Aviation uses two types of time; military and zulu. This activity focuses on miliarty time only.

## Objectives

• The students will discover the importance of a clock as a flight instrument.
• The students will compute flight time requirements.
• The students will determine the airplane�s position.
• The students will compute ground speed and fuel consumption.

## Background Information

The clock is one of the most useful of the flight instruments. It is used in figuring such important items as the time required for a flight, the average ground speed, and determining the airplane�s position. All these are more crucial in aviation than in ground transportation.

Military Time is measured in twenty-four hour units. The unit begins at 0001 hours after midnight and continues to the following midnight which is 0000 hours. Twelve o�clock noon is 1200 hours. Time after noon begins at 1300 hours and continues to midnight.

Example of Military Time
Standard Time Military Time
9:00 a.m. 0900 hours
10:30 a.m. 1030 hours
12:00 noon 1200 hours
1:15 p.m. 1315 hours
6:49 p.m. 1849 hours
10:30 p.m. 2230 hours
12:00 p.m. 0000 hours

Problem: Change the Standard Time to Military Time
Standard Time Military Time Standard Time Military Time
1:40 a.m.   12:30 p.m.
5:16 p.m.   11:49 p.m.
7:39 p.m.   2:32 p.m.
6:47 p.m.   12:20 p.m.
8:35 p.m.   11:43 p.m.

Problem: Change the Military Time to Standard Time
Standard Time Military Time Standard Time Military Time
0430 hours   2041 hours
1619 hours   1022 hours
0003 hours   2347 hours
1317 hours   0103 hours
2148 hours   1508 hours

Time Required for a Flight:

Example: What will be the length of a flight of 329 miles at an average speed of 94 MPH?

Solution: Divide 329 by 94 equals 3 � hours (3 hours, 30 minutes).

Problem: Find the Time Required for the Following Flights
Distance Average Ground Speed Time
275 miles 100 MPH
180 miles 45 MPH
585 miles 130 MPH
2475 miles 275 MPH
1875 miles 600 MPH
195 miles 65 MPH
230 miles 100 MPH

What is the length of a flight of 450 miles at an average speed of 90 MPH?

A plane flies 370 miles at an average ground speed of 95 MPH. What time is required for the flight?

Average Ground Speed: The problems in this section are applications of the familiar Time, Rate, and Distance formulas which can be used in problems of automobiles and trucks as well as aircraft. Average ground speed is the RATE in these problems:

RATE X TIME = DISTANCE

DISTANCE DIVIDED BY TIME = RATE

DISTANCE DIVIDED BY RATE = TIME

Example: What is the average ground speed for a flight of 400 miles in 3 hours, 20 minutes?

Solution: Divide 400 by 3 1/3 hours.

Problem: Find the Average Speed for Each of the Following Flights:
Distance Time Average Ground Speed
285 miles 3 hours
780 miles 6.5 hours
800 miles 5.33 hours
1260 miles 4 hours 40 minutes
2875 miles 6 hours 15 minutes
675 miles 4.5 hours
594 miles 3 hours 18 minutes
245 miles 2 hours 27 minutes

What is the ground speed for a flight of 595 miles in three and one-half hours?

An airplane flies 1104 miles in 4 hours, 36 minutes. What is the average ground speed?

Fuel Consumption: Having plenty of gasoline is more important in aviation than in driving a car. The pilot must be able to plan his/her flight to have more fuel than he/she needs. The pilot figures the amount of gasoline the plane should use, and adds a reserve for emergencies. A fuel reserve of 25% is usually allows.

1.Figuring the amount of fuel without a reserve:

Example: How much gasoline will be used in a flight of two hours, twenty minutes if the engine uses six gallons per hour?

Solution: Change two hours, twenty minutes to 140 minutes.

To find the amount of fuel used. ( 140/60)*6=14 gallons .

Problem: Find the Number of Gallons of Fuel Which Will be Used in Flight
Flying Time Fuel Consumption Per Hours Amount of Fuel Used
3 hours 30 minutes (3.5) 6 gallons
5 hours 20 minutes (5.33) 12 gallons
4.5 hours 5 gallons
6 hours 10 minutes (6.17) 40 gallons
2 hours 24 minutes (2.4) 5 gallons
3 hours 12 minutes (3.2) 15 gallons
5 hours 5 minutes (5.08) 18 gallons

How much gasoline will be consumed in a flight of three hours, forty minutes if the engine uses nine gallons per hour? (3.67 X 9 = ?)

An airplane makes a flight of six hours, forty-two minutes. The engine uses an average of 18 gallons of gasoline per hour. How much gasoline will be consumed during the flight?

Figuring the amount of fuel needed with a percentage reserve:

Example: How much gasoline will be needed for a flight of four hours, twenty minutes if the engines uses nine gallons per hour, and a fuel reserve of 25% is desired?

Solution: Change four hours, twenty minutes to 4.33 hours. Multiply 4.33 by 9 to find the amount of fuel to be used. 4.33 X 9 = 38.57 gallons.

Since a fuel reserve of 25% is to be carried, 38.57 gallons = 75% of total fuel to be carried. Divide 38.57 by .75 to find 51.96 the total amount of fuel.

Problem: Find the Number of Gallons of Gasoline Needed to Include a 25% Fuel Reserve for the Flights
Flying Hours Fuel Consumption Per Hour Amont of Fuel Used Amount to Include 25% Reserve
3 hours 40 minutes 9 gallons
2 hours 30 minutes 8 gallons
2 hours 24 minutes 5 gallons
4 hours 20 minutes 12 gallons
6 hours 50 minutes 24 gallons

Problem: Find the Number of Gallons of Gasoline Needed to Include a 20% Fuel Reserve for the Flight
Flying Time Fuel Consumption Per Hour Amount of Fuel Used Amount to Include 20% Reserve
4 hours 6 gallons
3 hours 30 minutes 9 gallons
8 hours 20 minutes 15 gallons
4 hours 10 minutes 18 gallons
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