Section 4. Route Assignment
4-4-1. ROUTE USE
Clear aircraft via routes consistent with the altitude
stratum in which the operation is to be conducted by
one or more of the following:
Except for certain NAVAIDs/routes used by scheduled air
carriers or authorized for specific uses in the control of IFR
aircraft, Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes, and NAVAIDs
established for use at specified altitudes are shown on
U.S. government charts or DOD FLIP charts.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-5-2, NAVAID Terms.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-1-2, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4-5-6, Minimum En Route Altitudes.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 5-6-1, Application.
a. Designated ATS routes.
VICTOR (color) (airway number)(the word Romeo when
RNAV for existing Alaska routes),
J (route number) (the word Romeo when RNAV for existing
Q (route number)
Tango (route number)
SUBSTITUTE (ATS route) FROM (fix) to (fix),
IR (route number).
CROSS/JOIN VICTOR/(color) (airway number), (number
of miles) MILES (direction) OF (fix).
b. Radials, courses, azimuths to or from
(name of NAVAID) (specified) RADIAL/COURSE/AZIMUTH,
(fix) AND (fix),
RADIALS OF (ATS route) AND (ATS route).
c. Random routes.
1. When not being radar monitored,
GNSSequipped RNAV aircraft on random RNAV
routes must be cleared via or reported to be
established on a pointtopoint route.
(a) The points must be published NAVAIDs,
waypoints, fixes or airports recallable from the
aircraft's navigation database. The points must be
displayed on controller video maps or depicted on the
controller chart displayed at the control position.
When applying nonradar separation the maximum
distance between points must not exceed 500 miles.
(b) Protect 4 miles either side of the route
(c) Assigned altitudes must be at or above the
highest MIA along the projected route segment being
flown, including the protected airspace of that route
DIRECT (name of NAVAID/waypoint/fix/airport)
A random impromptu routing is a direct course initiated by
ATC or requested by the pilot during flight. Aircraft are
cleared from their present position to a NAVAID, waypoint,
fix, or airport.
After (fix) proceed direct (fix)
A pointtopoint route segment begins and ends with a
published NAVAID, waypoint, fix, or airport.
d. DME arcs of NAVAIDS.
e. Radials, courses, azimuths, and headings of
departure or arrival routes.
h. Fixes defined in terms of degree‐distance from
NAVAIDs for special military operations.
i. Courses, azimuths, bearings, quadrants, or
radials within a radius of a NAVAID.
CLEARED TO FLY (general direction from NAVAID) OF
(NAVAID name and type) BETWEEN (specified)
COURSES TO/BEARINGS FROM/RADIALS (NAVAID
name when a NDB) WITHIN (number of miles) MILE
CLEARED TO FLY (specified) QUADRANT OF (NAVAID
name and type) WITHIN (number of miles) MILE RADIUS.
1. “Cleared to fly east of Allentown VORTAC between the
zero four five and the one three five radials within four zero
2. “Cleared to fly east of Crystal Lake radio beacon
between the two two five and the three one five courses to
Crystal Lake within three zero mile radius.”
3. “Cleared to fly northeast quadrant of Philipsburg
VORTAC within four zero mile radius.”
j. Fixes/waypoints defined in terms of:
1. Published name; or
2. Degree-distance from NAVAIDs; or
3. Latitude/longitude coordinates, state the
latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes
including the direction from the axis such as North or
“32 DEGREES, 45 MINUTES NORTH,
105 DEGREES, 37 MINUTES WEST.”
4. Offset from published or established ATS
route at a specified distance and direction for random
(impromptu) RNAV Routes.
DIRECT TO THE (facility) (radial) (distance) FIX.
OFFSET(distance) RIGHT/LEFT OF (route).
“Direct to the Appleton three one zero radial two five mile
“Offset eight miles right of Victor six.”
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 238 Aircraft Equipment Suffix.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 253 NAVAID Fixes
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 412, Exceptions
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 551, Application
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 654, Minima Along Other Than Established
Airways or Routes.
P/CG Term Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
4-4-2. ROUTE STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS
effect transition within or between route structures, clear
an aircraft by one or more of the following methods, based on NAVAIDs or RNAV:
a. Vector aircraft to or from radials, courses, or
azimuths of the ATS route assigned.
b. Assign a SID/STAR.
c. Clear departing or arriving aircraft to climb or
descend via radials, courses, or azimuths of the ATS
d. Clear departing or arriving aircraft directly to or
between the NAVAIDs forming the ATS route
e. Clear aircraft to climb or descend via the ATS
route on which flight will be conducted.
f. Clear aircraft to climb or descend on specified
radials, courses, or azimuths of NAVAIDs.
g. Clear RNAV aircraft between designated or
established ATS routes via random RNAV routes to
a NAVAID, waypoint, airport or fix on the new route.
h. Provide radar monitoring to RNAV equipped
aircraft transitioning via random RNAV routes.
EXCEPTION. GNSS equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S,
and /V not on a random impromptu route.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 412, Exceptions.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 441, Route Use.
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 551, Application.
P/CG Term - Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[ICAO].
4-4-3. DEGREE-DISTANCE ROUTE
DEFINITION FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS
a. Do not accept a military flight plan whose route
or route segments do not coincide with designated
airways or jet routes or with a direct course between
NAVAIDs unless it is authorized in subpara b and
meets the following degree-distance route definition
and procedural requirements:
1. The route or route segments must be defined
in the flight plan by degree-distance fixes composed
(a) A location identifier;
(b) Azimuth in degrees magnetic; and
(c) Distance in miles from the NAVAID used.
2. The NAVAIDs selected to define the
degree-distance fixes must be those authorized for
use at the altitude being flown and at a distance within
the published service volume area.
3. The distance between the fixes used to define
the route must not exceed:
(a) Below FL 180- 80 miles;
(b) FL 180 and above- 260 miles; and
(c) For celestial navigation routes, all
altitudes- 260 miles.
4. Degree-distance fixes used to define a route
must be considered compulsory reporting points
except that an aircraft may be authorized by ATC to
omit reports when traffic conditions permit.
5. Military aircraft using degree-distance route
definition procedures must conduct operations in
accordance with the following:
(a) Unless prior coordination has been
effected with the appropriate air traffic control
facility, flight plan the departure and the arrival
phases to conform with the routine flow of traffic
when operating within 75 miles of the departure and
the arrival airport. Use defined routes or airways or
direct courses between NAVAIDs or as otherwise
required to conform to the normal flow of traffic.
(b) Flight plans must be filed at least 2 hours
before the estimated time of departure.
b. The following special military operations are
authorized to define routes, or portions of routes, by
1. Airborne radar navigation, radar bomb
scoring (RBS), and airborne missile programming
conducted by the USAF, USN, and RAF.
2. Celestial navigation conducted by the USAF,
USN, and RAF.
3. Target aircraft operating in conjunction with
air defense interceptors, and air defense interceptors
while en route to and from assigned airspace.
4. Missions conducted above FL 450.
5. USN fighter and attack aircraft operating in
positive control airspace.
6. USN/USMC aircraft, TACAN equipped,
operating within the Honolulu FIR/Hawaiian airways
7. USAF/USN/USMC aircraft flight planned to
operate on MTRs.
8. USAF Air Mobility Command (AMC)
aircraft operating on approved station-keeping
equipment (SKE) routes in accordance with the
conditions and limitations listed in FAA Exemption
No. 4371 to 14 CFR Section 91.177(a)(2) and
14 CFR Section 91.179(b)(1).
4-4-4. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES
When any part of an airway or route is unusable
because of NAVAID status, clear aircraft that are not
RNAV capable via one of the following alternative
a. A route depicted on current U.S. Government
charts/publications. Use the word “substitute”
immediately preceding the alternative route in
issuing the clearance.
b. A route defined by specifying NAVAID radials,
courses, or azimuths.
c. A route defined as direct to or between
Inform area navigation aircraft that will proceed to the
NAVAID location of the NAVAID outage.
4-4-5. CLASS G AIRSPACE
Include routes through Class G airspace only when
requested by the pilot.
1. Flight plans filed for random RNAV routes through
Class G airspace are considered a request by the pilot.
2. Flight plans containing MTR segments in/through
Class G airspace are considered a request by the pilot.
4-4-6. DIRECT CLEARANCES
Unless operational necessity dictates, do not
issue a routing clearance that will take an aircraft off
of its flight plan route if:
1. The aircraft is part of a known traffic
2. The part of the route under consideration
for the direct routing is within a protected
segment. If a flight routing within a protected
segment is amended, coordination must be
accomplished as follows:
(a) ATCS: with TMU.
(b) Terminal facility TMU: with overlying
(c) ARTCC TMU (for amendments outside
their facility): with ATCSCC.
b. EN ROUTE. Do not issue revised routing
clearances that will take an aircraft off its flight plan
route past the last fix in your facility's airspace, unless
requested by the pilot or operational necessity
Nothing in this paragraph must preclude a controller from
issuing a routing clearance that conforms to a letter of
agreement or standard operating procedure within their
own facility or between facilities, is required to maintain
separation or comply with traffic flow management