Development of a Nondestructive Inspection Program/Organization
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the development of organizations and facilities performing nondestructive inspections (NDI). This material is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for developing NDI facilities, as well as organizational and quality manuals. We, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), will consider other methods of demonstrating compliance that you may elect to present. We use the terms “must” and “will” in this AC only to ensure you correctly apply the recommendations of this particular method of compliance, if you choose to do so.
Installation Guidance for Domestic Flight Information Services - Broadcast
a. This advisory circular (AC) supports the use of Flight Information Services - Broadcast (FIS-B) weather and other aeronautical data link products for enhanced situation awareness of flight conditions. In this AC, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends one way to gain airworthiness approval for the installation of FIS-B avionics equipment. We identify safety and installation requirements for continued airworthiness of aircraft FIS-B avionics equipment, systems, and applications. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to gain airworthiness approval for your FIS-B avionics equipment. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
b. FIS-B was introduced to improve safety and to increase the utility, efficiency, and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). Timely delivery of quality, accurate, and consistent information is utilized by pilots for assisting in operational decisions.
c. This AC was revised to remove outdated information on the Flight Information Services Data Link (FISDL) program and replace with the current FIS-B system while maintaining alternative third party subscription services.
Segmented Circle Airport Marker System
This AC provides standards for a system of airport marking consisting of certain pilot aids and traffic control devices.
Specification for Wind Cone Assemblies
This AC contains a specification for wind cone assemblies to be used to provide wind information to pilots. This revision revises the equipment qualification requirements to be furnished under the Federal grant assistance program for airports, applies photometric requirements for internally lighted wind cones to both Size 1 and Size 2 windsocks, and makes editorial changes.
Airport Signing and Graphics
This AC provides guidance on airport terminal and landside wayfinding, signing, and graphics. It focuses on four areas of the airport: roadways, parking, curbside and ground transportation, and terminal. This version is a substantial rewrite and incorporates the recommendations and guidelines developed under Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 52, Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside, completed in 2011.
Standards for Airport Markings
This AC contains the FAA standards for markings used on airport runways, taxiways, and aprons.
Hot Mix Asphalt Paving Handbook
This AC provides general guidance on asphalt paving operations. The Hot-Mix Asphalt Paving Handbook 2000 (handbook) is in Appendix 1 of this AC. The handbook concentrates on field practices for asphalt paving, including plant operations, transportation of materials, surface preparation, laydown, compaction, and quality control processes.
Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations
a. Evaluating Manufactured or Modified Aircraft. It provides a means but not the only means of evaluating manufactured or modified aircraft by the use of standard systems, processes, and tests necessary to determine pilot training and qualification requirements.
b. Differences in Training and Qualification between Aircraft. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of compliance with applicable Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) that provide for differences in training and qualification between aircraft with the same type certificate. It further describes an acceptable means for providing related aircraft differences training and qualification under provision of 14 CFR part 121 between aircraft with different type certificates that have been "designated" by the Administrator as related. Both of these processes use the provision of the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report as the basis for the approval of pilot training and qualification necessary for the operation of aircraft. This AC is intended to enhance safety by:
(1) Providing a standard method of assessing applicant programs.
(2) Directly relating pilot training and qualification requirements to fleet characteristics, operating concepts, and pilot assignments.
(3) Permitting better industry planning and management by outlining what FAA requirements apply, what training resources or devices are needed, and what alternatives are possible.
(4) Encouraging aircraft manufacturers to design with the goal of developing common characteristics between related aircraft
(5) Providing a recommended framework for application of suitable credits or constraints to better address new technology and future safety enhancements.
This advisory circular (AC) provides suggestions to improve sport parachuting safety and disseminates information to assist all parties associated with sport parachuting to be conducted in compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 105. It also contains information for jumpers and riggers on parachuting equipment, on-airport parachuting operations, jump pilot training, aircraft maintenance programs, parachute rigging, and procedures for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization for flight operations with a removed or modified door.
English Language Skill Standards Required by 14 CFR Parts 61,63, and 65
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for airman applicants, training organizations, designated examiners, and aviation safety inspectors (ASI) in determining English language skills currently required for airman certification as required by the Administrator under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 61, 63, and 65.
Recommended Aircraft Maintenance Practices for Commercial Air Tour Operators
This AC describes maintenance practices that we, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), recommend for aircraft that you, a commercial air tour operator, use to perform commercial air tours. (We list these operations in Paragraph 2.) We based these practices, in part, on National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendations. The recommended practices in this AC aren’t mandatory and don’t constitute a regulation. However, we believe that when properly followed, these practices can increase safety in your operation and reduce the number of maintenance-related air tour accidents.
Aircraft Wake Turbulence
This advisory circular (AC) presents basic information on wake vortex behavior, alerts pilots to the hazards of aircraft wake turbulence, and recommends operational procedures to avoid wake turbulence encounters.
Public Aircraft Operations
This advisory circular (AC) provides information to assist in determining whether government or government-contracted aircraft operations conducted within the territory of the United States are public or civil aircraft operations under the statutory definition of "public aircraft," in Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) §§ 40102(a)(41) and 40125 (the statute). Additionally, this AC contains Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) policy pertaining to civil aircraft operators that provide contract support to government entities. The intent of this material is to better define the responsibilities of the parties to these contracts. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. Nothing in this AC changes the legal requirement for public aircraft operators to comply with the statute.
North American Free Trade Agreement and Specialty Air Services Operations
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance for operators under the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and operational guidance within the three Civil Aviation Authorities (CAA). NAFTA opens up cross-border trade in Specialty Air Services (SAS) and was ratified by the United States of America, the United Mexican States, and Canada.
Training, Qualification, and Certification of Nondestructive Inspection Personnel
This advisory circular (AC) contains recommendations for the experience, training, qualification, examination, and certification of nondestructive inspection (NDI) personnel for the inspection of aircraft, engines, propellers, accessories, and other aviation components. It recommends criteria for the qualification of personnel requiring appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying the nondestructive tests they perform. This document applies to those individuals directly responsible for technical adequacy of the NDI methods used, as well as those persons or organizations providing training, supervision, or oversight of NDI personnel. Organizations should have a written program describing the guidelines used to train, qualify, and certify personnel. Inspection personnel qualified under this document may be eligible for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) repairman’s certification with an NDI rating.
Chemical Oxygen Generator Security Standards
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for an acceptable means of showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations(14 CFR) 25.795(d), Chemical oxygen generators. Section 25.795(d) requires each chemical oxygen generator (COG) or its installation to be designed so it meets one of several criteria. The means of compliance described in this document provides guidance to supplement the engineering and operational judgment that must form the basis of any compliance findings relative to a COG installed on an airplane.
Airworthiness Approval of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS II), Versions 7.0 & 7.1 and Associated Mode S Transponders
This advisory circular (AC) provides applicants with guidance for obtaining an airworthiness approval for traffic alert collision avoidance systems II (TCAS II). It also provides guidance for certification of a stand-alone Mode S transponder system. This AC includes the TCAS II versions 7.0 and 7.1 (TSO-C119b and TSO-C119c respectively) along with the latest iteration, which is version 7.1, containing hybrid surveillance functionality as defined by TSO-C119d.
Application for Parts Manufacturer Approval Via Tests and Computations or Identicality
a. This advisory circular (AC) updates the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) guidance to applicants for parts manufacturer approval (PMA) of articles via tests and computations or identicality without a license agreement. This AC cites regulations in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 21, Subpart K that became effective April 16, 2011. In addition, this AC provides a convenient application and compliance checklist, adds a certifying statement of compliance, provides guidance for assessing an article’s impact on safety and describes how the FAA approves replacement parts for technical standard order (TSO) articles. This AC does not apply to the articles that are listed in 14 CFR 21.9(a)(1) through (6).
b. This AC refers to parts and components as articles per 14 CFR 21.1. This section defines an article as a material, part, component, process or appliance. These items may include sealants, modified standard parts, brake assemblies, etc. that are in a product’s type design. Please note PMA is not for base materials, processes or inspection procedures.
c. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with 14 CFR Part 21, Subpart K. If you chose to use any of these best practices, we expect you to follow it completely. Adherence to the guidance for each applicable facet will show that an article’s design complies with the airworthiness requirements of its eligible products. Also consult other ACs when you need guidance on product specific requirements for showing compliance. For example, AC 33-8 has guidance for Parts Manufacturer Approval of Turbine Engine and Auxiliary Power Unit Parts under Test and Computation.
Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation Systems
This revision adds minor clarifications and new guidance material based on issues and questions since revision ‘C’ was published. There are several new changes such as: equipment capability versus installed limitations; clarifying database configuration versus equipment capability; adding step-down fixes to navigation databases; a new appendix for demonstrating radius to fix (RF) leg capability; and, including required navigation performance (RNP) prediction guidance for RNP authorization required approach (RNP AR APCH).
Use of Cockpit Displays of Digital Weather and Aeronautical Information
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance to flightcrew members and other airmen on the use of data link to access Flight Information Services (FIS). This AC addresses both the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) FIS Broadcast (FIS-B) provided through the Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) network and non-FAA FIS systems provided through commercial data link services.
a. Flight Information Services (FIS). FIS is a service that provides Meteorological Information (METI) and Aeronautical Information (AI) to enhance pilot awareness of weather and/or airspace constraints while providing information for decision support tools and improving safety. METI and AI data link services enable flightcrews to support the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts of information sharing and provide airmen with a common operating picture necessary to support the evolving global Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts.
b. Advantages of FIS METI and AI. FIS of METI and AI can augment pilot voice communications with Flight Service Stations (FSS), other air traffic control (ATC) facilities, airline dispatch centers, flight following facilities or other Operation Control Centers (OCC), typically referred to as System Operations Control (SOC). In addition, Internet connectivity provides the capability for Baseline Synchronization Services (BSS) to be utilized to update the aircraft’s navigational and other databases prior to flight.
Airworthiness Approval of Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) Equipment
This advisory circular (AC) supplements existing airworthiness approval guidance for attitude heading reference system (AHRS) articles approved under technical standard order (TSO)?C201, Attitude Heading Reference System, or later revisions. TSO-C201 includes performance standards for non-gimbaled attitude, heading, and turn and slip systems.
Guidelines for the Certification, Airworthiness, and Operational Use of Electronic Flight Bags
This joint Flight Standards Service (AFS) and Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) advisory circular (AC) contains guidance on the operational use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs). It is intended for all operators conducting flight operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, 125, 135, or 91 subpart F (part 91F) and part 91 subpart K (part 91K) who want to replace required paper information or utilize other select functions of an EFB. This AC sets forth an acceptable means, but not the only means, to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization for the operational use of EFBs. Part 91 operators can find additional EFB information in the current edition of AC 91-78, Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). For guidance on the installation of EFB components, refer to the current edition of AC 20-173, Installation of Electronic Flight Bag Components.
The Certification of Aircraft Electrical and Electronic Systems for Operation in the High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Environment
a. This advisory circular (AC) will provide you with information and guidance on how to show compliance with Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317, High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.
b. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for you to show compliance with the requirements for protection of the operation of electrical and electronic systems on an aircraft when the aircraft is exposed to an external HIRF environment. If you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it entirely to comply with this AC. The term "must" is used to indicate mandatory requirements when following the guidance in this AC. The term "should" is used when following the guidance is recommended but not required to comply with this AC.
Service Bulletins Related to Airworthiness Directives and Indicating FAA Approval on Service Documents
This advisory circular (AC) presents best practices for drafting service bulletins (SB) related to an airworthiness directive (AD). This AC also provides information and guidance on ex parté communication and alternative methods of compliance (AMOC), as well as means for avoiding overlapping and conflicting actions in SBs and maintaining airworthiness of AD-mandated design changes. This revision, AC 20-176A, includes guidance for indicating FAA approval on a service document.
Airworthiness Approval for Aircraft Weather Radar Systems
a. This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the initial and follow-on airworthiness approval of aircraft weather radar systems meeting the latest revision of the Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C63, Airborne Weather Radar Equipment. This AC covers aircraft weather and ground mapping pulsed radar systems, and airborne Doppler weather radar systems with forward-looking windshear, turbulence detection or weather hazard indication capability. The guidance is applicable to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, parts 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. This AC does not address forward-looking windshear and/or turbulence detection capability for rotorcraft.
b. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of accomplishing airworthiness approval for the installation of airborne weather radar equipment. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it entirely. The term "must" is used to indicate mandatory requirements when following the guidance in this AC. The terms "should" and "recommend" are used when following the guidance is recommended but not required to comply with this AC. A list of related documents can be found in Appendix B of this AC.
c. This AC provides guidance intended for new approvals. This AC is not intended to modify, change, or cancel existing equipment design or airworthiness approvals. Equipment with existing approvals can continue to be installed within the provisions of its original design and airworthiness certification.