Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Air Navigation

Section 1. Navigation Aids

1-1-1. General

1-1-2. Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB)

1-1-3. VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR)

1-1-4. VOR Receiver Check

1-1-5. Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN)

1-1-6. VHF Omni-directional Range/Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC)

1-1-7. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

1-1-8. Navigational Aid (NAVAID) Service Volumes

1-1-9. Instrument Landing System (ILS)

1-1-10. Simplified Directional Facility (SDF)

1-1-11. Microwave Landing System (MLS)

1-1-12. NAVAID Identifier Removal During Maintenance

1-1-13. NAVAIDs with Voice

1-1-14. User Reports Requested on NAVAID or Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Performance or Interference

1-1-15. LORAN

1-1-16. Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), Inertial Navigation System (INS), and Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS)

1-1-17. Doppler Radar

1-1-18. Global Positioning System (GPS)

1-1-19. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)

1-1-20. Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Landing System (GLS)

1-1-21. Precision Approach Systems other than ILS and GLS

Section 2. Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) and Area Navigation (RNAV)

1-2-1. Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) and Area Navigation (RNAV)

1-2-2. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

1-2-3. Use of Suitable Area Navigation (RNAV) Systems on Conventional Procedures and Routes


Chapter 2. Aeronautical Lighting and Other Airport Visual Aids

Section 1. Airport Lighting Aids

2-1-1. Approach Light Systems (ALS)

2-1-2. Visual Glideslope Indicators

2-1-3. Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)

2-1-4. Runway Edge Light Systems

2-1-5. In-runway Lighting

2-1-6. Runway Status Light (RWSL) System

2-1-7. Stand-Alone Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal (FAROS)

2-1-8. Control of Lighting Systems

2-1-9. Pilot Control of Airport Lighting

2-1-10. Airport/Heliport Beacons

2-1-11. Taxiway Lights

Section 2. Air Navigation and Obstruction Lighting

2-2-1. Aeronautical Light Beacons

2-2-2. Code Beacons and Course Lights

2-2-3. Obstruction Lights

Section 3. Airport Marking Aids and Signs

2-3-1. General

2-3-2. Airport Pavement Markings

2-3-3. Runway Markings

2-3-4. Taxiway Markings

2-3-5. Holding Position Markings

2-3-6. Other Markings

2-3-7. Airport Signs

2-3-8. Mandatory Instruction Signs

2-3-9. Location Signs

2-3-10. Direction Signs

2-3-11. Destination Signs

2-3-12. Information Signs

2-3-13. Runway Distance Remaining Signs

2-3-14. Aircraft Arresting Systems

2-3-15. Security Identifications Display Area (Airport Ramp Area)


Chapter 3. Airspace

Section 1. General

3-1-1. General

3-1-2. General Dimensions of Airspace Segments

3-1-3. Hierarchy of Overlapping Airspace Designations

3-1-4. Basic VFR Weather Minimums

3-1-5. VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels

Section 2. Controlled Airspace

3-2-1. General

3-2-2. Class A Airspace

3-2-3. Class B Airspace

3-2-4. Class C Airspace

3-2-5. Class D Airspace

3-2-6. Class E Airspace

Section 3. Class G Airspace

3-3-1. General

3-3-2. VFR Requirements

3-3-3. IFR Requirements

Section 4. Special Use Airspace

3-4-1. General

3-4-2. Prohibited Areas

3-4-3. Restricted Areas

3-4-4. Warning Areas

3-4-5. Military Operations Areas

3-4-6. Alert Areas

3-4-7. Controlled Firing Areas
3-4-8. National Security Areas

Section 5. Other Airspace Areas

3-5-1. Airport Advisory/Information Services

3-5-2. Military Training Routes

3-5-3. Temporary Flight Restrictions

3-5-4. Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations

3-5-5. Published VFR Routes

3-5-6. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)


Chapter 4. Air Traffic Control

Section 1. Services Available to Pilots

4-1-1. Air Route Traffic Control Centers

4-1-2. Control Towers

4-1-3. Flight Service Stations

4-1-4. Recording and Monitoring

4-1-5. Communications Release of IFR Aircraft Landing at an Airport Without an Operating Control Tower

4-1-6. Pilot Visits to Air Traffic Facilities

4-1-7. Operation Take-off and Operation Raincheck

4-1-8. Approach Control Service for VFR Arriving Aircraft

4-1-9. Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers

4-1-10. IFR Approaches/Ground Vehicle Operations

4-1-11. Designated UNICOM/MULTICOM Frequencies

4-1-12. Use of UNICOM for ATC Purposes

4-1-13. Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

4-1-14. Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS) - Alaska FSSs Only

4-1-15. Radar Traffic Information Service

4-1-16. Safety Alert

4-1-17. Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft

4-1-18. Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft

4-1-19. Tower En Route Control (TEC)

4-1-20. Transponder Operation

4-1-21. Hazardous Area Reporting Service

4-1-22. Airport Reservation Operations and Special Traffic Management Programs

4-1-23. Requests for Waivers and Authorizations from Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR)

4-1-24. Weather System Processor

Section 2. Radio Communications Phraseology and Techniques

4-2-1. General

4-2-2. Radio Technique

4-2-3. Contact Procedures

4-2-4. Aircraft Call Signs

4-2-5. Description of Interchange or Leased Aircraft

4-2-6. Ground Station Call Signs

4-2-7. Phonetic Alphabet

4-2-8. Figures

4-2-9. Altitudes and Flight Levels

4-2-10. Directions

4-2-11. Speeds

4-2-12. Time

4-2-13. Communications with Tower when Aircraft Transmitter or Receiver or Both are Inoperative

4-2-14. Communications for VFR Flights

Section 3. Airport Operations

4-3-1. General

4-3-2. Airports with an Operating Control Tower

4-3-3. Traffic Patterns

4-3-4. Visual Indicators at Airports Without an Operating Control Tower

4-3-5. Unexpected Maneuvers in the Airport Traffic Pattern

4-3-6. Use of Runways/Declared Distances

4-3-7. Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Detection Systems

4-3-8. Braking Action Reports and Advisories

4-3-9. Runway Friction Reports and Advisories

4-3-10. Intersection Takeoffs

4-3-11. Pilot Responsibilities When Conducting Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO)

4-3-12. Low Approach

4-3-13. Traffic Control Light Signals

4-3-14. Communications

4-3-15. Gate Holding Due to Departure Delays

4-3-16. VFR Flights in Terminal Areas

4-3-17. VFR Helicopter Operations at Controlled Airports

4-3-18. Taxiing

4-3-19. Taxi During Low Visibility

4-3-20. Exiting the Runway After Landing

4-3-21. Practice Instrument Approaches

4-3-22. Option Approach

4-3-23. Use of Aircraft Lights

4-3-24. Flight Inspection/`Flight Check' Aircraft in Terminal Areas

4-3-25. Hand Signals

4-3-26. Operations at Uncontrolled Airports With Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS)/Automated Weather Sensor System (AWSS)/Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)

Section 4. ATC Clearances and Aircraft Separation

4-4-1. Clearance

4-4-2. Clearance Prefix

4-4-3. Clearance Items

4-4-4. Amended Clearances

4-4-5. Coded Departure Route (CDR)

4-4-6. Special VFR Clearances

4-4-7. Pilot Responsibility upon Clearance Issuance

4-4-8. IFR Clearance VFR-on-top

4-4-9. VFR/IFR Flights

4-4-10. Adherence to Clearance

4-4-11. IFR Separation Standards

4-4-12. Speed Adjustments

4-4-13. Runway Separation

4-4-14. Visual Separation

4-4-15. Use of Visual Clearing Procedures

4-4-16. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I & II)

4-4-17. Traffic Information Service (TIS)

Section 5. Surveillance Systems

4-5-1. Radar

4-5-2. Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS)

4-5-3. Surveillance Radar

4-5-4. Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

4-5-5. Airport Surface Detection Equipment - Model X (ASDE-X)

4-5-6. Traffic Information Service (TIS)

4-5-7. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Services

4-5-8. Traffic Information Service- Broadcast (TIS-B)

4-5-9. Flight Information Service- Broadcast (FIS-B)

4-5-10. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast (ADS-R)

Section 6. Operational Policy/Procedures for Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) in the Domestic U.S., Alaska, Offshore Airspace and the San Juan FIR

4-6-1. Applicability and RVSM Mandate (Date/Time and Area)

4-6-2. Flight Level Orientation Scheme

4-6-3. Aircraft and Operator Approval Policy/Procedures, RVSM Monitoring and Databases for Aircraft and Operator Approval

4-6-4. Flight Planning into RVSM Airspace

4-6-5. Pilot RVSM Operating Practices and Procedures

4-6-6. Guidance on Severe Turbulence and Mountain Wave Activity (MWA)

4-6-7. Guidance on Wake Turbulence

4-6-8. Pilot/Controller Phraseology

4-6-9. Contingency Actions: Weather Encounters and Aircraft System Failures that Occur After Entry into RVSM Airspace

4-6-10. Procedures for Accommodation of Non-RVSM Aircraft

4-6-11. Non-RVSM Aircraft Requesting Climb to and Descent from Flight Levels Above RVSM Airspace Without Intermediate Level Off

Section 7. Operational Policy/Procedures for the Gulf of Mexico 50 NM Lateral Separation Initiative

4-7-1. Introduction and Background

4-7-2. Gulf of Mexico 50 NM Lateral Separation Initiative Web Page: Policy, Procedures and Guidance for Operators and Regulators

4-7-3. Lateral Separation Minima Applied

4-7-4. Operation on Routes on the periphery of the Gulf of Mexico CTAs

4-7-5. Provisions for Accommodation of NonRNP10 Aircraft (Aircraft Not Authorized RNP 10 or RNP 4)

4-7-6. Operator Action

4-7-7. RNP 10 or RNP 4 Authorization: Policy and Procedures for Aircraft and Operators

4-7-8. Flight Planning Requirements

4-7-9. Pilot and Dispatcher Procedures: Basic and In-flight Contingency Procedures


Chapter 5. Air Traffic Procedures

Section 1. Preflight

5-1-1. Preflight Preparation

5-1-2. Follow IFR Procedures Even When Operating VFR

5-1-3. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System

5-1-4. Flight Plan - VFR Flights

5-1-5. Operational Information System (OIS)

5-1-6. Flight Plan- Defense VFR (DVFR) Flights

5-1-7. Composite Flight Plan (VFR/IFR Flights)

5-1-8. Flight Plan (FAA Form 7233-1)- Domestic IFR Flights

5-1-9. International Flight Plan (FAA Form 7233-4)- IFR Flights (For Domestic or International Flights)

5-1-10. IFR Operations to High Altitude Destinations

5-1-11. Flights Outside the U.S. and U.S. Territories

5-1-12. Change in Flight Plan

5-1-13. Change in Proposed Departure Time

5-1-14. Closing VFR/DVFR Flight Plans

5-1-15. Canceling IFR Flight Plan

5-1-16. RNAV and RNP Operations

Section 2. Departure Procedures

5-2-1. Pre-taxi Clearance Procedures

5-2-2. Pre-departure Clearance Procedures

5-2-3.Taxi Clearance

5-2-4. Line Up and Wait (LUAW)

5-2-5. Abbreviated IFR Departure Clearance (Cleared. . .as Filed) Procedures

5-2-6. Departure Restrictions, Clearance Void Times, Hold for Release, and Release Times

5-2-7. Departure Control

5-2-8. Instrument Departure Procedures (DP) - Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures (SID)

Section 3. En Route Procedures

5-3-1. ARTCC Communications

5-3-2. Position Reporting

5-3-3. Additional Reports

5-3-4. Airways and Route Systems

5-3-5. Airway or Route Course Changes

5-3-6. Changeover Points (COPs)

5-3-7. Minimum Turning Altitude (MTA)

5-3-8. Holding

Section 4. Arrival Procedures

5-4-1. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR), Area Navigation (RNAV) STAR, and Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP) for Arrivals

5-4-2. Local Flow Traffic Management Program

5-4-3. Approach Control

5-4-4. Advance Information on Instrument Approach

5-4-5. Instrument Approach Procedure Charts

5-4-6. Approach Clearance

5-4-7. Instrument Approach Procedures

5-4-8. Special Instrument Approach Procedures

5-4-9. Procedure Turn and Hold-in-lieu of Procedure Turn

5-4-10. Timed Approaches from a Holding Fix

5-4-11. Radar Approaches

5-4-12. Radar Monitoring of Instrument Approaches

5-4-13. ILS/RNAV/GLS Approaches to Parallel Runways

5-4-14. Simultaneous (Parallel) Dependent ILS/RNAV/GLS Approaches (See FIG 5-4-19)

5-4-15. Simultaneous (Parallel) Independent ILS/RNAV/GLS Approaches (See FIG 5-4-20)

5-4-16. Simultaneous Close Parallel ILS PRM/RNAV PRM/GLS PRM Approaches and Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) (See FIG 5-4-21)

5-4-17. Simultaneous Converging Instrument Approaches

5-4-18. RNP AR Instrument Approach Procedures

5-4-19. Side-step Maneuver

5-4-20. Approach and Landing Minimums

5-4-21. Missed Approach

5-4-22. Use of Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) on Instrument Approaches

5-4-23. Visual Approach

5-4-24. Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP)

5-4-25. Contact Approach

5-4-26. Landing Priority

5-4-27. Overhead Approach Maneuver

Section 5. Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities

5-5-1. General

5-5-2. Air Traffic Clearance

5-5-3. Contact Approach

5-5-4. Instrument Approach

5-5-5. Missed Approach

5-5-6. Radar Vectors

5-5-7. Safety Alert

5-5-8. See and Avoid

5-5-9. Speed Adjustments

5-5-10. Traffic Advisories (Traffic Information)

5-5-11. Visual Approach

5-5-12. Visual Separation

5-5-13. VFR-on-top

5-5-14. Instrument Departures

5-5-15. Minimum Fuel Advisory

5-5-16. RNAV and RNP Operations

Section 6. National Security and Interception Procedures

5-6-1. National Security

5-6-2. Interception Procedures

5-6-3. Law Enforcement Operations by Civil and Military Organizations

5-6-4. Interception Signals

5-6-5. ADIZ Boundaries and Designated Mountainous Areas (See FIG 5-6-3.)

5-6-6. Visual Warning System (VWS)


Chapter 6. Emergency Procedures

Section 1. General

6-1-1. Pilot Responsibility and Authority

6-1-2. Emergency Condition- Request Assistance Immediately

Section 2. Emergency Services Available to Pilots

6-2-1. Radar Service for VFR Aircraft in Difficulty

6-2-2. Transponder Emergency Operation

6-2-3. Intercept and Escort

6-2-4. Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)

6-2-5. FAA K-9 Explosives Detection Team Program

6-2-6. Search and Rescue

Section 3. Distress and Urgency Procedures

6-3-1. Distress and Urgency Communications

6-3-2. Obtaining Emergency Assistance

6-3-3. Ditching Procedures

6-3-4. Special Emergency (Air Piracy)

6-3-5. Fuel Dumping

Section 4. Two-way Radio Communications Failure

6-4-1. Two-way Radio Communications Failure

6-4-2. Transponder Operation During Two-way Communications Failure

6-4-3. Reestablishing Radio Contact

Section 5. Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Communications

6-5-1. Discrete Emergency Frequency

6-5-2. Radio Call Signs

6-5-3. ARFF Emergency Hand Signals


Chapter 7. Safety of Flight

Section 1. Meteorology

7-1-1. National Weather Service Aviation Products

7-1-2. FAA Weather Services

7-1-3. Use of Aviation Weather Products

7-1-4. Preflight Briefing

7-1-5. En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)

7-1-6. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories

7-1-7. Categorical Outlooks

7-1-8. Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS)

7-1-9. Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) (Alaska Only)

7-1-10. Inflight Weather Broadcasts

7-1-11. Flight Information Services (FIS)

7-1-12. Weather Observing Programs

7-1-13. Weather Radar Services

7-1-14. ATC Inflight Weather Avoidance Assistance

7-1-15. Runway Visual Range (RVR)

7-1-16. Reporting of Cloud Heights

7-1-17. Reporting Prevailing Visibility

7-1-18. Estimating Intensity of Rain and Ice Pellets

7-1-19. Estimating Intensity of Snow or Drizzle (Based on Visibility)

7-1-20. Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs)

7-1-21. PIREPs Relating to Airframe Icing

7-1-22. Definitions of Inflight Icing Terms

7-1-23. PIREPs Relating to Turbulence

7-1-24. Wind Shear PIREPs

7-1-25. Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) PIREPs

7-1-26. Microbursts

7-1-27. PIREPs Relating to Volcanic Ash Activity

7-1-28. Thunderstorms

7-1-29. Thunderstorm Flying

7-1-30. Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)

7-1-31. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Weather Formats

Section 2. Altimeter Setting Procedures

7-2-1. General

7-2-2. Procedures

7-2-3. Altimeter Errors

7-2-4. High Barometric Pressure

7-2-5. Low Barometric Pressure

Section 3. Wake Turbulence

7-3-1. General

7-3-2. Vortex Generation

7-3-3. Vortex Strength

7-3-4. Vortex Behavior

7-3-5. Operations Problem Areas

7-3-6. Vortex Avoidance Procedures

7-3-7. Helicopters

7-3-8. Pilot Responsibility

7-3-9. Air Traffic Wake Turbulence Separations

Section 4. Bird Hazards and Flight Over National Refuges, Parks, and Forests

7-4-1. Migratory Bird Activity

7-4-2. Reducing Bird Strike Risks

7-4-3. Reporting Bird Strikes

7-4-4. Reporting Bird and Other Wildlife Activities

7-4-5. Pilot Advisories on Bird and Other Wildlife Hazards

7-4-6. Flights Over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas

Section 5. Potential Flight Hazards

7-5-1. Accident Cause Factors

7-5-2. VFR in Congested Areas

7-5-3. Obstructions To Flight

7-5-4. Avoid Flight Beneath Unmanned Balloons

7-5-5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems

7-5-6. Mountain Flying

7-5-7. Use of Runway Half-way Signs at Unimproved Airports

7-5-8. Seaplane Safety

7-5-9. Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash

7-5-10. Emergency Airborne Inspection of Other Aircraft

7-5-11. Precipitation Static

7-5-12. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Laser) Operations and Reporting Illumination of Aircraft

7-5-13. Flying in Flat Light and White Out Conditions

7-5-14. Operations in Ground Icing Conditions

7-5-15.������Avoid Flight in the Vicinity of Exhaust Plumes (Smoke Stacks and Cooling Towers)

Section 6. Safety, Accident, and Hazard Reports

7-6-1. Aviation Safety Reporting Program

7-6-2. Aircraft Accident and Incident Reporting

7-6-3. Near Midair Collision Reporting

7-6-4. Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) Reports

7-6-5. Safety Alerts For Operators (SAFO) and Information For Operators (InFO)


Chapter 8. Medical Facts for Pilots

Section 1. Fitness for Flight

8-1-1. Fitness For Flight

8-1-2. Effects of Altitude

8-1-3. Hyperventilation in Flight

8-1-4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Flight

8-1-5. Illusions in Flight

8-1-6. Vision in Flight

8-1-7. Aerobatic Flight

8-1-8. Judgment Aspects of Collision Avoidance


Chapter 9. Aeronautical Charts and Related Publications

Section 1. Types of Charts Available

9-1-1. General

9-1-2. Obtaining Aeronautical Charts

9-1-3. Selected Charts and Products Available

9-1-4. General Description of each Chart Series

9-1-5. Where and How to Get Charts of Foreign Areas


Chapter 10. Helicopter Operations

Section 1. Helicopter IFR Operations

10-1-1. Helicopter Flight Control Systems

10-1-2. Helicopter Instrument Approaches

10-1-3. Helicopter Approach Procedures to VFR Heliports

10-1-4. The Gulf of Mexico Grid System

Section 2. Special Operations

10-2-1. Offshore Helicopter Operations

10-2-2. Helicopter Night VFR Operations

10-2-3. Landing Zone Safety

10-2-4. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Multiple Helicopter Operations




Appendix 1. Bird/Other Wildlife Strike Report

Appendix 2. Volcanic Activity Reporting Form (VAR)

Appendix 3. Abbreviations/Acronyms



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