A” connects with Taxiway “A1”) at the approach end of the runway, the connecting taxiway may be omitted from the clearance.

PHRASEOLOGY-
Runway (number), taxi via (route as necessary).

or

Runway (number), taxi via (route as necessary)(hold short instructions as necessary).”

EXAMPLE-
“Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via taxiway Alpha, hold short of taxiway Charlie.”

or

“Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via Alpha, hold short of Charlie.”

or

“Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via taxiway Alpha, hold short of Runway Two-Seven Right.”

or

“Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via Charlie, cross Runway Two-Seven Left, hold short of Runway Two-Seven Right.”

or

“Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via Alpha, Charlie, cross Runway One-Zero.”

c. Aircraft/vehicles must receive a clearance for each runway their route crosses. An aircraft/vehicle must have crossed a previous runway before another runway crossing clearance may be issued.

NOTE-
A clearance is required for aircraft/vehicles to operate on any active, inactive, or closed runway except for vehicles operating on closed runways in accordance with a Letter of Agreement (LOA).

EXAMPLE-
“Cross Runway One-Six Left, hold short of Runway One-Six Right.”

d. When an aircraft/vehicle is instructed to “follow” traffic and requires a runway crossing, issue a runway crossing clearance in addition to the follow instructions and/or hold short instructions, as applicable.

EXAMPLE-
“Follow (traffic), cross Runway Two-Seven Right.”

or

“Follow (traffic), cross Runway Two Seven-Right, hold short Runway Two-Seven Left.”

e. At those airports where the taxi distance between runway centerlines is less than 1,000 feet, multiple runway crossings may be issued with a single clearance. The air traffic manager must submit a request to the appropriate Terminal Services Director of Operations for approval before authorizing multiple runway crossings.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-10 Multiple Runway Crossings.

f. Request a read back of runway hold short instructions when it is not received from the pilot/vehicle operator.

PHRASEOLOGY-
READ BACK HOLD INSTRUCTIONS.

EXAMPLE-
1. “American Four Ninety Two, Runway Three Six Left, taxi via taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven Right.”

or

“American Four Ninety Two, Runway Three Six Left, taxi via Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven Right.”

“American Four Ninety Two, Roger.”

“American Four Ninety Two, read back hold instructions.”

2. “Cleveland Tower, American Sixty Three is ready for departure.”

“American Sixty Three, hold short of Runway Two Three Left, traffic one mile final.”

“American Sixty Three, Roger.”

“American Sixty Three, read back hold instructions.”

3. “OPS Three proceed via taxiway Charlie hold short of Runway Two Seven.”

or

“OPS Three proceed via Charlie hold short of Runway Two Seven.”

“OPS Three, Roger.”

“OPS Three, read back hold instructions.”

NOTE-
Read back hold instructions phraseology may be initiated for any point on a movement area when the controller believes the read back is necessary.

g. Issue progressive taxi/ground movement instructions when:

1. A pilot/operator requests.

2. The specialist deems it necessary due to traffic or field conditions, e.g., construction or closed taxiways.

3. Necessary during reduced visibility, especially when the taxi route is not visible from the tower.

NOTE-
Progressive instructions may include step-by-step directions and/or directional turns.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-4, Runway Proximity.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-11-1, Taxi and Ground Movement Operation.

h. Issue instructions to expedite a taxiing aircraft or a moving vehicle.

PHRASEOLOGY-
TAXI WITHOUT DELAY (traffic if necessary).

EXIT/PROCEED/CROSS
(runway/taxiway) WITHOUT DELAY.

i. Issue instructions to aircraft/vehicle to hold short of an approach hold area.

PHRASEOLOGY-
HOLD SHORT OF (runway) APPROACH

3-7-3. GROUND OPERATIONS

WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION

Avoid clearances which require:

a. Heavy jet aircraft to use greater than normal taxiing power.

b. Small aircraft or helicopters to taxi in close proximity to taxiing or hover-taxi helicopters.

NOTE-
Use caution when taxiing smaller aircraft/helicopters in the vicinity of larger aircraft.

REFERENCE-
AC 90-23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Para 10 and Para 11.

3-7-4. RUNWAY PROXIMITY

Hold a taxiing aircraft or vehicle clear of the runway as follows:

a. Instruct aircraft or vehicle to hold short of a specific runway.

b. Instruct aircraft or vehicle to hold at a specified point.

c. Issue traffic information as necessary.

PHRASEOLOGY-
HOLD SHORT OF/AT (runway number or specific point), (traffic or other information).

NOTE-
Establishing hold lines/signs is the responsibility of the airport manager. The standards for surface measurements, markings, and signs are contained in AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design; AC 150/5340-1, Standards for Airport Markings, and AC 150/5340-18, Standards for Airport Sign Systems. The operator is responsible for properly positioning the aircraft, vehicle, or equipment at the appropriate hold line/sign or designated point. The requirements in para 3-1-12, Visually Scanning Runways, remain valid as appropriate.

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-2, Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel on Runways.

3-7-5. PRECISION APPROACH CRITICAL AREA

a. ILS critical area dimensions are described in FAA Order 6750.16, Siting Criteria for Instrument Landing Systems. Aircraft and vehicle access to the ILS critical area must be controlled to ensure the integrity of ILS course signals whenever conditions are less than reported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles. Do not authorize vehicles/aircraft to operate in or over the critical area, except as specified in subparagrapha1, whenever an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS outer marker (OM) or the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has reported the runway in sight or is circling to land on another runway.

PHRASEOLOGY-
HOLD SHORT OF (runway) ILS CRITICAL AREA.

1. LOCALIZER CRITICAL AREA

(a) Do not authorize vehicle or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of the OM when conditions are less than reported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles, except:

(1) A preceding arriving aircraft on the same or another runway that passes over or through the area while landing or exiting the runway.

(2) A preceding departing aircraft or missed approach on the same or another runway that passes through or over the area.

(b) In addition to subparagraph a1(a), when conditions are less than reported ceiling 200 feet or RVR 2,000 feet, do not authorize vehicles or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraft is inside the middle marker, or in the absence of a middle marker, ½ mile final.

2. GLIDESLOPE CRITICAL AREA. Do not authorize vehicles or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has reported the runway in sight or is circling to land on another runway when conditions are less than reported ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles.

b. Operators commonly conduct “coupled” or “autoland” approaches to satisfy maintenance, training, or reliability program requirements. Promptly issue an advisory if the critical area will not be protected when an arriving aircraft advises that a “coupled,” “CATIII,” “autoland,” or similar type approach will be conducted and the weather indicates a reported ceiling of 800 feet or more, or the visibility is 2 miles or more.

PHRASEOLOGY-
ILS/MLS CRITICAL AREA NOT PROTECTED.

c. The Department of Defense (DOD) is authorized to define criteria for protection of precision approach critical areas at military controlled airports. This protection is provided to all aircraft operating at that military controlled airport. Waiver authority for DOD precision approach critical area criteria rests with the appropriate military authority.

NOTE-
Signs and markings are installed by the airport operator to define the ILS/MLS critical area. No point along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is permitted past the hold line for holding purposes. The operator is responsible to properly position the aircraft, vehicle, or equipment at the appropriate hold line/sign or designated point. The requirements in para 3-1-12, Visually Scanning Runways, remain valid as appropriate.

REFERENCE-
AC150/5340-1, Standards for Airport Markings.

3-7-6. PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (POFZ) AND FINAL APPROACH OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURFACES (OCS)

a. Ensure the POFZ is clear of traffic (aircraft or vehicles) when an aircraft on a vertically-guided final approach is within 2 miles of the runway threshold and the reported ceiling is below 300 feet or visibility is less than 3/4 SM to protect aircraft executing a missed approach.

NOTE-
Only horizontal surfaces (e.g., the wings) can penetrate the POFZ, but not the vertical surfaces (e.g., fuselage or tail). Three hundred feet (300) is used because ATC does not measure ceilings in fifty (50) foot increments.

b. Ensure the final approach OCS (e.g., ILS /LPV W, X, and Y surfaces) are clear of aircraft/vehicles when an aircraft on the vertically-guided approach is within 2 miles of the runway threshold and the reported ceiling is below 800 feet or visibility is less than 2 SM to protect aircraft executing a missed approach.

NOTE-
1. The POFZ and the close-in portion of the final approach obstacle clearance surfaces protect aircraft executing a missed approach. Their dimensions are described in FAAO 8260.3b, Volume III, Chapter 3, para 3.4, United States Standards for Terminal Instrument Procedures.

2. Vehicles that are less than 10 feet in height, necessary for the maintenance of the airport and/or navigation facilities operating outside the movement area, are exempt.

c. If it is not possible to clear the POFZ or OCS prior to an aircraft reaching a point 2 miles from the runway threshold and the weather is less than described in subparas a or b above, issue traffic to the landing aircraft.

NOTE-
The POFZ and/or OCS must be cleared as soon as practical.

PHRASEOLOGY-
(ACID), IN THE EVENT OF MISSED APPROACH (issue traffic).

TAXIING AIRCRAFT/VEHICLE LEFT/RIGHT OF RUNWAY.

EXAMPLE-
“United 623, in the event of missed approach, taxiing aircraft right of runway.”

“Delta 1058, in the event of missed approach, vehicle left of runway.”

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-6, Traffic Information.

FIG 3-7-1
Precision Obstacle Free Zone (POFZ)

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