AIM

7/24/14

Section 2. Controlled Airspace

3-2-1. General

a. Controlled Airspace. A generic term that covers the different classification of airspace (Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace) and defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. (See FIG 3-2-1.)

b. IFR Requirements. IFR operations in any class of controlled airspace requires that a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and receive an appropriate ATC clearance.

c. IFR Separation. Standard IFR separation is provided to all aircraft operating under IFR in controlled airspace.

d. VFR Requirements. It is the responsibility of the pilot to ensure that ATC clearance or radio communication requirements are met prior to entry into Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace. The pilot retains this responsibility when receiving ATC radar advisories. (See 14 CFR Part 91.)

e. Traffic Advisories. Traffic advisories will be provided to all aircraft as the controller's work situation permits.

f. Safety Alerts. Safety Alerts are mandatory services and are provided to ALL aircraft. There are two types of Safety Alerts:

1. Terrain/Obstruction Alert. A Terrain/Obstruction Alert is issued when, in the controller's judgment, an aircraft's altitude places it in unsafe proximity to terrain and/or obstructions; and

2. Aircraft Conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert. An Aircraft Conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert is issued if the controller observes another aircraft which places it in an unsafe proximity. When feasible, the controller will offer the pilot an alternative course of action.

FIG 3-2-1
Airspace Classes

aim0302_Auto0

g. Ultralight Vehicles. No person may operate an ultralight vehicle within Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an airport unless that person has prior authorization from the ATC facility having jurisdiction over that airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 103.)

h. Unmanned Free Balloons. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an unmanned free balloon below 2,000 feet above the surface within the lateral boundaries of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport. (See 14 CFR Part 101.)

i. Parachute Jumps. No person may make a parachute jump, and no pilot-in-command may allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft, in or into Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 105.)

3-2-2. Class A Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska; and designated international airspace beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied.

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft under IFR. (See 14 CFR Section 71.33 and 14 CFR Section 91.167 through 14 CFR Section 91.193.)

c. Charts. Class A airspace is not specifically charted.

3-2-3. Class B Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR operations is "clear of clouds."

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements for VFR Operations. Regardless of weather conditions, an ATC clearance is required prior to operating within Class B airspace. Pilots should not request a clearance to operate within Class B airspace unless the requirements of 14 CFR Section 91.215 and 14 CFR Section 91.131 are met. Included among these requirements are:

1. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft must be equipped with an operable two-way radio capable of communicating with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that Class B airspace.

2. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at the following primary airports within Class B airspace unless the pilot-in-command holds at least a private pilot certificate:

(a) Andrews Air Force Base, MD

(b) Atlanta Hartsfield Airport, GA

(c) Boston Logan Airport, MA

(d) Chicago O'Hare Intl. Airport, IL

(e) Dallas/Fort Worth Intl. Airport, TX

(f) Los Angeles Intl. Airport, CA

(g) Miami Intl. Airport, FL

(h) Newark Intl. Airport, NJ

(i) New York Kennedy Airport, NY

(j) New York La Guardia Airport, NY

(k) Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, DC

(l) San Francisco Intl. Airport, CA

3. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within Class B airspace or operate a civil aircraft within Class B airspace unless:

(a) The pilot-in-command holds at least a private pilot certificate; or

(b) The aircraft is operated by a student pilot or recreational pilot who seeks private pilot certification and has met the requirements of 14 CFR Section 61.95.

4. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each person operating a large turbine engine‐powered airplane to or from a primary airport must operate at or above the designated floors while within the lateral limits of Class B airspace.

5. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each aircraft must be equipped as follows:

(a) For IFR operations, an operable VOR or TACAN receiver; and

(b) For all operations, a two-way radio capable of communications with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that area; and

(c) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting equipment.

NOTE-
ATC may, upon notification, immediately authorize a deviation from the altitude reporting equipment requirement; however, a request for a deviation from the 4096 transponder equipment requirement must be submitted to the controlling ATC facility at least one hour before the proposed operation.

REFERENCE-
AIM, Transponder Operation, Paragraph 4-1-20.

6. Mode C Veil. The airspace within 30 nautical miles of an airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1 of 14 CFR Part 91 (generally primary airports within Class B airspace areas), from the surface upward to 10,000 feet MSL. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft operating within this airspace must be equipped with automatic pressure altitude reporting equipment having Mode C capability.

However, an aircraft that was not originally certificated with an engine-driven electrical system or which has not subsequently been certified with a system installed may conduct operations within a Mode C veil provided the aircraft remains outside Class A, B or C airspace; and below the altitude of the ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport or 10,000 feet MSL, whichever is lower.

c. Charts. Class B airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts.

d. Flight Procedures.

1. Flights.Aircraft within Class B airspace are required to operate in accordance with current IFR procedures. A clearance for a visual approach to a primary airport is not authorization for turbine- powered airplanes to operate below the designated floors of the Class B airspace.

2. VFR Flights.

(a) Arriving aircraft must obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering Class B airspace and must contact ATC on the appropriate frequency, and in relation to geographical fixes shown on local charts. Although a pilot may be operating beneath the floor of the Class B airspace on initial contact, communications with ATC should be established in relation to the points indicated for spacing and sequencing purposes.

(b) Departing aircraft require a clearance to depart Class B airspace and should advise the clearance delivery position of their intended altitude and route of flight. ATC will normally advise VFR aircraft when leaving the geographical limits of the Class B airspace. Radar service is not automatically terminated with this advisory unless specifically stated by the controller.

(c) Aircraft not landing or departing the primary airport may obtain an ATC clearance to transit the Class B airspace when traffic conditions permit and provided the requirements of 14 CFR Section 91.131 are met. Such VFR aircraft are encouraged, to the extent possible, to operate at altitudes above or below the Class B airspace or transit through established VFR corridors. Pilots operating in VFR corridors are urged to use frequency 122.750 MHz for the exchange of aircraft position information.

e. ATC Clearances and Separation. An ATC clearance is required to enter and operate within Class B airspace. VFR pilots are provided sequencing and separation from other aircraft while operating within Class B airspace.

REFERENCE-
AIM, Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft, Paragraph 4-1-18.

NOTE-
1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the service is not available and issued wind, runway information and the time or place to contact the tower.

2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to the primary airport will be provided on a workload permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when center radar presentation (CENRAP) is in use.

1. VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less by a minimum of:

(a) Target resolution, or

(b) 500 feet vertical separation, or

(c) Visual separation.

2. VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh more than 19,000 and turbojets by no less than:

(a) 1 1/2 miles lateral separation, or

(b) 500 feet vertical separation, or

(c) Visual separation.

3. This program is not to be interpreted as relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clearance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or better than the minimums required by 14 CFR Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, vortex exposure, and weather minimums.

4. ATC may assign altitudes to VFR aircraft that do not conform to 14 CFR Section 91.159. "RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES" will be broadcast when the altitude assignment is no longer needed for separation or when leaving Class B airspace. Pilots must return to an altitude that conforms to 14 CFR Section 91.159.

f. Proximity operations. VFR aircraft operating in proximity to Class B airspace are cautioned against operating too closely to the boundaries, especially where the floor of the Class B airspace is 3,000 feet or less above the surface or where VFR cruise altitudes are at or near the floor of higher levels. Observance of this precaution will reduce the potential for encountering an aircraft operating at the altitudes of Class B floors. Additionally, VFR aircraft are encouraged to utilize the VFR Planning Chart as a tool for planning flight in proximity to Class B airspace. Charted VFR Flyway Planning Charts are published on the back of the existing VFR Terminal Area Charts.

3-2-4. Class C Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, and that have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation.

b. Charts. Class C airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts where appropriate.

c. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements:

1. Pilot Certification.No specific certification required.

2. Equipment.

(a) Two-way radio; and

(b) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting equipment.

NOTE-
See paragraph 4-1-20, Transponder Operation, subparagraph f2(c) for Mode C transponder requirements for operating above Class C airspace.

3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the Class C airspace ATC facility on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, radar beacon code, destination, and request Class C service. Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class C airspace boundary to preclude entering Class C airspace before two-way radio communications are established.

NOTE-
1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, "(aircraft callsign) standby,"radio communications have been established and the pilot can enter the Class C airspace.

2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate provision of Class C services, the controller will inform the pilot to remain outside the Class C airspace until conditions permit the services to be provided.

3. It is important to understand that if the controller responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft identification, radio communications have not been established and the pilot may not enter the Class C airspace.

4. Though not requiring regulatory action, Class C airspace areas have a procedural Outer Area. Normally this area is 20 NM from the primary Class C airspace airport. Its vertical limit extends from the lower limits of radio/radar coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control's delegated airspace, excluding the Class C airspace itself, and other airspace as appropriate. (This outer area is not charted.)

5. Pilots approaching an airport with Class C service should be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter nontransponder, VFR aircraft.

EXAMPLE-
1. [Aircraft callsign] "remain outside the Class Charlie airspace and standby."

2. "Aircraft calling Dulles approach control, standby."

4. Departures from:

(a) A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in Class C airspace.

(b) A satellite airport without an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established as soon as practicable after departing with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace.

5. Aircraft Speed.Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class C airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).

d. Air Traffic Services. When two-way radio communications and radar contact are established, all participating VFR aircraft are:

1. Sequenced to the primary airport.

2. Provided Class C services within the Class C airspace and the outer area.

3. Provided basic radar services beyond the outer area on a workload permitting basis. This can be terminated by the controller if workload dictates.

e. Aircraft Separation. Separation is provided within the Class C airspace and the outer area after two-way radio communications and radar contact are established. VFR aircraft are separated from IFR aircraft within the Class C airspace by any of the following:

1. Visual separation.

2. 500 feet vertical; except when operating beneath a heavy jet.

3. Target resolution.

NOTE-
1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the service is not available and issued wind, runway information and the time or place to contact the tower.

2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to the primary airport will be provided on a workload permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when CENRAP is in use.

3. Pilot participation is voluntary within the outer area and can be discontinued, within the outer area, at the pilot's request. Class C services will be provided in the outer area unless the pilot requests termination of the service.

4. Some facilities provide Class C services only during published hours. At other times, terminal IFR radar service will be provided. It is important to note that the communications and transponder requirements are dependent of the class of airspace established outside of the published hours.

f. Secondary Airports

1. In some locations Class C airspace may overlie the Class D surface area of a secondary airport. In order to allow that control tower to provide service to aircraft, portions of the overlapping Class C airspace may be procedurally excluded when the secondary airport tower is in operation. Aircraft operating in these procedurally excluded areas will only be provided airport traffic control services when in communication with the secondary airport tower.

2. Aircraft proceeding inbound to a satellite airport will be terminated at a sufficient distance to allow time to change to the appropriate tower or advisory frequency. Class C services to these aircraft will be discontinued when the aircraft is instructed to contact the tower or change to advisory frequency.

3. Aircraft departing secondary controlled airports will not receive Class C services until they have been radar identified and two-way communications have been established with the Class C airspace facility.

4. This program is not to be interpreted as relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clearance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or better than the minimums required by 14 CFR Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, vortex exposure, and weather minimums.

g. Class C Airspace Areas by State

These states currently have designated Class C airspace areas that are depicted on sectional charts. Pilots should consult current sectional charts and NOTAMs for the latest information on services available. Pilots should be aware that some Class C airspace underlies or is adjacent to Class B airspace.
(See TBL 3-2-1.)

TBL 3-2-1
Class C Airspace Areas by State

State/City

Airport

ALABAMA

 

Birmingham

Birmingham-Shuttlesworth
International

Huntsville

International-Carl T Jones Fld

Mobile

Regional

ALASKA

 

Anchorage

Ted Stevens International

ARIZONA

 

Davis-Monthan

AFB

Tucson

International

ARKANSAS

 

Fayetteville (Springdale)

Northwest Arkansas Regional

Little Rock

Adams Field

CALIFORNIA

 

Beale

AFB

Burbank

Bob Hope

Fresno

Yosemite International

Monterey

Peninsula

Oakland

Metropolitan Oakland
International

Ontario

International

Riverside

March AFB

Sacramento

International

San Jose

Norman Y. Mineta International

Santa Ana

John Wayne/Orange County

Santa Barbara

Municipal

COLORADO

 

Colorado Springs

Municipal

CONNECTICUT

 

Windsor Locks

Bradley International

FLORIDA

 

Daytona Beach

International

Fort Lauderdale

Hollywood International

Fort Myers

SW Florida Regional

Jacksonville

International

Orlando

Sanford International

Palm Beach

International

Pensacola

NAS

Pensacola

Regional

Sarasota

Bradenton International

Tallahassee

Regional

Whiting

NAS

GEORGIA

 

Savannah

Hilton Head International

HAWAII

 

Kahului

Kahului

IDAHO

 

Boise

Air Terminal

ILLINOIS

 

Champaign

Urbana U of Illinois-Willard

Chicago

Midway International

Moline

Quad City International

Peoria

Greater Peoria Regional

Springfield

Abraham Lincoln Capital

INDIANA

 

Evansville

Regional

Fort Wayne

International

Indianapolis

International

South Bend

Regional

IOWA

 

Cedar Rapids

The Eastern Iowa

Des Moines

International

KANSAS

 

Wichita

Mid-Continent

KENTUCKY

 

Lexington

Blue Grass

Louisville

International-Standiford Field

LOUISIANA

 

Baton Rouge

Metropolitan, Ryan Field

Lafayette

Regional

Shreveport

Barksdale AFB

Shreveport

Regional

MAINE

 

Bangor

International

Portland

International Jetport

MICHIGAN

 

Flint

Bishop International

Grand Rapids

Gerald R. Ford International

Lansing

Capital City

MISSISSIPPI

 

Columbus

AFB

Jackson

Jackson-Evers International

MISSOURI

 

Springfield

Springfield-Branson National

MONTANA

 

Billings

Logan International

NEBRASKA

 

Lincoln

Lincoln

Omaha

Eppley Airfield

Offutt

AFB

NEVADA

 

Reno

Reno/Tahoe International

NEW HAMPSHIRE

 

Manchester

Manchester

NEW JERSEY

 

Atlantic City

International

NEW MEXICO

 

Albuquerque

International Sunport

NEW YORK

 

Albany

International

Buffalo

Niagara International

Islip

Long Island MacArthur

Rochester

Greater Rochester International

Syracuse

Hancock International

NORTH CAROLINA

 

Asheville

Regional

Fayetteville

Regional/Grannis Field

Greensboro

Piedmont Triad International

Pope

AFB

Raleigh

Raleigh-Durham International

OHIO

 

Akron

Akron-Canton Regional

Columbus

Port Columbus International

Dayton

James M. Cox International

Toledo

Express

OKLAHOMA

 

Oklahoma City

Will Rogers World

Tinker

AFB

Tulsa

International

OREGON

 

Portland

International

PENNSYLVANIA

 

Allentown

Lehigh Valley International

PUERTO RICO

 

San Juan

Luis Munoz Marin International

RHODE ISLAND

 

Providence

Theodore Francis Green State

SOUTH CAROLINA

 

Charleston

AFB/International

Columbia

Metropolitan

Greer

Greenville-Spartanburg
International

Myrtle Beach

Myrtle Beach International

Shaw

AFB

TENNESSEE

 

Chattanooga

Lovell Field

Knoxville

McGhee Tyson

Nashville

International

TEXAS

 

Abilene

Regional

Amarillo

Rick Husband International

Austin

Austin-Bergstrom International

Corpus Christi

International

Dyess

AFB

El Paso

International

Harlingen

Valley International

Laughlin

AFB

Lubbock

Preston Smith International

Midland

International

San Antonio

International

VERMONT

 

Burlington

International

VIRGIN ISLANDS

 

St. Thomas

Charlotte Amalie Cyril E. King

VIRGINIA

 

Richmond

International

Norfolk

International

Roanoke

Regional/Woodrum Field

WASHINGTON

 

Point Roberts

Vancouver International

Spokane

Fairchild AFB

Spokane

International

Whidbey Island

NAS, Ault Field

WEST VIRGINIA

 

Charleston

Yeager

WISCONSIN

 

Green Bay

Austin Straubel International

Madison

Dane County Regional-Traux Field

Milwaukee

General Mitchell International

3-2-5. Class D Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace will normally be designed to contain the procedures.

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements:

1. Pilot Certification.No specific certification required.

2. Equipment.Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable two-way radio is required.

3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in the Class D airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the control tower on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, destination, and any request(s). Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class D airspace boundary to preclude entering the Class D airspace before two-way radio communications are established.

NOTE-
1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, "[aircraft callsign] standby," radio communications have been established and the pilot can enter the Class D airspace.

2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate entry into Class D airspace, the controller will inform the pilot to remain outside the Class D airspace until conditions permit entry.

EXAMPLE-
1. "[Aircraft callsign] remain outside the Class Delta airspace and standby."
It is important to understand that if the controller responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft callsign, radio communications have not been established and the pilot may not enter the Class D airspace.

2. "Aircraft calling Manassas tower standby."
At those airports where the control tower does not operate 24 hours a day, the operating hours of the tower will be listed on the appropriate charts and in the A/FD. During the hours the tower is not in operation, the Class E surface area rules or a combination of Class E rules to 700 feet above ground level and Class G rules to the surface will become applicable. Check the A/FD for specifics.

4. Departures from:

(a) A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class D airspace.

(b) A satellite airport without an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established as soon as practicable after departing with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class D airspace as soon as practicable after departing.

5. Aircraft Speed. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class D airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).

c. Class D airspace areas are depicted on Sectional and Terminal charts with blue segmented lines, and on IFR En Route Lows with a boxed [D].

d. Arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures may be Class D or Class E airspace. As a general rule, if all extensions are 2 miles or less, they remain part of the Class D surface area. However, if any one extension is greater than 2 miles, then all extensions become Class E.

e. Separation for VFR Aircraft. No separation services are provided to VFR aircraft.

3-2-6. Class E Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, if the airspace is not Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D, and it is controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace.

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements:

1. Pilot Certification.No specific certification required.

2. Equipment.No specific equipment required by the airspace.

3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. No specific requirements.

c. Charts. Class E airspace below 14,500 feet MSL is charted on Sectional, Terminal, and IFR Enroute Low Altitude charts.

d. Vertical limits. Except for 18,000 feet MSL, Class E airspace has no defined vertical limit but rather it extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace.

e. Types of Class E Airspace:

1. Surface area designated for an airport. When designated as a surface area for an airport, the airspace will be configured to contain all instrument procedures.

2. Extension to a surface area.There are Class E airspace areas that serve as extensions to Class B, Class C, and Class D surface areas designated for an airport. Such airspace provides controlled airspace to contain standard instrument approach procedures without imposing a communications requirement on pilots operating under VFR.

3. Airspace used for transition. There are Class E airspace areas beginning at either 700 or 1,200 feet AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or en route environment.

4. En Route Domestic Areas. There are Class E airspace areas that extend upward from a specified altitude and are en route domestic airspace areas that provide controlled airspace in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR en route ATC services but the Federal airway system is inadequate.

5. Federal Airways.The Federal airways are Class E airspace areas and, unless otherwise specified, extend upward from 1,200 feet to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL. The colored airways are green, red, amber, and blue. The VOR airways are classified as Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian.

6. Offshore Airspace Areas. There are Class E airspace areas that extend upward from a specified altitude to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL and are designated as offshore airspace areas. These areas provide controlled airspace beyond 12 miles from the coast of the U.S. in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR en route ATC services and within which the U.S. is applying domestic procedures.

7. Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins at 14,500 feet MSL to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL overlying: the 48 contiguous States including the waters within 12 miles from the coast of the 48 contiguous States; the District of Columbia; Alaska, including the waters within 12 miles from the coast of Alaska, and that airspace above FL 600; excluding the Alaska peninsula west of long. 160°00'00''W, and the airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth unless specifically so designated.

f. Separation for VFR Aircraft. No separation services are provided to VFR aircraft.

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