Guidelines for the Certification, Airworthiness, and Operational Use of Electronic Flight Bags
This joint Flight Standards Service (AFS) and Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) advisory circular (AC) contains guidance on the operational use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFB). It is intended for all operators conducting flight operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, 125, 135, or 91 subpart F (part 91F) and part 91 subpart K (part 91K) who want to replace required paper information with an EFB. This AC sets forth an acceptable means, but not the only means, to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)authorization for the operational use of EFBs. Part 91 operators can find additional EFB information in the current edition of AC 91-78, Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). For guidance on the installation of EFB components, refer to the current edition of AC 20-173, Installation of Electronic Flight Bag Components.
Pilot Records Improvement Act of 1996
The Pilot Records Improvement Act of 1996 (PRIA), as amended, was enacted to ensure that air carriers and air operators adequately investigate a pilot’s background before allowing that pilot to conduct commercial air carrier flights. Under PRIA, a hiring employer cannot place a pilot into service until he or she obtains and reviews the last 5 years of the pilot’s background and other safety-related records as specified in PRIA.
This advisory circular (AC) is supplemented by the current edition of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8000.88, PRIA Guidance for FAA Inspectors, and numerous other documents found on the PRIA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/pilots/lic_cert/pria. These sources of detailed information related to PRIA provide invaluable assistance to the certificate holder or others concerning the PRIA request process as well as other compliance issues.
The FAA has greatly expanded this AC from the previous version to address operational situations that the hiring employer may encounter that could affect his or her records request process through PRIA.
The Flight Standards Service (AFS) is committed to a stakeholder-driven system of operation that will deliver FAA records and assistance to all parties subject to PRIA, when necessary.
Incorporation of Fuel Tank System Instructions for Continued Airworthiness into Operator Maintenance or Inspection Programs
On May 7, 2001, the Transport Airplane Fuel Tank System Design Review, Flammability Reduction and Maintenance and Inspection Requirements final rule was published in the Federal Register (FR). It has since been referred to as the 2001 Fuel Tank Safety (FTS) rule. It adopted amendments to part 25, Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 88 and operating requirements related to SFAR 88. The operating requirements included requirements to implement instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) that design approval holders (DAH) developed in compliance with SFAR 88. On November 8, 2007, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) published the Enhanced Airworthiness Program for Airplane Systems (EAPAS)/FTS final rule. The purpose of the rule is to help ensure the continued safety of transport category airplanes by improving the design, installation, and maintenance of electrical wiring systems. The EAPAS/FTS rule amended the operating requirements to implement FTS actions developed in accordance with SFAR 88. Integrating the incorporation of the fuel tank system and electrical wiring interconnection system (EWIS) requirements helps to ensure compatibility and to eliminate duplication. Additionally, the EAPAS/FTS rule redesignates (replaces) Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, § 91.410(b); part 121, § 121.370(b); part 125, § 125.248(b); and part 129, § 129.32(b) of the FTS rule. The new sections are §§ 91.1507, 121.1113, 125.507 and 129.113. These new rules also clarify language with reference to the approval process of the operator’s program. This advisory circular (AC) only addresses the fuel tank system safety requirements and describes acceptable means of compliance (AMC) accordingly. The current edition of AC 120-102, Incorporation of Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems Instructions for Continued Airworthiness into an Operator’s Maintenance Program, addresses EWIS requirements in the EAPAS/FTS rule.
Currency Requirements and Guidance for the Flight Review and Instrument Proficiency Check
This advisory circular (AC) provides information for certificated pilots and flight instructors to use in complying with the flight review required by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.56 and the recent flight experience requirements of § 61.57. This AC is particularly directed to General Aviation (GA) pilots holding sport or higher grades of pilot certificates who wish to maintain currency and to certificated flight instructors (CFI) who give flight instruction to support such activities. This AC does not apply to training programs or proficiency checks conducted pursuant to 14 CFR part 121 or 135, nor to curriculums approved pursuant to 14 CFR part 142.
Provides standards for the design of heliports serving helicopters with single rotors. Basic concepts can also be applied to facilities serving helicopters with tandem (front and rear) or dual (side by side) rotors; although many standards will not apply to these facilities.
This version adds guidance for pavement or structure larger than the touchdown and liftoff area (TLOF), but less than the size of the final approach and take off (FATO); turbulence effects; clearance between parking areas and taxi routes and within parking areas; minimum dimensions of curved approach/departure airspace; Touchdown/Positioning Circle (TDPC) Marking; Flight Path Alignment Guidance markings and lights; Emergency Helicopter Landing Facility Requirements (EHLF); FATO to FATO separation distance for simultaneous operations; revised standards for size of “H” for general aviation heliports; increased TLOF size when the FATO of a hospital heliport is not load bearing; and Heliport Protection Zone (HPZ) for hospital heliports. See "Principal Changes" for a complete list.
Airworthiness Approval for ADS-B in Systems and Applications
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the initial and follow-on installations of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) In systems supporting ground and airborne traffic applications. These applications are defined in TSO-C195a, Avionics Supporting Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Aircraft Surveillance Applications (ASA). The applications discussed in this AC are designed to support basic situational awareness as well as the In-Trail Procedure. As more advanced applications mature, this AC will be updated to reflect those added to TSO-C195a.
Emergency Evacuation Demonstrations
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on means, but not the only means, of compliance with Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25 concerning: (1) conduct of full?scale emergency evacuation demonstrations, and (2) use of analysis and tests in lieu of conducting an actual demonstration. Throughout this AC, any reference to a full-scale demonstration, unless further qualified, means an evacuation demonstration in which a full complement of passengers and the requisite number of crewmembers evacuate an airplane using assist means, if installed, under the conditions specified in part 25, appendix J. References to “appendix J” means 14 CFR part 25, appendix J. Additionally, any reference to an analysis, which is to be used to satisfy the emergency evacuation requirements of part 25, means a formal analysis document supported by data from tests or demonstrations. Terms such as “shall” and “must” are used only in the sense of ensuring applicability of this particular means of compliance when the acceptable means of compliance described herein is used.
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance and information to owners and operators of aircraft concerning their responsibility for complying with Airworthiness Directives (AD) and recording AD compliance in the appropriate maintenance records.
Design and Installation Guidance for an Airborne System for Non-Required Telecommunication Service in Non Aeronautical Frequency Bands
A. In this advisory circular (AC), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends one way to gain airworthiness approval for an Airborne System for Non-Required Telecommunication (ASNRT) service equipment in the cockpit. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to gain airworthiness approval for your ASNRT equipment. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
B. ASNRT equipment is intended to provide flight crews with voice and data communication service over non aeronautical frequency bands. ASNRT consists of electronic onboard equipment which is not required for any phase of operation nor intended for Minimum Equipment List (MEL) dispatch relief.
C. The guidelines contained in this AC are not intended to support airborne systems used for safety of flight communication such as Air Traffic Services (ATS), Airline Operational Control (AOC), or communication systems used to fulfill an operating requirement for a communication system. In addition, this AC provides guidance for aircraft equipment capable of subscribing to the FAA System Wide Information Management (SWIM) infrastructure.
Qualifications for Wildlife Biologist Conducting Wildlife Hazard Assessments and Training Curriculums for Airport Personnel Involved in Controlling Wildlife Hazards on Airports (Consolidated AC includes Change 1)
Describes the qualifications for wildlife biologists who conduct Wildlife Hazard Assessments (WHA) for airports certificated under 14 CFR Part 139 and at non-certificated airports funded by the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) or Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program. Addresses the minimum wildlife hazard management curriculum for the initial and recurrent training of airport personnel who implement an FAA-approved Wildlife Hazard Management Plan (WHMP).
Consolidated AC includes Change 1 dated 1/31/2013. See also--
Transport Airplane Landing Gear Retracting Mechanism
This advisory circular (AC) describes an acceptable means for showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.729 regarding the landing gear retracting mechanism requirements. It will be incorporated into AC 25-21, “Certification of Transport Airplane Structure” and 25-22, “Certification of Transport Airplane Mechanical Systems” at a later date.
Design Approval Holder Best Practices for Service Bulletins Related to Airworthiness Directives
This advisory circular (AC) presents various best practices for design approval holders (DAHs) of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances when drafting service bulletins (SBs) related to an airworthiness directive (AD). This AC also provides information and guidance on avoiding overlapping and conflicting actions in SBs, ex parté communication, alternative methods of compliance (AMOCs), and maintaining airworthiness of AD-mandated design changes.
Aviation Safety Reporting Program
This advisory circular (AC) describes the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation Safety Reporting Program (ASRP) which utilizes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a third party to receive and process Aviation Safety Reports. This cooperative safety reporting program invites pilots, controllers, Flight Attendants (F/A), maintenance personnel, dispatchers, and other users of the National Airspace System (NAS), or any other person, to report to NASA actual or potential discrepancies and deficiencies involving the safety of aviation operations. The operations covered by the program include departure, en route, approach, and landing operations and procedures; air traffic control (ATC) procedures and equipment; crew and ATC communications; aircraft cabin operations; aircraft movement on the airport; near midair collisions (NMAC); aircraft maintenance and recordkeeping; and airport conditions or services. The effectiveness of this program in improving safety depends on the free, unrestricted flow of information from the users of the NAS. Based on information obtained from this program, the FAA will take corrective action as necessary to remedy defects or deficiencies in the NAS. The reports may also provide data for improving the current system and planning for a future system.
Controls for Flight Deck Systems
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the installation and airworthiness approval of flight deck system control devices, from primarily a human factors perspective. It does not address primary flight controls, secondary flight controls, or controls that are not located in the flight deck. This AC addresses traditional dedicated controls such as physical switches and knobs, as well as multifunction controls such as touch screens and cursor control devices.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Operations
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a new rule contained in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, §§ 91.225 and 91.227. This rule requires Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out performance when operating in designated classes of airspace within the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) after January 1, 2020. This advisory circular (AC) provides users of the NAS guidance on a means of conducting flight operations in accordance with §§ 91.225 and 91.227. The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) provides an overview of, and the appendices in this AC provide guidance for, additional operations enabled by ADS-B. Appendix 2 contains a list of ADS-B-related definitions.
The intent of this advisory circular is to facilitate operation using Automatic Dependent Surveillance -Broadcast (ADS) technology in compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulation (14 CFR) part 91, &&91.225 and 91.227, which are effective after January 1, 2020.
Systems and Equipment Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes and Airships
This advisory circular (AC) sets forth an acceptable means of showing compliance with Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), part 23, for the certification of systems and equipment in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes and airships. The policy in this AC is considered applicable for airship projects; however, the certifying office should only use specific applicability and requirements if they are determined to be reasonable, applicable and relevant to the airship project. This AC applies to Subpart D from § 23.671 and Subpart F. This AC both consolidates existing policy documents, and certain ACs that cover specific paragraphs of the regulations, into a single document and adds new guidance.
This document is intended to provide guidance for the original issue of part 23 and the various amendments through Amendment 23-62. This version of the AC covers policy available through December 31, 2007, Policy that became available after December 31, 2007, will be consolidated in future revisions to the AC.
System Safety Analysis and Assessment for Part 23 Airplanes
This advisory circular (AC) sets forth an acceptable means of showing compliance with Title 14 of the Code .of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), § 23.1309, through Amendment 23-6.2: for equipment, systems, and installations in 14 CFR part 23 airplanes. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It is issued for guidance purposes and to outline a method of compliance with the rules. An applicant may elect to follow an alternate method, provided the FAA finds it to be an acceptable means of complying with the applicable requirements of 14 CFR. However, if the applicant uses the means described in the AC, they must follow it in all important respects.
Installation of Electronic Display in Part 23 Airplanes
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for showing compliance with certain requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 23, as well as general guidance for the design, installation, integration, and approval of electronic flight deck displays, components, and systems installed in part 23 category airplanes. The guidance provided in this document is directed to airplane and avionics manufacturers, modifiers, and operators of part 23 category airplanes. Applicants for a technical standard order (TSO) should consider following the guidance in this AC when the TSO requirements do not provide sufficient guidance. The main purpose of this revision of the AC is providing the guidance for the requirements in the turbojet rulemaking and some general updating due to lessons learned and advance and emerging technologies.
Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes
a. This advisory circular (AC) sets forth an acceptable means, but not the only means, of showing compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 23 concerning flight tests and pilot judgements. Material in this AC is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature and does not constitute a regulation.
b. This AC is one method being utilized to achieve national standardization in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes. This AC applies to Subpart B and various sections under Subparts A, D, E, F and G from § 23.1 through § 23.1589. This AC consolidates existing policy documents, and certain ACs that cover specific paragraphs of the regulations, into a single document.
c. This material is intended as a ready reference for part 23 airplane manufacturers, modifiers, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) design evaluation engineers, flight test engineers, and engineering flight test pilots, including Organization Delegation Option (DOA).
Airport Ground Vehicle Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Squitter Equipment
Provides guidance on the development, installation, testing, approval, and maintenance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Out squitter units for airport ground vehicles. Using this AC, airports will be able to acquire approved and authorized airport ground vehicle ADS-B squitter units that are compliant with Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 91, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Out Performance Requirements to Support Air Traffic Control (ATC) Service, as well as the initial set of ADS-B applications. Please note that the technical specifications for manufacturing ADS-B squitter units for airport ground vehicles are published in the FAA’s document, Vehicle Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Specification, Version 2.4, published May 1, 2012.
Contact the appropriate FAA Airport District Office or Regional Airports Division to discuss Airport Improvement Program (AIP) eligibility.
Learn more about Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B).
Guidance Material for 14 CFR § 35.23, Propeller Control System
This advisory circular (AC) provides definitions and guidance for demonstrating compliance with the propeller control system requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR 35.23).
Instrument Flight Procedure Validation (IFPV) of Satellite-based Instrument Flight Procedures (IFP)
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for conducting Instrument Flight Procedure Validation (IFPV) of Satellite-Based Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Instrument Flight Procedures (IFP) for both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft. This also addresses validation of helicopter wide area augmentation system (WAAS) special IFP. This document supplements and does not change the requirements of FAA Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual. It describes ground validation, preflight validation (including simulator evaluation and obstacle assessment), and flight validation.
Certification Maintenance Requirements
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on the selection, documentation, and control of Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMR). This AC also provides a rational basis for coordinating the Maintenance Review Board (MRB), if the MRB process is used, and CMR selection processes to ensure premises made in the system safety analyses supporting the compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.1309, and other system safety rules (such as §§ 25.671, 25.783, 25.901, and 25.933) are protected in service. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for selecting, documenting, and managing CMRs. Terms such as "shall" and "must" are used only in the sense of ensuring applicability of this particular means of compliance when the acceptable means of compliance described herein is used.
Standards for Using Remote Sensing Technologies in Airport Surveys
Provides guidance on the use of remote sensing technologies in the collection of data describing the physical infrastructure of an airport. This version is a substantial rewrite and includes new sections on remote sensing technologies other than aerial imagery (primarily LIDAR) for collecting airport data. See also the Airports GIS website.
Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports
Provides standards for the construction of airports. Items covered in this AC include general provisions, earthwork, flexible base courses, rigid base courses, flexible surface courses, rigid pavement, fencing, drainage, turfing, and lighting installation.
Access related Pay Reduction Spreadsheets on our Airport Design Software page.