Airborne Software Assurance
a. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for showing compliance with the applicable airworthiness regulations for the software aspects of airborne systems and equipment certification. This AC is not mandatory and is not a regulation. Other ACs may describe alternate means.
b. We, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), wrote this AC to recognize the following RTCA, Inc. documents (RTCA DO):
(1) RTCA DO-178C, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, dated December 13, 2011.
(2) RTCA DO-330, Software Tool Qualification Considerations, dated December 13, 2011.
(3) RTCA DO-331, Model-Based Development and Verification Supplement to DO178C and DO-278A, dated December 13, 2011.
(4) RTCA DO-332, Object-Oriented Technology and Related Techniques Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A, dated December 13, 2011.
(5) RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A, dated December 13, 2011.
Note: RTCA DO is hereafter referred to as DO.
c. References to use of DO-178C in this AC include use of supplements and DO-330 as applicable.
d. This AC also establishes guidance for transitioning to DO-178C when making modifications to software previously approved using DO-178, DO-178A, or DO-178B.
07/19/2013 AC 20-115C
e. This AC also explains the use of DO-178C for Technical Standard Order (TSO) authorizations.
f. This AC does not obligate the FAA to approve any data or perform any activities as specified within the referenced RTCA documents.
g. If you use the means in this AC as a means of compliance, you must follow it entirely.
Industry Documents To Support Aircraft Lightning Protection Certification
a. This advisory circular (AC) recognizes several SAE Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARPs) and European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)documents as acceptable methods for showing compliance with airworthiness regulations. These industry documents provide guidance on aircraft lightning environment and test waveforms, aircraft lightning zoning, aircraft lightning test methods, and aircraft lightning direct effects.
b. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but is not the only means, to help you to obtain certification for lightning protection.
Institution of Higher Education’s Application for Authority to Certify its Graduates for an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate with Reduced Aeronautical Experience
This advisory circular (AC) provides instructions for institutions of higher education on how to obtain authority to certify students who graduate from the institution’s degree program with an aviation major and otherwise meet the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.160(b), (c), or (d). Graduates of an institution of higher education that has received Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization to certify graduates may be eligible to apply for a restricted privileges airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate. The total flight time requirements for a restricted privileges ATP Certificate based on a degree with an aviation major are:
• 1,250 hours for a graduate who holds an associate’s degree with an aviation major and meets the remaining requirements of § 61.160(c); and
• 1,250 hours for a graduate who holds a bachelor’s
Airline Transport Pilot Certification Training Program
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and courseware guidelines to authorized providers, to aid in the development of a training program which meets the requirements of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.156.
General Type Certification Guidelines for Turbine Engines
This advisory circular (AC) provides general guidance concerning type certification projects for aircraft turbine engines. This AC applies to certain sections of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 21, 33, and 45, and describes or references methods of compliance that may be acceptable for engine type certification work. This guidance is general in nature, and where necessary, further reference is made to other documents, which may be the primary source for information on a particular subject.
Certification Data Retention Agreements and Government Records
This advisory circular (AC) describes the procedures that you, domestic design approval applicants and design approval holders (DAHs), should follow when entering into a certification data retention agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This AC also defines the type of certification data that constitute a government record.
If you are planning to use an electronic data storage system as your means of retention for your type design data, we recommend you follow the guidance outlined in AC 21-48, Using Electronic Modeling Systems as Primary Type Design Data. AC 21-48 describes an acceptable means for using electronic modeling systems in design, manufacturing, installation, and inspection processes. Although in that AC we define an “electronic modeling system” as a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling system, we encourage you to use the guidance provided because it identifies the criteria for using electronic type design data and includes requirements for how to access and present the data.
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation, but if you elect to follow the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
Reporting Wildlife Aircraft Strikes
This AC explains the importance of reporting collisions between aircraft and wildlife, more commonly referred to as wildlife strikes. It also explains recent improvements in the FAA’s Bird/Other Wildlife Strike Reporting system, how to report a wildlife strike, what happens to the wildlife strike report data, how to access the FAA National Wildlife Strike Database (NWSD), and the FAA’s Feather Identification program.
The purpose of this advisory circular (AC) is to describe enhanced guidelines for autorotations during rotorcraft/helicopter flight training. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has found a need to raise awareness of the risks inherent in performing autorotations in the training environment, and in particular the 180 degree autorotation. In this AC, the FAA recommends procedures that will mitigate safety risk during autorotations. This information is intended to supplement information about autorotation training found in the current edition of the Helicopter Flying Handbook (HFH), FAA-H-8083-21. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of training applicants for a rotorcraft/helicopter airman to meet the qualifications for various rotorcraft/helicopter ratings under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61. You may use alternate methods for training if you establish that those methods meet the requirements of the HFH and FAA practical test standards (PTS).
Approved Model List Supplemental Type Certificate (AML-STC)
This advisorycircular(AC)providesguidelines and requirements to obtain approved model list (AML)supplemental typecertificate(STC). This ACis not mandatoryand does not constitutearegulation. It describes anacceptablemethod, but not theonlymethod to obtain an AML-STC. You mayusean alternatemethod ifyou establish that it adequatelymeets therequirements. However, ifyou usethis ACto obtain approval,you must comply with all ofits provisions.
Parts Marking Identification
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance on developing procedures for part marking and part re-marking when performing maintenance, alteration, and fabrication, including the fabrication of owner- or operator-produced parts.
Fatigue Risk Management Systems for Aviation Safety
(1) Describes the basic concepts of Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS), as prescribed in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 117, § 117.7, and how they relate to aviation industry employees safely performing their duties.
(2) Provides information on the components of an FRMS as applied to aviation, and on how to implement an FRMS within an aviation operation.
(3) Defines an FRMS as an operator-specific process; therefore, while all FRMSs will have common elements, the specifics will be tailored to a certificate holder’s particular conditions.
(4) Provides (in Appendix 2, Fatigue Risk Management System Development) the certificate holder with the necessary detailed guidance to prepare for the FRMS approval process, develop the required documentation, develop and apply fatigue risk management (FRM) and Safety Assurance (SA) processes, collect and analyze data, develop flightcrew FRMS operations procedures and a step-by-step process required for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) evaluation and validation of the proposed FRMS application.
Installed Systems and Equipment for Use by the Flightcrew
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the design and methods of compliance for installed equipment on transport airplanes intended for use by the flightcrew. The guidance provided by this AC is intended to minimize the occurrence of design-related errors by the flightcrew and to enable the flightcrew to detect and manage errors that do occur. This AC provides recommendations for the design and evaluation of controls, displays, system behavior, and system integration that are all part of human factors considerations.
Operating Procedures for Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCT) that are not Operated by, or Under Contract with, the United States (Non-Federal)
This advisory circular (AC) recommends publications, administrative, and operational procedures that will assist in the management of a non-Federal ATCT (NFCT).
Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIP) Acceptance/Review
This advisory circular (AC) establishes guidelines for U.S. operators to use when reviewing Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIP). Occasionally, the author uses the word "must" or similar language when he deems the desired actions critical. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) does not intend for the use of such language to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
Recommended Inspection Procedures for Former Military Aircraft
This advisory circular (AC) is for the development of inspection program requirements for the certification of former military aircraft in the experimental category for the purpose(s) of exhibition and air racing that operate in the United States in accordance with Title 14 of the Federal Code of Regulations (14 CFR) part 21, § 21.191(d) and (e). This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for developing inspection program requirements for former military aircraft.
Repairs and Alterations to Composite and Bonded Aircraft Structure
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance concerning an acceptable means, but not the only means, of demonstrating compliance with the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 43, 91, 121, 125, (U.S.-registered airplanes), 135, 137, and 145 regarding procedures and facilities for repairs and alterations of structure consisting of adhesively bonded (including metal bond) and fiber-reinforced materials (e.g., carbon, aramid, and glass-reinforced polymeric materials mentioned in the current edition of AC 20-107, Composite Aircraft Structure). The information in this AC is applicable to repairs and alterations of bonded and composite structure, whether it is a damaged part that can be removed from the airplane for repairs, or repairs and alterations on the aircraft itself. Examples include repair patches, on-wing bonded repairs, and fabrication and bonding of replacement parts. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will consider any other method of compliance that the applicant elects to present. This AC uses mandatory terms such as "must" only in the sense of ensuring the applicability of these particular methods of compliance when using the acceptable means of compliance (AMC) described herein. This AC does not change regulatory requirements and does not authorize changes in, or deviations from, regulatory requirements.
Aircraft Operations at Altitudes Above 25,000 Feet Mean Sea Level or Mach Numbers Greater Than .75
This advisory circular (AC) alerts pilots transitioning from aircraft with less performance capability to complex, high-performance aircraft that are capable of operating at high altitudes and high airspeeds. In particular, this AC stresses special physiological, equipment, and aerodynamic considerations involved in these kinds of operations. It also provides information to aid pilots in becoming familiar with the basic phenomena associated with high-altitude and high-speed flight.
Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61 prescribes the knowledge and skill requirements for the various airman certificates and ratings, including category, class, and type ratings authorized to be placed thereon. The civil aircraft fleet consists of numerous aircraft capable of high-altitude flight. Certain knowledge elements of high-altitude flight are essential for the pilots of these aircraft. As required by 14 CFR § 61.31, pilots who fly at altitudes at or above FL250 in a pressurized aircraft must receive training in the critical factors relating to safe flight operations under those circumstances. These critical elements include knowledge of the special physiological and/or aerodynamic considerations that should be given to highperformance aircraft operating in the high-altitude environment. High-altitude flight has different effects on the human body than those experienced during lower altitude flight. An aircraft's aerodynamic characteristics displayed in high altitude flight may differ significantly from those experienced when penetrating at a lower altitude. Knowledge of and skill in operating high-performance aircraft will enhance the pilot's ability to easily transition into aircraft capable of high speed, high altitude flight.
This advisory circular (AC) describes the hazards of thunderstorms to aviation and offers guidance to help prevent accidents caused by thunderstorms.
Certification of Repairmen (Light-Sport Aircraft)
This advisory circular (AC) provides the public with information regarding the certification of repairmen (light-sport aircraft (LSA)) with maintenance and inspection ratings, the acceptability of training courses, and the continued airworthiness of LSA. The guidance contained in this AC is based on the Final Rule, Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft, which was published in the Federal Register (FR) on July 27,2004. The rule became effective September 1,2004.
Reporting of Laser Illumination of Aircraft
a. This Advisory Circular (AC) provides information to the aviation community, particularly aircrews operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) on measures taken by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to address incidents of unauthorized illumination of aircraft by lasers. The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, passed into public law on February 14, 2012, established a prohibition against aiming a laser pointer at an aircraft.
b. In addition, this AC provides guidance to aircrews and reflects current guidance for air traffic control (ATC) on the formal reporting of laser illumination incidents. Reporting laser incidents assists law enforcement and provides support for recommended mitigation actions to be taken to ensure continued safe and orderly flight operations.
c. This AC is issued in serious response to the significant increase of unauthorized laser illumination of aircraft incidents, as well as the proliferation and increased sophistication of laser devices available to the general public and other parties. FAA and other governmental studies show the exposure of aircrews to laser illumination may cause hazardous effects (e.g., distraction, glare, afterimage, flash blindness, and, in extreme circumstances, persistent or permanent visual impairment), which could compromise safety by adversely interfering with the ability of aircrews to carry out their responsibilities. ATC regards a laser illumination incident as an in-flight emergency, and will treat them as such, until the aircrew states otherwise.
d. The FAA, in coordination with local law enforcement, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and other governmental agencies, such as the Department of Homeland Security, Transportation Security Administration (TSA), is taking immediate action to safeguard flights against these unauthorized illuminations and expeditiously locate the source of unauthorized laser transmissions.
Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and Accessories
This AC contains the specifications for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes, and accessories. This AC is not intended to be a compilation of currently available product designs. It provides the basic standard requirements for critical dimensions and performance requirements to which all manufacturers must demonstrate compliance.
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Repair Station Guidance for Compliance with the Safety Agreement between the UnitedStates and the European Union
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance regarding a repair station located in the United States obtaining, renewing, or amending a European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Part-145 approval and an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO) located within the European Union (EU) obtaining, renewing, or amending a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) repair station certificate under the provisions of the U.S./EU aviation safety agreement (the Agreement).
Identification, marking, and placarding of aircraft issued special airworthiness certificates in the light-sport category (S-LSA) and aircraft issued experimental certificates for the purpose of operating light-sport aircraft (E-LSA)
This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with the requirements for identifying S-LSA and E-LSA with identification (ID) plates, displaying nationality and registration marks, and displaying placards. This AC also provides marking guidance for instruments necessary for the safety of flight.
Air Carrier Maintenance Programs
This advisory circular (AC) explains what the term "maintenance program" means. Our explanation describes the scope and content of air carrier aircraft maintenance programs. This is important as there is a significant difference between an air carrier maintenance program and an inspection program used in non-air carrier maintenance operations. We explain the background of these programs as well as the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) regulatory requirements. We also describe and explain each of the 10 elements of air carrier maintenance programs. When we use "must" or "will" in this AC, we are referencing actual regulatory requirements. When we use "we," "us," or "our" in this AC, we mean the FAA. When we use "you," "your," or "yours," we mean you, the air carrier. When we use the term "person," it has the same meaning as that in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, § 1.1.