Performance Based Navigation addresses ways to leverage emerging technologies, such as satellite-based Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP), to improve access and flexibility for point-to-point operations.
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Phases of Flight

A diagram depicting the Phases of Flight: Flight Planning; Pushback, Taxi, Takeoff, Domestic and Oceanic Cruise, Descent, Final Approach, and Landing, Taxi. OI 1: 107103 applies to the Takeoff and Final Approach Phases of Flight. OI 2: 108209 applies to the Takeoff, Domestic and Oceanic Cruise, and Descent Phases of Flight.

Timeline for Achieving OIs and Capabilities

OI 107103: RNAV SIDs, STARs and Approaches (2010-2015) ��� The current timeline spans from FY 2012 to FY 2015.  RNP Authorization Required (AR) Approaches is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015.  RNAV SIDs and STARs at Single Sites is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015. OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP (2010-2014) ��� The current timeline spans from FY 2012 to FY 2016 and beyond.  Optimization of Airspace Procedures in the Metroplex is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015.  Work on NextGen En Route Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Infrastructure will begin in FY 2016.  Large-Scale Redesign of Airspace Leveraging PBN is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015.  Transition to PBN Routing for Cruise Operations is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015.  Work on Relative Position Indicator will begin in FY 2016.  PBN Route Eligibility Check will be available in FY 2013.  RNAV (GPS) Approaches is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015 (see note 1).  Advanced and Efficient RNP is currently available and work will continue to FY 2015.

1 Formerly Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) Approaches, moved from Improved Approaches and Low-Visibility Operations portfolio.

Selected Work Activities

1 OI 107103: RNAV Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs), Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) and Approaches (2010-2015)

Budget

  • Supported by Operations Appropriations

FY 2012

  • Completed: Completed 4 STARs at
  • Completed: Completed 2 SIDs at
  • Completed: Completed 2 STARs at
  • Completed: Completed 18 SIDs and 4 STARs at
  • Completed: Completed 4 SIDs at

FY 2013

  • Complete 12 RNPs at
    • DEN
  • Publish SIDs at
    • DEN
  • Publish STARs and RNPs at
    • MSP
  • Publish procedures at
    • SEA
  • Publish SIDs at
    • MSP
  • Publish STARs at
    • PDX

FY 2014+

  • Continue implementation of RNAV SIDs, STARs and Approaches

2 OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP (2010-2014)

Budget

FY 2012

FY 2013

  • Continue Las Vegas Optimization:
    • Complete Phase I implementation
    • Complete Phase 1 Training and Development
    • Complete Phase 1 Cutover
  • Complete 1st Article for NextGen En Route Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Infrastructure
  • Initiate implementation for PBN-optimized airspace and procedures at
    • Houston Metroplex
  • Initiate PBN Optimization of Airspace and procedures projects for:
    • Chicago Metroplex
    • Phoenix Metroplex
  • Continue production of 500 WAAS LPV and LP procedures per year

FY 2014+

  • Implemented remaining stages of New York/New Jersey/Philadelphia Metropolitan Area Airspace Redesign
    • Stage 2B: PHL route expansion and 3rd dispersal heading
  • Complete Las Vegas Optimization procedure implementation
  • Initiate Stage 3: West Side of Chicago Airspace Program Controller training Chart 1 & 2
  • Complete implementation of PBN-optimized airspace and procedures for:
    • Washington Metroplex
    • Houston Metroplex
  • Implement remaining stages of New York/New Jersey/Philadelphia Metropolitan Area Airspace Redesign
    • Stage 3: North Gate realignment
    • Stage 4: full airspace integration
  • Continue production of 500 WAAS LPV and LP procedures per year

Descriptions of OIs and Capabilities

In Concept
Exploration
In
Development
Available
at least one site
1 OI 107103: RNAV SID, STAR and Approaches
RNAV is available throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) using satellite-based avionics equipment and systems.

Task Force: Metroplex

Available (at least one site)

RNP Authorization Required (AR) Approaches
RNP AR approaches are performance-based navigation operations that are implemented to meet the needs of the airspace users and airports in terms of efficiency, safety, and access. A key feature of RNP AR approaches is the ability to use curved, guided path segments known as radius-to-fix (RF). RNP AR is an optional capability that involves avionics and flight crew training. Safety analysis will be conducted to help determine the feasible route spacing for these approaches based on equipage.

Available (at least one site)

RNAV SIDs and STARs at Single Sites
This increment covers PBN procedure improvements initiated and developed outside of the Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in the Metroplex (OAPM) and Large-Scale Redesign of Airspace Leveraging PBN increments. These RNAV procedures address location-specific requirements and seek to add efficiency and optimize existing initial capability PBN procedures.

Task Force: Integrate Procedure Design to Deconflict Airports, Implement RNP with RF Capability, and Expand Use of Terminal Separation Rules (4, 21a and 32b)

2 OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP
RNAV and RNP can enable more efficient aircraft trajectories. Combined with airspace changes, RNAV and RNP increase airspace efficiency and capacity.

Task Force: Metroplex, Cruise Overarching, and NAS Access

Navigation System Infrastructure

In Concept Exploration

NextGen En Route DME Infrastructure
Additional DME coverage over the continental United States is needed to optimize and expand RNAV routes by closing coverage gaps at and above Flight Level 240. Work is being done to improve the determination of Expanded Service Volumes (ESVs) that may help eliminate DME gaps. Where ESVs cannot be established, DME will be installed at selected locations to support RNAV and RNP using DME/DME/Inertial Reference Unit as the primary navigation means, and provide backup if GPS is not available.

Integrated Airspace and Procedures

Available (at least one site)

OAPM
OAPM is a systematic approach to implementing PBN procedures and associated airspace changes in major metropolitan areas with multiple airports, including all types of operations and connectivity with other metroplexes making use of existing aircraft equipage. Expected improvements from OAPM include efficient descents, diverging departure paths and decoupling of operations among airports within the metroplex airspace.

The OAPM expedited timeline and focused scope binds the airspace and procedures solutions to those that can be achieved without requiring an Environmental Impact Statement (requiring only an environmental assessment or categorical exclusion) and within current infrastructure and operating criteria. The major metroplexes addressed under OAPM have been defined in the RTCA Task Force 5 Final Report and FAA Destination 2025 and have been prioritized using criteria and considerations developed with aviation industry consensus.

Task Force: Optimize and Increase RNAV Procedures (32a and 29)

Available (at least one site)

Large-Scale Redesign of Airspace Leveraging PBN
Airspace and procedures solutions that do not fit within the environmental and criteria boundaries of an OAPM project become candidates for other integrated airspace and procedures efforts. Also included in this increment are the legacy airspace management program projects. These include projects started prior to the formation of the National Operational Airspace Council in August 2009 and include the New York/New Jersey/Philadelphia Metropolitan Area Airspace Redesign, Chicago Airspace Project, Houston Area Air Traffic System and the Las Vegas Optimization Project. Although these are considered legacy projects, many of the efficiencies and benefit gains will come from optimized PBN procedures.

Task Force: Integrate Procedure Design to Deconflict Airports, Implement RNP with RF Capability, and Expand Use of Terminal Separation Rules (4, 21a and 32b), Increase Capacity and Throughput for Converging and Intersecting Runways (9)

Available (at least one site)

Transition to PBN Routing for Cruise Operations
This approach replaces the conventional Navigational Aid (NAVAID)-based Jet and Victor airways with RNAV routes, including high-altitude Q-routes. High-altitude RNAV routes offer an efficient way to navigate en route airspace instead of NAVAID-to-NAVAID routing. Key focus areas include Q-route development connecting the terminal improvements in the OAPM and legacy large-scale airspace redesign projects, New York Wind Route Options Playbook transitions and resolution of en route choke points.

Task Force: Develop RNAV-Based En Route System (30)

Available (at least one site)

RNAV (GPS) Approaches
RNAV approach procedures allow aircraft to fly precise paths, with and without vertical guidance, providing airports with significant increases in access, especially for runway ends not equipped with an Instrument Landing System (ILS), and in flexibility, by providing an alternative instrument approach at airports with ILS. All RNAV approach procedures require the aircraft to be equipped with suitable RNAV avionics with GPS or the WAAS and are published as RNAV(GPS) procedures. RNAV(GPS) approaches include minimums for lateral navigation (LNAV), LNAV with vertical navigation, LP, and LPV. Implementation of RNAV (GPS) procedures with LPV or LP will continue until all qualified runway ends are served. This improvement will provide increased benefits to more than 55,000 general aviation aircraft (Part 23), 3,800 corporate business jets/turbo props (Part 25 and some Part 23) and 200 regional jets already equipped with WAAS.

In addition to LPV approach implementation, the FAA will deliver LP approaches to runways that do not qualify for LPVs due to obstacles. LP procedures will provide the lower possible minima for runways that cannot support LPV approaches.

Task Force: Implement LPV Approaches to Airports without Precision Approach Capabilities (22)

Available (at least one site)

Advanced and Efficient RNP
This increment includes RNP-established for simultaneous and dependent parallel approaches and concurrent RNP operations at airports in close proximity (for example, SEA/BFI). RNP-established will allow suitably equipped RNP-capable aircraft to turn onto final to a parallel runway using an RNP curved path without the necessity of 1,000 feet of vertical separation. This would allow shorter downwind legs for the suitably equipped aircraft, and also would allow Optimized Profile Descents. This increment will lead to development of safety case and air traffic control rule changes that enable the implementation of RNP-established for advanced RNP procedures, including parallel approaches to maximize the benefits to RNP-equipped aircraft. Operational benefits are anticipated in the areas of safety, efficiency, predictability and the environment. This increment will be implemented only at SEA/BFI.

Air Traffic Tools/Automation

In Concept Exploration

Relative Position Indicator (RPI)
RPI is a tool that can assist both the controller and traffic management in managing the flow of traffic through a terminal area merge point. RPI provides a symbol on the radar situation display that conveys relative position information for converging traffic. It does this by calculating the flight path distance to the merge of the source aircraft and places the indicator at that distance as measured along the merging route, including curved paths. RPI's effectiveness is enhanced by the predictability and repeatability of flight tracks, like those produced by RNAV, RNP, and advanced leg types, such as RF legs and procedures.

In Development

PBN Route Eligibility Check
En route automation will check the eligibility of aircraft to operate on performance-restricted routes. Performance-restricted routes are identified in system adaptation using associated attributes that characterize the required performance. A filed flight plan amendment with ineligible routes will be rejected, the ineligible portion replaced with an alternative route, or indication provided to the controller that the flight is ineligible for a portion of its flight. This capability is part of En Route Automation Modernization Release 3.