Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook
This advisory circular (AC) provides suggestions and safety related recommendations primarily to assist amateur and ultralight builders in developing individualized aircraft flight-test plans. It also provides guidance for experimental light sport aircraft flight testing after modifications to the aircraft. It provides recommendations and suggestions you can combine with other sources on test flying, such as the aircraft plan/kit manufacturer’s flight testing instructions and other flight testing data. This will help you develop a detailed flight-test plan, tailored for your aircraft and resources.
This AC attempts to make you aware that test flying an aircraft is a critical undertaking, which you should approach with thorough planning, skill, and common sense. The flight-test plan is the heart of all professional flight testing. The plan should account for every hour spent in the flight-test phase and you should adhere to it with the same respect for the unknown that all successful test pilots share. The time allotted for each phase of a personalized flight-test plan may vary, and each phase may have more events or checks than suggested in this AC, but your goals, should be the same. You should add flight-test operational and performance data to the aircraft’s flight manual so you can reference the data prior to each flight.
Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternate Flight Deck Security Procedures
This advisory circular (AC) calls attention to RTCA Document (RTCA/DO-329) Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures, as guidance to achieve effective protection of the flight deck as required by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 § 121.584(1)(a).
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with pertinent regulatory requirements.
Upset Prevention and Recovery Training
This advisory circular (AC) describes the recommended training for airplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT). The goal of this AC is to provide recommended practices and guidance for academic and flight simulation training device (FSTD) training for pilots to prevent developing upset conditions and ensure correct recovery responses to upsets. The AC was created from recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations. This AC provides guidance to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers implementing the regulatory requirements of §§ 121.419, 121.423, 121.424, and 121.427. Although this AC is directed to air carriers to implement part 121 regulations, the FAA encourages all airplane operators, pilot schools, and training centers to implement UPRT and to use this guidance, as applicable to the type of airplane in which training is conducted.
Although a stall is by definition an upset, stall prevention and recovery training is contained in the current edition of AC 120-109, Stall Prevention and Recovery Training.
Development and Submission of Special Instrument Procedures to the FAA
This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the submission and approval of special instrument flight procedures developed by non-FAA service providers and submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for review and approval. Special instrument procedures are those procedures developed for specific users and are not processed under Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), Part 97. Occasionally, the word "must" or similar language is used within this AC where the desired action is deemed critical. The use of such language is not intended to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by 14 CFR.
Helicopter Air Ambulance Operations
Helicopters provide a means of transporting people in urgent need of medical assistance. These operations are unique due to the urgent nature of the flight. Each year thousands of patients are transported by helicopter while being attended by medical personnel trained to respond to their needs. Helicopter air ambulances (HAA) are equipped with medical monitoring and support systems to ensure proper care en route.
The HAA industry continues to expand. In response to the dynamic growth of this industry, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued this advisory circular (AC) to provide information and guidelines to assist existing HAA operators, other Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 135 operators considering becoming an HAA operator and those considering new-startup HAA operations. To address an increase in fatal HAA accidents, the FAA has implemented new operational procedures and additional equipment requirements for HAA operations. The FAA, HAA operators and medical community all play vital roles in applying these changes to ensure safety. Implementing a safety culture will benefit all aspects of HAA operations.
Part 135 subpart L addresses safety improvements for commercial helicopter operations through requirements for equipment, pilot testing, alternate airports and increased weather minimums for all General Aviation (GA) helicopter operations. Many of these requirements also address National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendations directed at improving HAA safety.
Flightcrew Member Line Operational Simulations: Line-Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation
This advisory circular (AC) presents guidelines for the design and implementation of Line Operational Simulations (LOS), including Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), Special Purpose Operational Training (SPOT), and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) for flightcrew members. This document does not interpret the regulations; interpretations are issued only under established agency guidelines. As operators develop LOSs, they should develop an interdependent relationship between their human factors, Crew Resource Management (CRM), flight operations, and safety initiatives, because they are linked to a common safety goal.
This AC describes a means by which LOS scenarios are developed, scripted, tested, evaluated, and (in the case of LOFT and LOE) approved by the Administrator for use in an operator’s training program. The methodology set forth also achieves the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) mandate to ensure that each certificate holder provides the highest level of safety in the public interest, while meeting the agency’s responsibility to reduce or eliminate the possibility or recurrence of accidents in air transportation.
Engine Overtorque Test, Calibration Test, Endurance Test, and Teardown Inspection for Turbine Engine Certification (§§ 33.84, 33.85, 33.87, 33.93)
a. This advisory circular (AC) provides a method of compliance for the test requirements of Title 14, of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 33.84 (engine overtorque test) when the applicant chooses to run that test as part of the endurance test of § 33.87. It also provides information and guidance on the test requirements of § 33.85 (calibration test), § 33.87 (endurance test), and § 33.93 (teardown inspection).
b. This AC applies to part 33 type certification endurance testing of all classes of turbine engines.
Experimental Airworthiness Certification of Certain Former Military Aircraft
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance concerning special airworthiness certification in the experimental category of certain former military aircraft under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 21, Certification Procedures for Products and Parts, §§ 21.191(a), (c), (d), (e); and 21.193.
Instrument Flight Procedure Service Provider Authorization Guidance for RequiredNavigation Performance Authorization Required Procedures
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for Instrument Flight Procedure(IFP) developers, hereinafter referred to as "IFP Service Providers," to become authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to develop Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 97 Required Navigation Performance IFPs with Authorization Required (RNP AR).
Safety Management Systems for Aviation Service Providers
This advisory circular (AC) provides information for Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers that are required to implement Safety Management Systems (SMS) based on 14 CFR part 5. Specifically, this document provides a description of regulatory requirements, guidance, and methods of developing and implementing an SMS. This AC may also be used by other aviation service providers interested in voluntarily developing an SMS based on the requirements in part 5.
An SMS is an organization-wide comprehensive and preventive approach to managing safety. An SMS includes a safety policy, formal methods for identifying hazards and mitigating risk, and promotion of a positive safety culture. An SMS also provides assurance of the overall safety performance of your organization. An SMS is intended to be designed and developed by your own people and should be integrated into your existing operations and business decisionmaking processes. The SMS will assist your organization’s leadership, management teams, and employees in making effective and informed safety decisions.
Part 5 specifies a basic set of processes integral to an effective SMS but does not specify particular methods for implementing these processes. In other words, the regulation defines "what" must be accomplished, not "how" it must be accomplished. This AC provides additional guidance on how the SMS may be developed to achieve the safety performance objectives outlined by your organization. As is demonstrated by this AC, there is no one-size-fits-all method for complying with the requirements of part 5. This design is intentional, in that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) expects each air carrier to develop an SMS that works for its unique operation. Thus, this AC provides guidance regarding designing and implementing acceptable methods of compliance with the requirements of part 5. These methods, however, are not the only means of compliance.
Air Carrier Pilot Remedial Training and Tracking Program
This advisory circular (AC) presents guidelines for developing and implementing remedial training and tracking of pilots. These guidelines apply to certificate holders conducting operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121. This AC presents one way, but not necessarily the only way, that certificate holders may comply with the remedial training and tracking requirements prescribed in 14 CFR part 121, § 121.415. This AC may also provide valuable information to certificate holders in developing and implementing remedial training and tracking of other crewmembers and aircraft dispatchers.
Airworthiness Approval of Satellite Voice (SATVOICE) Equipment Supporting Air Traffic Service (ATS) Communication
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on airworthiness approval for designers, manufacturers, and installers of Satellite Voice (SATVOICE) equipment supporting air traffic service (ATS). In this AC, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends one way to gain airworthiness approval for SATVOICE equipment. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to gain airworthiness approval for your SATVOICE equipment. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
This advisory circular (AC) updates information regarding the hazards and risks of in-flight fires on transport category aircraft. The information includes recommended crewmember procedures and training for combating in-flight fires. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued Safety Recommendations A-11-87 through A-11-91 during the investigation of United Parcel Service (UPS) flight 6 accident on September 3, 2010 in the United Arab Emirates. The flightcrew encountered a "Fire Main Deck" master warning about 22 minutes into the flight; they declared an emergency and initiated a return to Dubai International Airport (DXB). The aircraft crashed inside an Emirate army post 9 miles from DXB, and both flightcrew members were fatally injured. NTSB findings revealed safety issues related to the training and use of oxygen mask; communicating with oxygen masks donned; and oxygen mask stowage and the smoke, fire, or fumes checklists. This revision to AC 120-80 is in response to NTSB recommendations A-11-88 through A-11-90.
Laser Airworthiness Installation Guidance
In this advisory circular (AC), we recommend one way to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness approval for the installation of aircraft?mounted, nonrequired, invisible spectrum laser equipment such as infrared surveillance laser and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) equipment. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with the requirements found in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 23.1301, 23.1309, 23.1529, 23.1581, 25.1301, 25.1309, 25.1529, 25.1581, 27.1301, 27.1309, 27.1529, 27.1581, 29.1301, 29.1309, 29.1529, and 29.1581 for the laser equipment aspects only. If you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
Dynamic Gust Loads
This advisory circular (AC) describes acceptable means for showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.341, Gust and turbulence loads. Section 25.341 specifies the discrete gust and continuous turbulence dynamic load conditions that apply to the airplane and engines.
Engine Failure Loads
This advisory circular (AC) describes an acceptable means for showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.362, Engine failure loads. Section 25.362 specifies the engine failure dynamic load conditions that apply to the engine mounts, pylons, and adjacent supporting airframe structure.
Ground Gust Conditions
This advisory circular (AC) describes acceptable means for showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.415, Ground gust conditions. Section 25.415 specifies the gust load conditions that are assumed to occur while the airplane is taxiing, and when parked. These load conditions apply to the flight control systems and surfaces.
In-flight Radiation Exposure
This advisory circular (AC) provides basic background information and links to sources of more detailed information that can be used to improve air carrier programs that inform crewmembers about in-flight ionizing radiation exposure.
FAA Approval of Aviation Training Devices and Their Use for Training and Experience
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance for Aviation Training Device (ATD) manufacturers seeking Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval of basic aviation training devices (BATD) or advanced aviation training devices (AATD) under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.4(c). This AC also provides information and guidance for those persons who intend to use a BATD or AATD for activities involving pilot training and experience, other than for practical tests, aircraft-type-specific training, or an aircraft type rating. This AC contains specific procedures regarding the evaluation, approval, and use of an ATD under 14 CFR parts 61 and 141. The criteria specified in this AC are used by the FAA to determine whether an ATD is qualified for approval as a BATD or an AATD. These guidelines have developed from extensive FAA and industry experience in determining methods of compliance with the pertinent 14 CFR regulations. Applicable regulations are noted only for reference. This AC does not change regulatory requirements; therefore, the provisions of the current regulation always control. This AC applies only to the evaluation and use of BATDs and AATDs. This notice does not apply to full flight simulators (FFS) and flight training devices (FTD) that are regulated under 14 CFR part 60.
Issue Paper Process
a. This advisory circular (AC) provides information on the use of issue papers and gives you guidance on your role in describing and tracking the resolution of significant technical, regulatory, and administrative issues derived from the issue paper process. This document provides guidance to you relative to FAA Order 8110.112, Standardized Procedures for Usage of Issue Papers and Development of Equivalent Levels of Safety Memorandums.
Specification for Constant Current Regulators and Regulator Monitors
Contains a specification for constant current regulators (CCR) and a monitor for use with airport lighting circuits.
Approval of Manufacturer's Required Training Programs
This advisory circular (AC) provides information to organizations providing training in aircraft that contain a training requirement in the limitations section of the Airplane Flight Manual (Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM), etc.).
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Operations with Change 1
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a new rule contained in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, §§ 91.225 and 91.227. This rule requires Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out performance when operating in designated classes of airspace within the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) after January 1, 2020. This advisory circular (AC) provides users of the NAS guidance on a means of conducting flight operations in accordance with §§ 91.225 and 91.227. The appendices in this AC provide guidance for additional operations enabled by ADS-B to include ADS-B In.
Performance and Handling Characteristics in Icing Conditions
This advisory circular describes an acceptable means of showing compliance with the airplane performance and handling characteristics certification requirements for flight in the icing conditions defined in Appendices C and 0 of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations part 25.
Compliance of Transport Category Airplanes with Certification Requirements for Flight in Icing Conditions
This advisory circular (AC) describes an acceptable means of showing compliance with the supercooled large drop condition requirements of § 25.773, Pilot compartment view, § 25.1323, Airspeed indicating system, § 25.1324 Angle of attack system and § 25.1325, Static pressure system, as well as the requirements of § 25.1419, Ice protection, and § 25.1420, Supercooled large drop icing conditions, of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25. Part 25 contains the certification requirements for transport category airplanes. The compliance means described in this document are intended as guidance. They are meant to supplement the engineering judgment that must form the basis of any compliance findings for the supercooled large drop icing conditions in §§ 25.773, 25.1323, 25.1324, and 25.1325, as well as the compliance findings for §§ 25.1419 and 25.1420.