Subpart A   Subpart B   Subpart C   Subpart D   Subpart E   Subpart F   Subpart G   Appendix A
Section Title Amendments
0.0 Authority Citation 47, 55
top Subpart A - General  
23.1 Applicability. N, 10, 34
23.2 Special retroactive requirements. 32, 36
23.3 Airplane Categories. N, 4, 34, 50
top Subpart B - Flight  
  General  
23.21 Proof of compliance. N
23.23 Load distribution limits. N, 17, 45
23.25 Weight limits. N, 2, 7, 21,  34, 45, 50
23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity N, 21
23.31 Removable ballast. N, 13
23.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. N, 45, 50
  Performance  
23.45 General. N,21,34,45,50
23.49 Stalling Speed. N,7,21,44,50
23.51 Takeoff. N,7,21,34,50
23.53 Takeoff speeds. 34,45,50
23.55 Accelerate-stop distance. 34,50
23.57 Takeoff path. 34,50
23.59 Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 34,50
23.61 Takeoff flight path. 34
23.63 Climb:� General. 50
23.65 Climb:� All engines operating. N,7,21,34,45, 50
23.66 Takeoff Climb: One engine inoperative. 50
23.67 Climb: One engine inoperative. N,7,21,34,39, 42,44,50
23.69 Enroute Climb/descent. 50
23.71 Glide:� Single engine airplanes. 50
23.73 Reference landing approach speed. 50
23.75 Landing. N,7,21,34, 42,50
23.77 Balked landing. N,7,21,34,50
  Flight Characteristics  
23.141 General. N,7,17,45
  Controllability and Maneuverability  
23.143 General. N,14,17,45,50
23.145 Longitudinal control. N,7,14,17, 45,50
23.147 Directional and lateral control. N,45, 50
23.149 Minimum control speed. N,7,21,45,50
23.151 Acrobatic maneuvers. N
23.153 Control during landing. 14,45,50
23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. 14,45,50
23.157 Rate of roll. 14,45,50
  Trim  
     
23.161 Trim. N,7,14,21, 34,42,50
  Stability  
23.171 General. N
23.173 Static longitudinal stability. N,14,34
23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. N,7,14,17, 21,34, 45,50
23.177 Static directional and lateral stability. N,21,45,50
23.179 Instrumented stick force measurements. N,45
23.181 Dynamic stability. N,21,45
  Stalls  
23.201 Wings level stall. N,7,14,45,50
23.203 Turning flight and accelerated stalls. N,14,45,50
23.205 Critical engine inoperative stalls. N,3,14,45,50
23.207 Stall warning. N,7,45,50
  Spinning  
23.221 Spinning. N,7,42,50
  Ground and Water Handling Characteristics  
23.231 Longitudinal stability and control. N
23.233 Directional stability and control. N,45,50
23.235 Taxiing, takeoff, and landing condition. N,45,50
23.237 Operation on water. 50
23.239 Spray characteristics. N
  Miscellaneous Flight Requirements  
23.251 Vibration and buffeting. N,45
23.253 High speed characteristics. 7,26,45,50
top Subpart C - Structure  
  General  
23.301 Loads. N,28,42, 48
23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. 42
23.303 Factor of safety. N
23.305 Strength and deformation. N,45
23.307 Proof of structure. N
  Flight Loads  
23.321 General. N,45
23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. N, 42
23.333 Flight envelope. N,7,34
23.335 Design airspeeds. N,7,16,34,48
23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. N,7,34, 48
23.341 Gust loads factors. N,7,34,42,48
23.343 Design fuel loads 48
23.345 High lift devices. N,7,23,48
23.347 Unsymmetrical flight conditions. N,48
23.349 Rolling conditions. N,7,34,48
23.351 Yawing conditions. N,42
23.361 Engine torque. N,7,26,45
23.363 Side load on engine mount. N
23.365 Pressurized cabin loads. N
23.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure. 7
23.369 Rear lift truss. N,7,45,48
23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads. 7,26,45,48
23.373 Speed control devices. 7
  Control Surface and System Loads  
23.391 Control surface loads. N,48
23.393 Loads parallel to hinge line. 48
23.395 Control system loads. N,7,
23.397 Limit control forces and torques. N,7,17,34,45
23.399 Dual control system. N,48
23.405 Secondary control system. N
23.407 Trim tab effects. N
23.409 Tabs. N
23.415 Ground gust conditions. N,7,45,48
  Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces  
23.421 Balancing loads. N,7,42
23.423 Maneuvering loads. N,7,42
23.425 Gust loads. N,7,42
23.427 Unsymmetrical loads. N,14,42
  Vertical Surfaces  
23.441 Maneuvering loads. N,7,14,28, 42,48
23.443 Gust loads. N,7,34,42,48
23.445 Outboard fins or winglets. N,14,42
  Ailerons, Wing Flaps, and Special Devices  
23.455 Ailerons. N,7,42,48
23.457 Wing Flaps [Removed] N,48
23.459 Special devices. N
  Ground Loads  
23.471 General. N
23.473 Ground load conditions and assumptions. N,7,28,45,48
23.477 Landing gear arrangement. N
23.479 Level landing conditions. N,17,45
23.481 Tail down landing conditions. N
23.483 One-wheel landing conditions. N
23.485 Side load conditions. N,45
23.493 Braked roll conditions. N
23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels. N,48
23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. N,48
23.505 Supplementary conditions for ski-planes. N,7
23.507 Jacking loads. 14
23.509 Towing loads. 14
23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. 7
  Water Loads  
23.521 Water load conditions. N,45,48
23.523 Design weights and center of gravity positions. 45
23.525 Application of loads. 45
23.527 Hull and main float load factors. 45
23.529 Hull and main float landing conditions. 45
23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. 45
23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. 45
23.535 Auxiliary loads. 45
23.537 Seawing loads. 45
  Emergency Landing Conditions  
23.561 General. N,7,34,36,48
23.562 Emergency landing dynamic conditions. 36,44, 50
  Fatigue Evaluation  
23.571 Pressurized cabin. N,14,34,45,48
23.572 Wing, empennage, and associated structures. 7,14,34,38,45,48
23.573 Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure. 45,48
23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of Commuter Category airplanes. 48
23.575 Inspections and other procedures. 48
top Subpart D - Design and Construction  
23.601 Design and Construction - General. N
23.603 Materials and workmanship. N,17,23
23.605 Fabrication methods. N,23
23.607 Self-locking nuts. N,17,48
23.609 Protection of structure. N
23.611 Accessibility. N,7,48
23.613 Material strength properties and design values. N,23,45
23.615 Design Properties. [Removed] N,7,45
23.617 Interchangeability of seam-welded and seamless steel tubing. N
23.617 [Deleted] 7
23.619 Special factors. N,7
23.621 Casting factors. N,45
23.623 Bearing factors. N,7
23.625 Fitting factors. N,7
23.627 Fatigue strength. N
23.629 Flutter. N,7,23,31,45, 48
  Wings  
23.641 Proof of strength. N
23.643 Rib tests.[Deleted] N,7
  Control Surfaces  
23.651 Proof of strength N
23.655 Installation. N,45
23.657 Hinges. N,48
23.659 Mass balance. N
  Control Systems  
23.671 General. N
23.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. 45
23.673 Primary flight controls. N,48
23.675 Stops. N,17
23.677 Trim systems. N,7,34,42,49
23.679 Control system locks. N,45
23.681 Limit load static tests. N
23.683 Operation tests. N,7
23.685 Control system details. N,17
23.687 Spring devices. N
23.689 Cable systems. N,7
23.691 Artificial stall barrier system 49
23.693 Joints. N
23.697 Wing flap controls. N, 49
23.699 Wing flap position indicator. N
23.701 Flap interconnection. N,14,42,49
23.703 Takeoff warning system. 49
  Landing Gear  
23.721 General. N,7,34
23.723 Shock absorption tests. N,23,49
23.725 Limit drop tests. N,7,48
23.726 Ground load dynamic tests. 7
23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. N,7
23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. N,7,21,26,45, 49
23.731 Wheels. N,45
23.733 Tires. N,7,17,45
23.735 Brakes. N,7,24,42,49
23.737 Skis. N,45
23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. 49
  Floats and Hulls  
23.751 Main float buoyancy. N,45
23.753 Main float design. N,45
23.755 Hulls. N,45,48
23.757 Auxiliary floats. N
  Personnel and Cargo Accommodations  
23.771 Pilot compartment. N,14
23.773 Pilot compartment view. N,14,45
23.775 Windshields and windows. N,7,45,49
23.777 Cockpit controls. N,7,33,51
23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls. N,33,51
23.781 Cockpit control knob shape. N,33
23.783 Doors. N,34,36,46,49
23.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. N,7,19,23, 32,34,36,49
23.787 Baggage and cargo compartments. N,14,17,34, 36,49
23.791 Passenger information signs. 49
23.803 Emergency evacuation. 34,46
23.805 Flightcrew emergency exits. 46
23.807 Emergency exits. N,7,10,34, 36,46, 49
23.811 Emergency exit marking. 36,46
23.812 Emergency lighting. 46
23.813 Emergency exit access. 36,46
23.815 Width of aisle. 34,46
23.831 Ventilation. N,34,42
  Pressurization  
23.841 Pressurized cabins. N,7,14,17,49
23.843 Pressurization tests. N
  Fire Protection  
23.851 Fire extinguishers. 34,45
23.853 Compartment interiors. N,14,23,25, 34,49
23.855 Cargo and Baggage Compartment Fire Protection 49
23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. N,5,27
23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. 23, 34
23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 14,45,48
  Lightning Evaluation  
23.867 Lightning protection of structure. 7,49
  Miscellaneous  
23.871 Leveling means. N,7
top Subpart E - Powerplant  
  General  
23.901 Installation. N,7,18,29, 34,43, 51, 53
23.903 Engines. N,14,17,26, 29,34, 40, 43,51,53,54
23.904 Automatic power reserve system. 43
23.905 Propellers. N,26,29,43
23.907 Propeller vibration. N,51
23.909 Turbosuperchargers. (Turbocharger systems.) 7,43
23.925 Propeller clearance. N,43, 48, 51
23.929 Engine installation ice protection. 14,51
23.933 Reversing systems. 7,17,34,39,43,51
23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. 43
23.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems. 7,43
23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics. 7,14,18,42
23.943 Negative acceleration. 18,43
  Fuel System  
23.951 General. N,15,40,43
23.953 Fuel system independence. N,7,43
23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. 7
23.955 Fuel flow. N,7,43,51
23.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. N,43
23.959 Unusable fuel supply. N,7,18,51
23.961 Fuel system hot weather operations. N,43
23.963 Fuel tanks: General. N,34,43,51
23.965 Fuel tank tests. N,43, 51
23.967 Fuel tank installation. N,7,14,18, 26,36, 43
23.969 Fuel tank expansion space. N
23.971 Fuel tank sump. N,17,43
23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. N,18,43,51
23.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. N,18,29,43,51
23.977 Fuel tank outlet. N,17,43
23.979 Pressure fueling systems. 14,51
  Fuel System Components  
23.991 Fuel pumps. N,7,26,43
23.993 Fuel system lines and fittings. N,43
23.994 Fuel system components. 7,29
23.995 Fuel valves and controls. N,14,17,18,29
23.997 Fuel strainer or filter. N,7,15,29, 34,43
23.999 Fuel system drains. N,17,43
23.1001 Fuel jettisoning system. 7,43,51
  Oil System  
23.1011 General. N,43
23.1013 Oil tanks. N,15,43,51
23.1015 Oil tank tests. N,15
23.1017 Oil lines and fittings. N,7,14
23.1019 Oil strainer or filter. N,15,29,43
23.1021 Oil system drains. N,29,43
23.1023 Oil radiators. N
23.1027 Propeller feathering system. N,14,43
  Cooling  
23.1041 General. N,7,43,51
23.1043 Cooling tests. N,7,21,51
23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. N,7,51
23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine-powered airplanes. N,7,21,42, 43,51
  Liquid Cooling  
23.1061 Installation. N,43
23.1063 Coolant tank tests. N
  Induction System  
23.1091 Air induction system. N,7,43,51
23.1093 Induction system icing protection. N,7,15,17, 18,29, 43, 51
23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. N
23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. N
23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. N
23.1101 Carburetor air preheater design. N,43
23.1103 Induction system ducts. N,7,43
23.1105 Induction system screens. N,51
23.1107 Induction system filters. 43,51
23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. 42
23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. 7,17
  Exhaust System  
23.1121 General. N,7,18,43,51
23.1123 Exhaust manifold. (Exhaust system.) N,43
23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. N,17
  Powerplant Controls and Accessories  
23.1141 Powerplant controls: General. N,7,14,18,51
23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls. 43
23.1143 Engine controls. N,7,17,29, 43,51
23.1145 Ignition switches. N,18,43
23.1147 Mixture controls. N,7,33,43
23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls. N
23.1153 Propeller feathering controls. N,51
23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. 7
23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. N
23.1163 Powerplant accessories. N,14,29,34,42
23.1165 Engine ignition systems. N,17,34
  Powerplant Fire Protection  
23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. 43,51
23.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls. 14
23.1183 Lines, fittings, and components. N,5,14,15, 29,51
23.1189 Shutoff means. N,7,14,29,43
23.1191 Firewalls. N,43,51
23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 14
23.1193 Cowling and nacelle. N,18,34,43
23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. 34,43
23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents. 34
23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. 34
23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. 34
23.1203 Fire detector system. 18,34,43,51
top Subpart F - Equipment  
  General  
23.1301 Function and installation. N,7,14,20
23.1303 Flight and navigation instruments. N,17,43,49
23.1305 Powerplant instruments. N,7,14,15, 18,26, 34, 43, 51,52
23.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. N,19,23,43,49
23.1309 Equipment, systems, and installations. 14,17,34,41,49
  Instruments: Installation  
23.1311 Electronic display instrument systems. 41, 49
23.1321 Arrangement and visibility. N,14,20,41,49
23.1322 Warning, caution, and advisory lights. 17,43
23.1323 Airspeed indicating system. N,7,20,34,42,49
23.1325 Static pressure system. N,1,6,20,34,42,49,50
23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. 49
23.1327 Magnetic direction indicator. N,20
23.1329 Automatic pilot system. N,23,43,49
23.1331 Instruments using a power source. N,43
23.1335 Flight director systems. 20
23.1337 Powerplant instruments. N,7,18,43,49, 51
  Electrical Systems and Equipment  
23.1351 General. N,7,14,17, 20,34, 43,49
23.1353 Storage battery design and installation. N,20,21,49
23.1357 Circuit protective devices. N,20,43
23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. 49
23.1361 Master switch arrangement. N,20,43,49
23.1365 Electric cables and equipment. N,14,43,49
23.1367 Switches. N
  Lights  
23.1381 Instrument lights. N
23.1383 Landing lights. N, 49
23.1385 Position light system installation. N,17,43
23.1387 Position light system dihedral angles. N,12,43
23.1389 Position light distribution and intensities. N,43
23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. N,43
23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights. N,43
23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. N,43
23.1397 Color specifications. N,11
23.1399 Riding light. N
23.1401 Anticollision light system. N,11,20,49
  Safety Equipment  
23.1411 General. N,17,36
23.1413 Safety belts and harnesses.[Removed] N,7,22,36,49
23.1415 Ditching equipment. N
23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23
23.1419 Ice protection. N,14,43
  Miscellaneous Equipment  
23.1431 Electronic equipment. N,43,49
23.1435 Hydraulic systems. N,7,14,43,49
23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. N
23.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic systems. 20
23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. 9,43
23.1443 Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen. 9,43
23.1445 Oxygen distribution system. 43
23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units. 9,20,30,43,49
23.1449 Means for determining use of oxygen. 9
23.1450 Chemical oxygen generators. 20
23.1451 Fire Protection for Oxygen Equipment 49
23.1453 Protection of Oxygen Equipment From Rupture 49
23.1457 Cockpit voice recorders. 35
23.1459 Flight recorders. 35
23.1461 Equipment containing high-energy rotors. 20,49
top Subpart G - Operating Limitations and Information  
23.1501 General. N,7,21
23.1505 Airspeed limitations. N,7
23.1507 Operating Maneuvering speed. N,45
23.1511 Flap extended speed. N,50
23.1513 Minimum control speed. N
23.1519 Weight and center of gravity. N
23.1521 Powerplant limitations. N,21,45,50
23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations. 45
23.1523 Minimum flight crew. N,21,34
23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. 10
23.1525 Kinds of operation. N,45
23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. 7,45
23.1529 Instructions for Continued Airworthiness. 8,26
  Markings and Placards  
23.1541 General. N,13,21
23.1543 Instrument markings: General. N,50
23.1545 Airspeed indicator. N,3,7,23,50
23.1547 Magnetic direction indicator. N,20
23.1549 Powerplant instruments. N,17,28,45
23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. N
23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. N,50
23.1555 Control markings. N,21, 50
23.1557 Miscellaneous markings and placards. N,7,14,18, 23,45
23.1559 Operating limitations placard. N,13,21,50
23.1561 Safety Equipment. N
23.1563 Airspeed placards. N,3,7,45,50
23.1567 Flight maneuver placard. N,21,50
  Airplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material  
23.1581 General. N,13,21,34, 45,50
23.1583 Operating limitations. N,7,10,13,21, 23, 34, 45,50
23.1585 Operating procedures. N,3,5,7,13,21, 23, 34,45,50
23.1587 Performance information N,7,13,21, 28,34, 45,50
23.1589 Loading information. N,13,45,50

top
Appendix A Simplified Design Load Criteria for Conventional Single-Engine Airplanes of 6,000 Pounds or Less Maximum Weight  
A23.1 General N,7,48
A23.3 Special Symbols N,7,16,28
A23.5 Certification in More than One category N,
A23.7 Flight Loads N,
A23.9 Flight Conditions N,
A23.11 Control Surface Loads N,
A23.13 Control System Loads N,7,16
Appendix B Control Surface Landings [Reserved]  
B23.1 [Reserved] N,7,42
B23.11 [Reserved] N,7,42
Appendix C Basic Landing Conditions  
C23.1 Basic Landing Conditions N,7
Appendix D Wheel Spin-up and Spring-Back Loads  
D23.1 Wheel Spin-Up Loads N,45
Appendix E Limited Weight Credit for Airplanes Equipped With Standby Power [Removed and Reserved]  
E23 [Removed and Reserved] 2, 50
Appendix F Test Procedure  
F23 An Acceptable Test procedure for Self-extinguishing Materials for Showing Compliance with Sec. 23.853(e). 23,34,49
Appendix G Instructions for Continued Airworthiness  
G23.1 General 26
G23.2 Format 26
G23.3 Content 26,34
G23.4 Airworthiness Limitations Section 26,37
Appendix H Installation of an Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System  
H23.1 General 43
H23.2 Definitions 43
H23.3 Reliability and Performance Requirements 43
H23.4 Power Setting 43
H23.5 Powerplant Controls - general 43
H23.6 Powerplant Instruments 43
Appendix I Seaplane Loads  
I23 Seaplane Loads 45