Please see below for questions and answers about equipping. If you don't find your answer here, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- What are the ADS-B rules?
- How will the ADS-B Out rules affect aircraft operators?
- What will make me compliant to fly into ADS-B rule airspace?
- Does the rule mandate ADS-B Out only?
- Is ADS-B In required?
- When do I have to equip?
- Does Exemption 12555 mean airlines don't have to equip with ADS-B by the mandate date?
- Can I still fly IFR using my transponder if I am not going into the airspace where ADS-B out is required?
- Can I get a one-time deviation from the requirement?
- Can I fly under IFR in non-ADS-B airspace if my aircraft is not equipped with ADS-B?
- If I fly in airspace that does not require a transponder, can I still fly there without ADS-B Out?
- Does the FAA allow portable/handheld units, or do they have to be panel mounts only?
- What is the timeframe for the European mandate for ADS-B Out?
- What equipment is required by the ADS-B rule?
- Do my current avionics meet the performance requirements of the rule?
- What ADS-B equipment should I install?
- What equipment is required to receive and display ADS-B In?
- Must my position source be GPS?
- Why can't I use my phone's GPS sensor?
- What are the risks of using an uncertified position source?
- Why are portable ADS-B devices not allowed?
- Please explain the differences between the Universal Access Transceiver (978 MHz) and the 1090ES. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
- Do aircraft flying below 18,000 feet (Class A airspace) have the option of using either the 1090ES or UAT?
- Is ADS-B software important?
- How do I find out if an update is necessary?
- Should I be concerned with software updates on other components?
- How is the FAA working with installers and aircraft owners to ensure installations are rule compliant?
- I operate an amateur built experimental aircraft. What should I install?
- I operate an S-LSA aircraft. What should I install?
- Can I install only ADS-B In?
- Is it true that the flights directed into areas of GPS interference testing that has been announced via a NOTAM or operators that are affected by GPS interference will not be in violation of 14 CFR 91.227?
- What happens if there is GPS interference or a GPS outage?
- What happens if the FAA's ADS-B ground infrastructure goes down? What is the pilot's responsibility if that happens?
- Are ADS-B services available in my area?
- What is the difference between ADS-B Out and ADS-B In?
- Can you please explain the altitude and velocity reports that ADS-B provides?
- How do traffic display systems integrate with ADS-B?
- Does TIS-B broadcast noncooperative (primary) radar?
- Where are the written definitions explaining the icons on the traffic display?
- What are the limitations on ADS-R (rebroadcast) coverage?
- Is weather information broadcast on 1090ES?
- Do I have to use the same altitude source for ADS-B as my TCAS/transponder is using?
- Does the GPS antenna transmit ADS-B data?
- Will ATC see ADS-B-equipped aircraft at lower altitudes than non-ADS-B-equipped aircraft?
- Under ADS-B, will ATC always see me as N12345 even if I am not under VFR flight following or an IFR flight plan?
- Will the information broadcast by ADS-B Out be encrypted for security purposes?
- Will the FAA keep a permanent record of the tracks and other information associated with the flights of ADS-B-equipped aircraft? or is the information deleted after a period of time?
- Why is the FAA transitioning away from radar and towards ADS-B technology?
- What are FAA ADS-B In broadcast services?
- How are FAA broadcast services different from other traffic and weather advisory information?
- ADS-B In allows operators to get traffic and data-linked geographical weather for free. Is it similar to XM weather?
- Is FIS-B free? Is TIS-B free?
- Will I see military aircraft on the TIS-B screen?
What are the ADS-B rules?
The FAA published Federal Regulation 14 CFR 91.225 and 14 CFR 91.227 in May 2010. The rule dictates that after January 1, 2020, aircraft operating in airspace defined in 91.225 are required to have an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system that includes a position source capable of meeting requirements defined in 91.227. These regulations set a minimum performance standard for both ADS-B Transmitter and the position sources integrated with the ADS-B equipment.
How will the ADS-B Out rules affect aircraft operators?
When operating in the airspace designated in 14 CFR 91.225 (outlined below) you must be equipped with ADS-B Out avionics that meet the performance requirements of 14 CFR 91.227. Aircraft not complying with the requirements may be denied access to this airspace.
As described in 14 CFR 91.225, ADS-B Out performance is required to operate in:
- Class A, B, and C airspace.
- Above the ceiling and within the lateral boundaries of a Class B or Class C airspace area upward to 10,000 feet MSL.
- Class E airspace within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia at and above 10,000 feet MSL, excluding the airspace at and below 2,500 feet above the surface.
- Class E airspace at and above 3,000 feet MSL over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 nautical miles.
- Within 30 nautical miles of those airports identified in 14 CFR part 91, Appendix D. Otherwise known as the Mode C veil.
The ADS-B Out requirements do not apply in the airspace defined in item 4 above for any aircraft not originally certificated with an electrical system or that has not subsequently been certified with such a system installed, including balloons and gliders. Such aircraft may also operate within the Mode C veil as long as they remain outside the lateral boundaries of Class B or C airspace. See CFR 91.225 sections (d) and (e) for details.
Please refer to "What are the ADS-B rules?" for more information.
What will make me compliant to fly into ADS-B rule airspace?
See the information on the Installing ADS-B page.
Does the rule mandate ADS-B Out only?
Yes, only ADS-B Out is mandated, and only within certain airspace. Title 14 CFR 91.225 defines the airspace within which these requirements apply.
Is ADS-B In required?
ADS-B In is not mandated by the ADS-B Rule; only ADS-B Out is required in order to fly in the airspace mentioned in 14 CFR 91.225. At the present time, the FAA does not plan to mandate ADS-B In.
When do I have to equip?
ADS-B Out equipment is required to operate in the airspace defined in 14 CFR 91.225. If you never fly into ADS-B-designated airspace, then there is no requirement to equip. Please refer to our decision tree to help determine if you need to equip.
Does Exemption 12555 mean airlines don't have to equip with ADS-B by the mandate date?
No, Exemption 12555 did not exempt the requirement for ADS-B Out equipment to be installed and operational on aircraft flying in ADS-B rule airspace. It allowed for the extended use of an older type of GPS navigation receiver already installed in some aircraft. All other ADS-B Out equipment requirements must still be met. The exemption was granted because the kind of GPS navigation receivers suitable for transport category aircraft that meet the ADS-B Out Rule requirements were not available for purchase or installation in sufficient quantities. The exemption imposed certain conditions, limitations and additional pre-flight responsibilities on the operators. The deadline to apply for Exemption 12555 was August 1, 2018.
Can I still fly IFR using my transponder if I am not going into the airspace where ADS-B out is required?
Can I get a one-time deviation from the requirement?
The FAA has developed the ADS-B Deviation Authorization Preflight Tool (ADAPT) to manage these authorization requests. ADAPT is the only FAA recognized method for making these requests. ADAPT is intended for non-routine and non-scheduled, single flights.
In order to be considered for an ADS-B deviation authorization with ADAPT, requests must meet the following criteria:
- Aircraft must be equipped with an operational transponder and operational altitude encoder (i.e. Mode C)
- Request submitted no more than 24 hours before flight
- Request submitted no less than 1 hour before flight
Please note: The FAA will not issue in-flight authorizations to operators of non-equipped aircraft, nor will air traffic control (ATC) facilities accept requests for these types of authorizations by telephone. An ATC clearance to operate in airspace where ADS-B is required is NOT an authorization to operate without compliant ADS-B.
Please visit our ADAPT page for more information.
Can I fly under IFR in non-ADS-B airspace if my aircraft is not equipped with ADS-B?
Yes, the requirements of the ADS-B rule apply only to the airspace defined in 14 CFR 91.225, regardless of whether or not the operation is conducted under VFR or IFR.
If I fly in airspace that does not require a transponder, can I still fly there without ADS-B Out?
For the most part, ADS-B Out is required in the same airspace where transponders are required. However, to be sure of the regulatory requirements, it is best to check 14 CFR 91.225 for ADS-B-designated airspace and 14 CFR 91.215 for transponder-designated airspace.
Does the FAA allow portable/handheld units, or do they have to be panel mounts only?
Installed transponders and GPS units must meet certification standards. Handheld devices and displays that serve only for situational awareness have more flexibility and are not certified installations. In order to comply with 14 CFR 91.225 and 91.227, aircraft intended to fly in ADS-B airspace must have installed and certified equipment. Portable installations are not compliant with the rule.
TSO-C199 specifies requirements for Traffic Awareness Beacon Systems (TABS) devices. TABS devices are intended for voluntary equipage on aircraft exempted from carrying a transponder or ADS-B equipment, such as gliders, balloons and aircraft without electrical systems.
What is the timeframe for the European mandate for ADS-B Out?
Europe has mandated that all new aircraft should be equipped with ADS-B by December 7, 2020 and all retrofit aircraft be equipped by June 7, 2023. The most up to date information can be found on the SESAR ADS-B site.
What equipment is required by the ADS-B rule?
The rule specifies ADS-B Out equipment compliant with either Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C154c (Universal Access Transceiver) or TSO-C166b (1090ES). However, to operate in Class A airspace, aircraft are required to equip with avionics certified to TSO-C166b.
Do my current avionics meet the performance requirements of the rule?
Avionics shops and equipment manufacturers can help aircraft owners determine if their current equipment meets the performance requirements of the rule. They can also provide information on available options and costs associated with any required upgrades. Likewise, they can advise aircraft owners on equipment needed to install ADS-B In capability (e.g. FIS-B, TIS-B), if desired. ADS-B In is not required under the ADS-B Out rule. Advisory Circular 20-165B and 20-172B contain information about rule-compliant equipment installation and certification requirements and ADS-B In requirements.
What ADS-B equipment should I install?
Mode S transponder-based (1090 MHz) ADS-B equipment must meet the performance requirements of Technical Standard Order TSO-C166b. For aircraft operating at or above FL180 (18,000 feet), you must be equipped with a Mode S-transponder-based ADS-B transmitter. For aircraft operating below 18,000 feet and within U.S. airspace, you must be equipped with either a Mode S transponder with Extended Squitter or a Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) equipment must meet the performance requirements of TSO-C154c.
What equipment is required to receive and display ADS-B In?
ADS-B In requires either a 1090 MHz Technical Service Order TSO-C166b or 978 MHz Technical Service Order TSO-C154c. Uncertified ADS-B In systems are acceptable for use; however, the FAA strongly recommends the use of a processing system and cockpit display that conforms to ADS-B Technical Service Order TSO-C195b. The advisory circular for ADS-B In is AC 20-172B. Note that only equipment receiving UAT signals can receive weather data via FIS-B from the FAA ADS-B ground stations.
Must my position source be GPS?
Any position source that meets the performance standards of the rule (14 CFR 91.227) can be submitted for certification. GPS is currently the only available positioning source known to meet all of the requirements defined in the ADS-B Out rule.
Why can't I use my phone's GPS sensor?
Commercial GPS sensors are optimized to minimize the time to "first-fix." In other words, they are designed to output a position as quickly as possible using assumptions and measurements available. These assumptions are designed to cope with technical issues facing mobile device users, such as line-of-sight blockage in urban canyon environments, multi-path of the signals, intermittent signals, etc. These techniques and design choices can lead to misleading information given actual signal-in-space errors because the assumptions presume a working satellite.
Aviation-grade GPS sensors are designed to detect and reject satellite measurements that are in error. The driving safety goal is to mitigate the hazard of an incorrect measurement causing dangerous guidance during approach operations using GPS. This design choice causes aviation-grade sensors to acquire a position solution more slowly and can cause valid measurements to be discarded if they exhibit rare normal error distribution. The positive side is that the solution presented has a very high assurance that it lies within the radius of containment calculated by the sensor. This radius of containment is assured at 10E-7 probability and is collectively known as the Integrity metric. The Integrity metric is the basis for all safety analysis performed using GPS measurements, whether the usage is for navigation or surveillance applications.
What are the risks of using an uncertified position source?
The risk for any GPS receiver, when used to support separation services, is how far the position measurement can be in error without detection. If the position error gets large enough, air traffic control would not be able to provide safe separation between an aircraft and other traffic in the vicinity. The FAA and our international peers conducted a safety analysis prior to publishing the final ADS-B rule to determine what this error detection boundary should be. The published ADS-B performance requirements are based on the results of this safety analysis.
Certified GPS sensors compare GPS satellite measurements for errors. When satellite signal errors are large enough to detect, the receiver will reject that signal. The integrity performance specified in the ADS-B rule depends on the proper operation of this error detection feature. It ensures the safety of using ADS-B positioning based on GPS measurements.
By comparison, uncertified commercial grade GPS sensors assume the system is working properly and do not attempt to detect errors in the satellite measurements. When presented with an erroneous measurement, they will calculate an erroneous position. This was proven to be an unsafe condition by the FAA's safety analysis. Therefore, ADS-B position based on uncertified sensors are prohibited from being used to support air traffic separation and ADS-B air-to-air operations.
Why are portable ADS-B devices not allowed?
Portable ADS-B Out systems, also known as "suitcase" units, should not be operated (transmitting) aboard any aircraft, with the exception of TSO-C199 devices. While marketing associated with these units may imply approval for use by way of an FCC license, the FAA prohibits their use for the following reasons:
- The positioning of portable, suction-cup GPS antennas associated with these units often require they be affixed to front or side windows or glare shield to obtain a usable signal. This type of antenna placement may obstruct the pilot's view. Connecting wiring may also interfere with aircraft controls and instruments.
- ADS-B Out avionics require a valid Mode S code to be transmitted to operate properly with ATC automation and other ADS-B aircraft. Mode S codes, also known as the ICAO code, are assigned to an aircraft during registration and programmed into transponders and ADS-B Out avionics. Mode S codes remain static until a change in aircraft registration or identification (N-number) occurs. Portable units require users to input the Mode S code assigned to each aircraft flown. A high number of Mode S code entry errors have occurred with this procedure, which prevent proper target correlation within ATC automation systems (target drops/traffic conflict alerts) and may impede proper functioning of airborne collision avoidance systems. These errors have resulted in increased workload and unnecessary distractions for pilots and controllers.
- The positioning of an ADS-B antenna is also vital in the quality of the signal that is transmitted, and if capable, received by the ADS-B device. There have been a number of aircraft that have been identified using portable ADS-B devices with degraded performance due solely to poor antenna location.
Please explain the differences between the Universal Access Transceiver (978 MHz) and 1090ES. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
Aircraft that fly internationally and aircraft that require TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System) are already operating with Mode S transponders and many have older versions of ADS-B Out on 1090 MHz. Aircraft flying in Class A airspace must operate on the 1090 MHz frequency. General aviation users who choose the UAT (978 MHz) link may take advantage of the ADS-B traffic, weather, and aeronautical services that are transmitted on the UAT frequency at no charge but must retain their current transponder. Mode S, 1090ES users can operate in all airspace and receive ADS-B traffic services, but cannot receive FIS-B (weather and aeronautical) services.
Do aircraft flying below 18,000 feet (Class A airspace) have the option of using either the 1090ES or UAT?
Yes, aircraft can equip with either option for operations outside Class A airspace.
Is ADS-B software important?
ADS-B software updates are crucial to aviation safety. Many pilots and operators are not aware that some ADS-B Out avionics units require a software update to function properly. Some ADS-B Out units were sold and installed with the "link version 1" standard that does not comply with the 14 CFR 91.225 or 91.227. The FAA has been contacting non-compliant aircraft owners to advise them that a software upgrade is required to operate in the ADS-B required airspace.
How do I find out if an update is necessary?
The easiest way to ensure that the ADS-B Out avionics meet the performance requirements of 91.227 is to request a Public ADS-B Performance Report (PAPR) from the FAA. The PAPR is available 30 minutes after a flight on the PAPR website.
A PAPR report can be requested at any time, but it’s also a good idea to check for software updates from your ADS-B manufacturer or installer at least once per year during your annual or condition [[note: for the experimental community]] inspection.
Important Note: The PAPR website form will require the ADS-B avionics manufacturer and model information. Please have the correct information for 1090ES transmitter or universal access transceiver (UAT) and GPS/WAAS position source configuration.
Should I be concerned with software updates on other components?
Yes. Software compatibility is always an important consideration between avionics units. The software updates are especially essential for the FAA approved pairings of ADS-B Out transmitters with GPS position sources.
If the aircraft has an integrated flight instrument system, like the Garmin G1000, it may require additional updates for the ADS-B avionics to interface and function properly. Please consult with the avionics installer, equipment manufacturer and STC holder (when applicable) to determine the compatible software version.
How is the FAA working with installers and aircraft owners to ensure installations are rule compliant?
The FAA provides the automated Public ADS-B Performance Report (PAPR) tool in order to assist aircraft owners, operators, and avionics shops with the validation of the performance of the ADS-B Out equipment installed on aircraft.
If you are unable to request a PAPR or have further questions, send an e-mail to 9-AWA-AFS-300-ADSB-AvionicsCheck@faa.gov with the following information:
- Aircraft N-Number
- ADS-B Manufacturer and Model #
- Position Source Manufacturer and Model #
With the above information, the FAA will provide a Performance Report that details the installed ADS-B Out systems' compliance to the performance requirements specified in14 CFR 91.227. The Performance Report will highlight any areas that fail to meet required performance levels or avionics settings that are incorrect for the aircraft.
I operate an amateur built experimental aircraft. What should I install?
The ADS-B Out equipment installed in an aircraft must meet the performance requirements of the ADS-B TSOs. A TSO authorization, issued in accordance with 14 CFR 21 subpart O, is not required. However, ADS-B Out systems and equipment installed or used in type-certificated aircraft must have a design approval issued under 14 CFR 21 (or must be installed by field approval, if appropriate).
The performance requirements include those requirements referenced in section 3 of the applicable TSO (UAT or 1090ES), including considerations for design assurance and environmental qualification. Deviations to the requirements can be approved for equipment that does obtain a TSO authorization, as identified in 14 CFR 91.227.
For experimental category aircraft, there is no FAA approval required for the ADS-B Out system installation. Owners of these aircraft may elect to install equipment authorized under a TSO, in accordance with the installation instructions provided by the manufacturer. Alternatively, owners of these aircraft may choose to purchase uncertified equipment. For uncertified equipment, the owner should obtain a statement of compliance from the supplier, along with installation instructions, that identifies that the ADS-B equipment complies with section 3 requirements of the applicable TSO. When installed in accordance with the installation instructions, it will comply with the aircraft requirements of 14 CFR 91.227. The FAA expects manufacturers to perform appropriate engineering efforts to ensure their equipment complies with all requirements of section 3 of the TSO before issuing their statement of compliance, and expects installers to consider the guidance in the current version of AC 20-165B when performing the installation.
Owners of experimental aircraft should retain the statement of compliance from the equipment supplier in the aircraft records to assist in resolving in-service issues, should they arise. The FAA monitors compliance to the ADS-B Out requirements, and if the equipment, or an installation, is determined to be non-compliant, the aircraft may not fly in the airspace designated in 14 CFR 91.225 until the equipment or installation is brought into compliance.
I operate an S-LSA aircraft. What should I install?
Owners of standard light sport aircraft (LSA) do not need to use certified equipment, but any alteration to install ADS-B must be authorized by the aircraft manufacturer or a person authorized by the FAA (see AC 90-114A). LSA owners may alter their aircraft if they change their airworthiness certificate to an experimental certificate.
Can I install only ADS-B In?
To receive ADS-B In services from the ground network, aircraft must broadcast valid ADS-B Out messages that indicate their ADS-B In capability. Aircraft with "In" only may "piggy back" off another aircraft receiving ADS-R and TIS-B services, but this will result in a partial picture of the traffic.
Is it true that the flights directed into areas of GPS interference testing that has been announced via a NOTAM or operators that are affected by GPS interference will not be in violation of 14 CFR 91.227?
There may be times when the GPS position source cannot meet the required technical performance for compliance with 91.227 due to planned GPS interference. In the event of a scheduled interference outage of GPS, the FAA will issue a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) that identifies the airspace and time periods that may be affected by the interference. The FAA has determined that it would be impractical and not in the public interest to require operators to avoid the affected area based on the chance that an otherwise compliant flight could experience GPS interference. Accordingly, operators should proceed with their intended operation if the only impediment to their operation is possible planned GPS interference.
What happens if there is GPS interference or a GPS outage?
The FAA uses back-up systems to provide resiliency and guard against GPS interference, spoofing, or degradation. The FAA also monitors for GPS interference at its ADS-B and WAAS reference sites. In the event of GPS failure, interference, or spoofing, the FAA maintains backup terrestrial radar to provide resiliency for the National Airspace System.
There are a number of built-in ADS-B message quality indicators in the aircraft that are constantly checking accuracy and integrity of the position source information.
If operators encounter actual GPS interference during their flight that results in a degradation of ADS-B Out performance, the FAA will not consider these events to constitute noncompliance with 14 CFR 91.227.
What happens if the FAA's ADS-B ground infrastructure goes down? What is the pilot's responsibility if that happens?
If the FAA's ADS-B ground system service is unavailable at a facility, then air traffic control services are still provided using either backup surveillance or procedural separation.
Are ADS-B services available in my area?
ADS-B services are available across the U.S. including Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, San Juan, and the Gulf of Mexico.
What is the difference between ADS-B Out and ADS-B In?
ADS-B Out refers to an aircraft broadcasting its position and other information. ADS-B In refers to an aircraft receiving the broadcasts and messages from other aircraft and FAA TIS-B and FIS-B services. ADS-B In is not mandated by the ADS-B Out rule. If an operator chooses to voluntarily equip an aircraft with ADS-B In avionics, a compatible display is also necessary to see the information. Refer to AC 20-165B for information on ADS-B OUT and AC 20-172B on ADS-B IN installation and certification.
Can you please explain the altitude and velocity reports that ADS-B provides?
ADS-B reports two kinds of altitudes: barometric and geometric. Barometric or pressure altitude is the one pilots know best - this is the altitude that is displayed on the altimeter in the aircraft. Geometric altitude is calculated by GPS as the height of the aircraft above the earth ellipsoid. These two altitudes are not the same, but having both allows for applications that require one or the other as an altitude source and provides a means of verifying correct pressure altitude reporting from aircraft.
ADS-B reports horizontal and vertical velocity relative to the Earth. This velocity is useful for air traffic control functions and ADS-B applications. ADS-B does not report vertical or horizontal airspeed. Airspeed is provided by other aircraft sensors.
How do traffic display systems integrate with ADS-B?
There are several multi-function displays on the market that interface with ADS-B. The same manufacturer may produce ADS-B avionics and transponders. Before you finalize a purchase, check with an installer or avionics manufacturer to ensure the display equipment is able to interface with ADS-B avionics. Refer to AC 20-172B for information on ADS-B In installation and certification guidance.
Does TIS-B broadcast noncooperative (primary) radar?
In most cases, TIS-B will not broadcast data from noncooperative-only (primary-only) radar targets. For surveillance tracks that are initiated with cooperative (secondary) radar, TIS-B will update the track if there is a momentary loss of cooperative data and only the noncooperative data is available. For surface service volumes, TIS-B uplinks noncooperative-only tracks because vehicles operating on airport surfaces may not be equipped with transponders or ADS-B Out.
Where are the written definitions explaining the icons on the traffic display?
The equipment manufacturer is the best source for providing a description of each icon on the display.
What are the limitations on ADS-R (rebroadcast) coverage?
ADS-R coverage is available wherever an ADS-B Out- and ADS-B In-equipped aircraft is within range of an ADS-B ground station. Aircraft will not receive ADS-R if they are not appropriately equipped or within coverage of the ADS-B ground system.
Is weather information broadcast on 1090ES?
No. FIS-B provides weather data and it is only available on the UAT 978MHz link due to bandwidth considerations.
Do I have to use the same altitude source for ADS-B as my TCAS/transponder is using?
Yes. The altimetry source used by the transponder must also be the source of altimetry information transmitted by ADS-B.
Does the GPS antenna transmit ADS-B data?
Will ATC see ADS-B-equipped aircraft at lower altitudes than non-ADS-B-equipped aircraft?
ADS-B can detect aircraft at lower altitudes than radar in many locations. See our interactive ADS-B airspace map to identify where ADS-B coverage is around your home airport and where you fly.
Under ADS-B, will ATC always see me as N12345 even if I am not under VFR flight following or an IFR flight plan?
ADS-B Out equipment transmits information about the aircraft's location, ground speed and other data once per second. The broadcast includes the aircraft's unique ICAO address, which for a U.S. registered aircraft is associated with its tail number, and the Mode A code ("squawk" code). The signal also includes the aircraft's flight ID, which for GA aircraft is generally the registration "N" number, or for commercial/government operator's, their call sign or airline flight number. Air traffic controllers can immediately see this information if they desire, however the controller has display options where they can suppress the N-number for VFR aircraft that are not receiving flight following services. Additionally, GA operators that are equipped with UAT transceivers, squawking 1200, and flying below FL180, have the option to select "anonymous mode". This enables the transceiver to broadcast a randomized flight ID and pseudo-ICAO address, but it disables ATC's ability to provide services. The transceiver reverts back automatically to the assigned ICAO address and default flight ID when the anonymous mode is turned off.
Will the information broadcast by ADS-B Out be encrypted for security purposes?
ADS-B data can be received by any aircraft, vehicle, or ground station that is equipped to receive ADS-B signals. No encryption is specified. For more information on ADS-B Privacy, please visit the Privacy ICAO Address program page.
Will the FAA keep a permanent record of the tracks and other information associated with the flights of ADS-B-equipped aircraft? or is the information deleted after a period of time?
Radar and ADS-B surveillance information is retained for at least six months.
Why is the FAA transitioning away from radar and towards ADS-B technology?
ADS-B is an environmentally friendly technology that enhances safety and efficiency, and directly benefits pilots, controllers, airports, airlines, and the public. It forms the foundation for NextGen by moving from ground radar and navigational aids to precise tracking using satellite signals.
With ADS-B In, pilots can see what controllers see: displays showing other aircraft in the sky. Cockpit displays also pinpoint hazardous weather and terrain, and give pilots important flight information, such as temporary flight restrictions.
ADS-B reduces the risk of runway incursions with cockpit and controller displays that show the location of aircraft and equipped ground vehicles on airport surfaces - even at night or during heavy rainfall. ADS-B In applications give pilots indications or alerts of potential collisions.
ADS-B also provides greater coverage since ground stations are so much easier to place than radar. Remote areas without radar coverage, like the Gulf of Mexico and much of Alaska, now have surveillance with ADS-B.
Relying on satellites instead of ground navigational aids also means aircraft are able to fly more directly from Point A to B, saving time and money, and reducing fuel burn and emissions.
The improved accuracy, integrity and reliability of satellite signals over radar means controllers will be able to safely reduce the minimum separation distance between aircraft and increase capacity in the nation's skies.
What are FAA ADS-B In broadcast services?
ADS-B In pilot cockpit advisory services consist of Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B). These are free services transmitted automatically to aircraft equipped to receive ADS-B In.
FIS-B provides a broad range of textual/graphical weather products and other flight information to the general aviation community. FIS-B is only available on the 978MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) equipment. FIS-B includes the following:
- Airmen's Meteorological Conditions (AIRMET)
- Significant Meteorological Conditions (SIGMET) and Convective SIGMET
- Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METAR)
- Non-Routine Aviation Weather Reports (SPECI)
- NEXRAD (regional and CONUS)
- Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Distant and Flight Data Center
- Pilot Reports (PIREP)
- Status of Special Use Airspace (SUA)
- Terminal Area Forecasts (TAF) and their amendments
- NOTAM - textual Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
- Graphical TFRs
- Winds & Temperature Aloft
- TIS-B Service Status
- Lightning strikes
- Icing, Forecast Potential (CIP/FIP)
- Cloud tops
- Center Weather Advisory
- Temporary Restricted Areas (TRAs)**
- Temporary Military Operations Areas (TMOAs)**
** Became available NAS-wide in the summer of 2020
TIS-B is an advisory-only service available to both 1090ES and UAT equipment users. TIS-B increases pilots' situational awareness by providing traffic information on all transponder-based aircraft within the vicinity of the ADS-B In equipped aircraft receiving the data.
How are FAA broadcast services different from other traffic and weather advisory information?
The main difference is that ADS-B In broadcast services do not require subscription or usage fees. Aircraft owners that choose to equip will receive ADS-B traffic, weather, and aeronautical information services free of charge.
ADS-B In allows operators to get traffic and data-linked geographical weather for free. Is it similar to XM weather?
Yes. ADS-B's Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) provides all the aviation weather products available with an XM basic subscription, and more. In fact, at no subscription cost to the user, FIS-B also provides many of the products available from the mid-to-high- tier XM subscription services.
Is FIS-B free? Is TIS-B free?
TIS-B is a free service available to aircraft operators equipped with ADS-B Out and ADS-B In. FIS-B is available free to any operator with the ability to receive and display the data that is broadcast on the Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) 978 MHz link.
Will I see military aircraft on the TIS-B screen?
Depending on their operational mission, most, but not all, military aircraft will appear as a TIS-B target on ADS-B-In-equipped aircraft.