Use of Liquid Water Equivalent System to Determine Holdover Times or Check Times for Anti-Icing Fluids
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) standard for a Liquid Water Equivalent System (LWES). This AC applies to anyone proposing to design, procure, construct, install, activate, or maintain an LWES. An LWES is an automated weather measurement system that determines the Liquid Water Equivalent (LWE) rate in conditions of frozen or freezing precipitation. The LWE rate is used by the system with the appropriate endurance time (ET) regression equations and regression coefficients specified in an FAA-approved current database at http://22.214.171.124/RegressionInformation.html to determine the holdover time (HOT) or check time (CT) for an aircraft’s applied anti-icing fluid (Society of Automotive Engineer (SAE) Types I, II, III, and IV). Thus, the LWES incorporates a Holdover Time Determination System (HOTDS) or Check Time Determination System (CTDS). The HOT is used to determine how long a fluid would provide protection assuming that the current conditions do not change. The CT is used to determine the fluid’s current protection capability, while incorporating varying weather conditions.
Air Cargo Operations
This advisory circular (AC) provides operators with recommended procedures for managing cargo operations. Developing and using these comprehensive procedures is key to establishing a safe and efficient cargo operation. The AC provides guidance for aircraft cargo loading systems (CLS), restraints, special cargo, and unit load devices (ULD)This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of complying with applicable regulations to manage cargo operations.
Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternate Flight Deck Security Procedures
This advisory circular (AC) calls attention to RTCA Document (RTCA/DO-329) Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures, as guidance to achieve effective protection of the flight deck as required by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 § 121.584(1)(a).
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with pertinent regulatory requirements.
Upset Prevention and Recovery Training
This advisory circular (AC) describes the recommended training for airplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT). The goal of this AC is to provide recommended practices and guidance for academic and flight simulation training device (FSTD) training for pilots to prevent developing upset conditions and ensure correct recovery responses to upsets. The AC was created from recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations. This AC provides guidance to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers implementing the regulatory requirements of §§ 121.419, 121.423, 121.424, and 121.427. Although this AC is directed to air carriers to implement part 121 regulations, the FAA encourages all airplane operators, pilot schools, and training centers to implement UPRT and to use this guidance, as applicable to the type of airplane in which training is conducted.
Although a stall is by definition an upset, stall prevention and recovery training is contained in the current edition of AC 120-109, Stall Prevention and Recovery Training.
This advisory circular (AC) updates information regarding the hazards and risks of in-flight fires on transport category aircraft. The information includes recommended crewmember procedures and training for combating in-flight fires. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued Safety Recommendations A-11-87 through A-11-91 during the investigation of United Parcel Service (UPS) flight 6 accident on September 3, 2010 in the United Arab Emirates. The flightcrew encountered a "Fire Main Deck" master warning about 22 minutes into the flight; they declared an emergency and initiated a return to Dubai International Airport (DXB). The aircraft crashed inside an Emirate army post 9 miles from DXB, and both flightcrew members were fatally injured. NTSB findings revealed safety issues related to the training and use of oxygen mask; communicating with oxygen masks donned; and oxygen mask stowage and the smoke, fire, or fumes checklists. This revision to AC 120-80 is in response to NTSB recommendations A-11-88 through A-11-90.
In-flight Radiation Exposure
This advisory circular (AC) provides basic background information and links to sources of more detailed information that can be used to improve air carrier programs that inform crewmembers about in-flight ionizing radiation exposure.
Guidelines for the Certification, Airworthiness, and Operational Use of Electronic Flight Bags
This joint Flight Standards Service (AFS) and Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) advisory circular (AC) contains guidance on the operational use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs). It is intended for all operators conducting flight operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, 125, 135, or 91 subpart F (part 91F) and part 91 subpart K (part 91K) who want to replace required paper information or utilize other select functions of an EFB. This AC sets forth an acceptable means, but not the only means, to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization for the operational use of EFBs. Part 91 operators can find additional EFB information in the current edition of AC 91-78, Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). For guidance on the installation of EFB components, refer to the current edition of AC 20-173, Installation of Electronic Flight Bag Components.
Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations
a. Evaluating Manufactured or Modified Aircraft. It provides a means but not the only means of evaluating manufactured or modified aircraft by the use of standard systems, processes, and tests necessary to determine pilot training and qualification requirements.
b. Differences in Training and Qualification between Aircraft. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of compliance with applicable Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) that provide for differences in training and qualification between aircraft with the same type certificate. It further describes an acceptable means for providing related aircraft differences training and qualification under provision of 14 CFR part 121 between aircraft with different type certificates that have been "designated" by the Administrator as related. Both of these processes use the provision of the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report as the basis for the approval of pilot training and qualification necessary for the operation of aircraft. This AC is intended to enhance safety by:
(1) Providing a standard method of assessing applicant programs.
(2) Directly relating pilot training and qualification requirements to fleet characteristics, operating concepts, and pilot assignments.
(3) Permitting better industry planning and management by outlining what FAA requirements apply, what training resources or devices are needed, and what alternatives are possible.
(4) Encouraging aircraft manufacturers to design with the goal of developing common characteristics between related aircraft
(5) Providing a recommended framework for application of suitable credits or constraints to better address new technology and future safety enhancements.
Fatigue Risk Management Systems for Aviation Safety
(1) Describes the basic concepts of Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS), as prescribed in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 117, § 117.7, and how they relate to aviation industry employees safely performing their duties.
(2) Provides information on the components of an FRMS as applied to aviation, and on how to implement an FRMS within an aviation operation.
(3) Defines an FRMS as an operator-specific process; therefore, while all FRMSs will have common elements, the specifics will be tailored to a certificate holder’s particular conditions.
(4) Provides (in Appendix 2, Fatigue Risk Management System Development) the certificate holder with the necessary detailed guidance to prepare for the FRMS approval process, develop the required documentation, develop and apply fatigue risk management (FRM) and Safety Assurance (SA) processes, collect and analyze data, develop flightcrew FRMS operations procedures and a step-by-step process required for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) evaluation and validation of the proposed FRMS application.
Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIP) Acceptance/Review
This advisory circular (AC) establishes guidelines for U.S. operators to use when reviewing Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIP). Occasionally, the author uses the word "must" or similar language when he deems the desired actions critical. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) does not intend for the use of such language to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
Air Carrier Maintenance Programs
This advisory circular (AC) explains what the term "maintenance program" means. Our explanation describes the scope and content of air carrier aircraft maintenance programs. This is important as there is a significant difference between an air carrier maintenance program and an inspection program used in non-air carrier maintenance operations. We explain the background of these programs as well as the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) regulatory requirements. We also describe and explain each of the 10 elements of air carrier maintenance programs. When we use "must" or "will" in this AC, we are referencing actual regulatory requirements. When we use "we," "us," or "our" in this AC, we mean the FAA. When we use "you," "your," or "yours," we mean you, the air carrier. When we use the term "person," it has the same meaning as that in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, § 1.1.
ICAO Aircraft Company Three-LetterIdentifier and/or TelephonyDesignator Assignment and U.S. Special Telephony/Call Signs
Advisory Circular 120-26K defines the criteria and procedures for obtaining an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) three-letter identifier and/or telephony designator assignment and for obtaining an FAA Special or Local telephony/call sign.
Stall and Stick Pusher Training
The information contained in this advisory circular (AC) was developed based on a review of recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations. This AC does not provide guidance for full aerodynamic stall training, which industry and government stakeholders are now developing. Once developed, this AC will be revised to include that guidance.
The goal of this AC is to provide best practices and guidance for training, testing, and checking for pilots, within existing regulations, to ensure correct and consistent responses to unexpected stall warnings and stick pusher activations. This AC emphasizes reducing the angle of attack (AOA) at the first indication of a stall as the primary means of approach-to-stall or stall recovery. Additionally, this AC provides guidance for operators and training centers in the development of stall and stick pusher event training.
Operator Information for Incorporating Fuel Tank Flammability Reduction Requirements into a Maintenance or Inspection Program
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and describes an acceptable means of compliance (AMC) with the Reduction of Fuel Tank Flammability in Transport Category Airplanes, final rule. It is commonly called the Fuel Tank Flammability Reduction (FTFR) rule. This AC describes acceptable means, but not the only means, for demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will consider other methods of demonstrating compliance that an applicant may elect to present. While these guidelines are not mandatory, they are derived from extensive FAA and industry experience in determining compliance with the relevant regulations. If the FAA becomes aware of circumstances that convince us that following this AC would not result in compliance with the applicable regulations, the FAA may require additional substantiation or design changes as a basis for finding compliance. This material does not change or create any additional regulatory requirements, nor does it authorize changes in or permit deviations from existing regulatory requirements.
Pilot Records Improvement Act of 1996
The Pilot Records Improvement Act of 1996 (PRIA), as amended, was enacted to ensure that air carriers and air operators adequately investigate a pilot’s background before allowing that pilot to conduct commercial air carrier flights. Under PRIA, a hiring employer cannot place a pilot into service until he or she obtains and reviews the last 5 years of the pilot’s background and other safety-related records as specified in PRIA.
This advisory circular (AC) is supplemented by the current edition of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8000.88, PRIA Guidance for FAA Inspectors, and numerous other documents found on the PRIA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/pilots/lic_cert/pria. These sources of detailed information related to PRIA provide invaluable assistance to the certificate holder or others concerning the PRIA request process as well as other compliance issues.
The FAA has greatly expanded this AC from the previous version to address operational situations that the hiring employer may encounter that could affect his or her records request process through PRIA.
The Flight Standards Service (AFS) is committed to a stakeholder-driven system of operation that will deliver FAA records and assistance to all parties subject to PRIA, when necessary.
Incorporation of Fuel Tank System Instructions for Continued Airworthiness into Operator Maintenance or Inspection Programs
On May 7, 2001, the Transport Airplane Fuel Tank System Design Review, Flammability Reduction and Maintenance and Inspection Requirements final rule was published in the Federal Register (FR). It has since been referred to as the 2001 Fuel Tank Safety (FTS) rule. It adopted amendments to part 25, Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 88 and operating requirements related to SFAR 88. The operating requirements included requirements to implement instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) that design approval holders (DAH) developed in compliance with SFAR 88. On November 8, 2007, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) published the Enhanced Airworthiness Program for Airplane Systems (EAPAS)/FTS final rule. The purpose of the rule is to help ensure the continued safety of transport category airplanes by improving the design, installation, and maintenance of electrical wiring systems. The EAPAS/FTS rule amended the operating requirements to implement FTS actions developed in accordance with SFAR 88. Integrating the incorporation of the fuel tank system and electrical wiring interconnection system (EWIS) requirements helps to ensure compatibility and to eliminate duplication. Additionally, the EAPAS/FTS rule redesignates (replaces) Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, § 91.410(b); part 121, § 121.370(b); part 125, § 125.248(b); and part 129, § 129.32(b) of the FTS rule. The new sections are §§ 91.1507, 121.1113, 125.507 and 129.113. These new rules also clarify language with reference to the approval process of the operator’s program. This advisory circular (AC) only addresses the fuel tank system safety requirements and describes acceptable means of compliance (AMC) accordingly. The current edition of AC 120-102, Incorporation of Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems Instructions for Continued Airworthiness into an Operator’s Maintenance Program, addresses EWIS requirements in the EAPAS/FTS rule.
Air Carrier Operational Approval and Use of TCAS II
This advisory circular (AC) provides an acceptable, but not the only, means to address Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) issues related to installation and use of TCAS II regarding compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 121, 125, and 129 requirements for air carriers.
Continuous Descent Final Approach
This advisory circular provides guidance for all operators using the continuous descent final approach (CDFA)technique while conducting a nonprecision Approach (NPA) procedure. It describes the rationale for using the CDFA Technique, as well as recommended general procedures and training.
Establishing and Implementing Limit of Validity to Prevent Widespread Fatigue Damage
This advisory circular (AC)offers guidance on compliance with Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 26.21, 26.23, 121.1115, and 129.115. It tells design approval holders of transport category airplanes how to establish a limit of validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance program (hereafter referred to as LOV) for those airplanes. It also tells design approval holders how to address maintenance actions that have been determined necessary to support an LOV. It tells operators of those airplanes how to incorporate the LOV into their maintenance programs. Finally, this AC provides guidance to anyone wishing to extend an LOV. Guidance for establishing an LOV for airplanes whose type certificate was applied for after (XXXX) is contained in AC 25.571-1X. Guidance for extending an LOV approved under § 25.571, § 26.21, or § 26.23 can be found here. The actions described in this AC are meant to prevent widespread fatigue damage (WFD) in the transport airplane fleet up to the LOV.
Operational Authorization Process for use of Data Link Communication System
This advisory circular (AC) presents various methods for operators of different data link systems to meet international standards set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the regional airspace authorities. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) notes that there is presently no requirement in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) to have data link communications when operating in the National Airspace System (NAS). Instead, the regulations in 14 CFR govern radio communication systems, and nothing in this AC relieves an operator from the requirement to have and use a voice communication system when operating in international airspace or the NAS. However, operators that choose to operate in a reduced separation standard that requires the use of a data link system (in addition to the required voice communication system) must obtain FAA design approval and a revision to their 14 CFR part 121, 125, 125M, or 135 operation specifications (OpSpecs), part 91 subpart K (part 91K) management specifications (MSpecs) or part 91 letter of authorization (LOA), as applicable. The original AC 120-70 was applicable to Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN), very high frequency (VHF) data link (VDL) Mode 2 communication systems. The Future Air Navigation System (FANS) 1/A system used in oceanic and remote airspace is an analog system which communicates over Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS). Guidance is needed for the operation of all systems and therefore the first revision AC 120-70A, was created.
Part 121 Air Carrier Operational Control.
This advisory circular (AC) provides aviation safety inspectors (ASI) and air carrier management personnel with information to consider regarding certificate management and internal evaluation of operational control functions. This AC provides an accepted means, but not the only means for operators to comply with air carrier operational control regulations in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, §§ 121.531 through 121.537, and guidance in Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8900.1, Volume 3, Chapter 25, Operational Control for Air Carriers. If you use the means described in this AC, you must follow the guidance in all important respects.
Basics of Aviation Fatigue
Summarizes the content of the FAA international symposium on fatigue, “Aviation
Fatigue Management Symposium: Partnerships for Solutions”, June 17-19, 2008;
Describes fundamental concepts of human cognitive fatigue and how it relates to safe Provides information on conditions that contribute to cognitive fatigue; and fatigue and/or mitigate the effects of fatigue. Provides information on how individuals and aviation service providers can reduce performance of duties by employees in the aviation industry;
|120-42B||AFS-220||Extended Operations (ETOPS and Polar Operations) States an acceptable means but not the only means for obtaining approval under FAR Section 121.161 for two-engine airplanes to operate over a route that contains a point farther than one hour flying time at the normal one-engine inoperative cruise speed (in still air) from an adequate airport.||06-13-2008|
|120-96||AFS-200||Integration of Operation Control Centers into Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Operations||05-05-2008|
|120-93||ANM-100||Damage Tolerance Inspections for Repairs and Alterations This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance material for Type Certificate (TC) Holders, Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) Holders, and operators to comply with requirements in the Aging Airplane Safety Act to ensure the airworthiness of aging airplane parts and components. The Aging Airplane Safety Rule that supports the Act specifies incorporating damage tolerance-based inspections into an operator’s continuous airworthiness maintenance program. These inspections will help ensure the integrity of fatigue critical structure on transport category airplanes operated in air transportation. This guidance will provide persons who have developed repairs and alterations with a means to develop damage tolerance data to be used to determine damage tolerance inspections for repairs and alterations that affect fatigue critical structure. This AC will give guidance on developing compliance documents, schedules and plans that will assist in developing and incorporating damage tolerance inspections into maintenance programs of certain transport category airplanes with respect to repairs and alterations.||11-20-2007|