Section 5. Other Airspace
3-5-1. Airport Advisory/Information Services
are three advisory type services available at selected airports.
Airport Advisory (LAA) service is operated within 10 statute miles of an airport
where a control tower is not operating but where a FSS is located on the
airport. At such locations, the FSS provides a complete local airport advisory
service to arriving and departing aircraft. During periods of fast changing
weather the FSS will automatically provide Final Guard as part of the service
from the time the aircraft reports "on-final" or "taking-the-active-runway"
until the aircraft reports "on-the-ground" or "airborne."
Current policy, when requesting remote ATC services, requires that a pilot
monitor the automated weather broadcast at the landing airport prior to
requesting ATC services. The FSS automatically provides Final Guard, when
appropriate, during LAA/Remote Airport Advisory (RAA) operations. Final Guard is
a value added wind/altimeter monitoring service, which provides an automatic
wind and altimeter check during active weather situations when the pilot reports
on-final or taking the active runway. During the landing or take-off operation
when the winds or altimeter are actively changing the FSS will blind broadcast
significant changes when the specialist believes the change might affect the
operation. Pilots should acknowledge the first wind/altimeter check but due to
cockpit activity no acknowledgement is expected for the blind broadcasts. It is
prudent for a pilot to report on-the-ground or airborne to end the service.
service is operated within 10 statute miles of specified high activity GA
airports where a control tower is not operating. Airports offering this service
are listed in the A/FD and the published service hours may be changed by NOTAM
D. Final Guard is automatically provided with RAA.
Airport Information Service (RAIS) is provided in support of short term special
events like small to medium fly-ins. The service is advertised by NOTAM D only.
The FSS will not have access to a continuous readout of the current winds and
altimeter; therefore, RAIS does not include weather and/or Final Guard service.
However, known traffic, special event instructions, and all other services are
The airport authority and/or manager should request RAIS support on official
letterhead directly with the manager of the FSS that will provide the service at
least 60 days in advance. Approval authority rests with the FSS manager and is
based on workload and resource availability.
AIM, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers,
is not mandatory that pilots participate in the Airport Advisory programs.
Participation enhances safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports;
therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and provide feedback that will
help improve the program.
3-5-2. Military Training Routes
security depends largely on the deterrent effect of our airborne military
forces. To be proficient, the military services must train in a wide range of
airborne tactics. One phase of this training involves "low level" combat
tactics. The required maneuvers and high speeds are such that they may
occasionally make the see-and-avoid aspect of VFR flight more difficult without
increased vigilance in areas containing such operations. In an effort to ensure
the greatest practical level of safety for all flight operations, the Military
Training Route (MTR) program was conceived.
MTR program is a joint venture by the FAA and the Department of Defense (DOD).
MTRs are mutually developed for use by the military for the purpose of
conducting low-altitude, high-speed training. The routes above 1,500 feet AGL
are developed to be flown, to the maximum extent possible, under IFR. The routes
at 1,500 feet AGL and below are generally developed to be flown under VFR.
MTRs are established below 10,000 feet MSL for operations at speeds in excess of
250 knots. However, route segments may be defined at higher altitudes for
purposes of route continuity. For example, route segments may be defined for
descent, climbout, and mountainous terrain. There are IFR and VFR routes as
1. IFR Military Training
Routes-(IR). Operations on these routes are
conducted in accordance with IFR regardless of weather conditions.
2. VFR Military Training
Routes-(VR). Operations on these routes are
conducted in accordance with VFR except flight visibility must be 5 miles or
more; and flights must not be conducted below a ceiling of less than 3,000 feet
training routes will be identified and charted as follows:
1. Route identification.
with no segment above 1,500 feet AGL must be identified by four number
characters; e.g., IR1206, VR1207.
that include one or more segments above 1,500 feet AGL must be identified by
three number characters; e.g., IR206, VR207.
IR/VR routes or route segments are identified by using the basic/principal route
designation followed by a letter suffix, e.g., IR008A, VR1007B, etc.
2. Route charting.
(a) IFR Enroute Low
Altitude Chart. This chart will depict all IR routes
and all VR routes that accommodate operations above 1,500 feet AGL.
(b) VFR Sectional
Aeronautical Charts. These charts will depict
military training activities such as IR, VR, MOA, Restricted Area, Warning Area,
and Alert Area information.
(c) Area Planning
(AP/1B) Chart (DOD Flight Information Publication-FLIP). This
chart is published by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
primarily for military users and contains detailed information on both IR and VR
AIM, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Products, Paragraph
FLIP contains charts and narrative descriptions of these routes. To obtain this
Defense Logistics Agency for Aviation
Mapping Customer Operations (DLA AVN/QAM)
8000 Jefferson Davis Highway
Richmond, VA 23297-5339
Toll free phone: 1-800-826-0342
This NGA FLIP is available for pilot briefings
at FSS and many airports.
aircraft are not prohibited from flying within an MTR; however, extreme
vigilance should be exercised when conducting flight through or near these
routes. Pilots should contact FSSs within 100 NM of a particular MTR to obtain
current information or route usage in their vicinity. Information available
includes times of scheduled activity, altitudes in use on each route segment,
and actual route width. Route width varies for each MTR and can extend several
miles on either side of the charted MTR centerline. Route width information for
IR and VR MTRs is also available in the FLIP AP/1B along with additional MTR
(slow routes/air refueling routes) information. When requesting MTR information,
pilots should give the FSS their position, route of flight, and destination in
order to reduce frequency congestion and permit the FSS specialist to identify
the MTR which could be a factor.
3-5-3. Temporary Flight
a. General. This
paragraph describes the types of conditions under which the FAA may impose
temporary flight restrictions. It also explains which FAA elements have been
delegated authority to issue a temporary flight restrictions NOTAM and lists the
types of responsible agencies/offices from which the FAA will accept requests to
establish temporary flight restrictions. The 14 CFR is explicit as to what
operations are prohibited, restricted, or allowed in a temporary flight
restrictions area. Pilots are responsible to comply with 14 CFR Sections 91.137,
91.138, 91.141 and 91.143 when conducting flight in an area where a temporary
flight restrictions area is in effect, and should check appropriate NOTAMs
during flight planning.
b. The purpose for establishing a temporary flight restrictions area is to:
persons and property in the air or on the surface from an existing or imminent
hazard associated with an incident on the surface when the presence of low
flying aircraft would magnify, alter, spread, or compound that hazard (14 CFR
a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft (14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(2)); or
an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft above an incident or event which
may generate a high degree of public interest (14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3)).
declared national disasters for humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14
CFR Section 91.138).
the President, Vice President, or other public figures (14 CFR Section 91.141).
a safe environment for space agency operations (14 CFR Section 91.143).
for hijacking situations, when the provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) or
(a)(2) are necessary, a temporary flight restrictions area will only be
established by or through the area manager at the Air Route Traffic Control
Center (ARTCC) having jurisdiction over the area concerned. A temporary flight
restrictions NOTAM involving the conditions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) will
be issued at the direction of the service area office director having oversight
of the airspace concerned. When hijacking situations are involved, a temporary
flight restrictions area will be implemented through the TSA Aviation Command
Center. The appropriate FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a request,
will establish a temporary flight restrictions area under 14 CFR
FAA accepts recommendations for the establishment of a temporary flight
restrictions area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military major command
headquarters, regional directors of the Office of Emergency Planning, Civil
Defense State Directors, State Governors, or other similar authority. For the
situations involving 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2), the FAA accepts
recommendations from military commanders serving as regional, subregional, or
Search and Rescue (SAR) coordinators; by military commanders directing or
coordinating air operations associated with disaster relief; or by civil
authorities directing or coordinating organized relief air operations (includes
representatives of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S. Forest Service, and
State aeronautical agencies). Appropriate authorities for a temporary flight
restrictions establishment under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those
listed above or by State, county, or city government entities.
type of restrictions issued will be kept to a minimum by the FAA consistent with
achievement of the necessary objective. Situations which warrant the extreme
restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) include, but are not limited to:
toxic gas leaks or spills, flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by rotor
or propeller wash could endanger persons or property on the surface, or if
entered by an aircraft could endanger persons or property in the air; imminent
volcano eruptions which could endanger airborne aircraft and occupants; nuclear
accident or incident; and hijackings. Situations which warrant the restrictions
associated with 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) include: forest fires which are
being fought by releasing fire retardants from aircraft; and aircraft relief
activities following a disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.). 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for events and incidents that
would attract an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft.
amount of airspace needed to protect persons and property or provide a safe
environment for rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally limited to within
2,000 feet above the surface and within a 3-nautical-mile radius. Incidents
occurring within Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace will normally be handled
through existing procedures and should not require the issuance of a temporary
flight restrictions NOTAM. Temporary flight restrictions affecting airspace
outside of the U.S. and its territories and possessions are issued with verbiage
excluding that airspace outside of the 12-mile coastal limits.
FSS nearest the incident site is normally the "coordination facility." When FAA
communications assistance is required, the designated FSS will function as the
primary communications facility for coordination between emergency control
authorities and affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison for the
emergency control authorities if adequate communications cannot be established
between the designated FSS and the relief organization. For example, the
coordination facility may relay authorizations from the on-scene emergency
response official in cases where news media aircraft operations are approved at
the altitudes used by relief aircraft.
may authorize operations in a temporary flight restrictions area under its own
authority only when flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR Section
91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate ARTCC/airport traffic control tower
manager will, however, ensure that such authorized flights do not hamper
activities or interfere with the event for which restrictions were implemented.
However, ATC will not authorize local IFR flights into the temporary flight
preclude misunderstanding, the implementing NOTAM will contain specific and
formatted information. The facility establishing a temporary flight restrictions
area will format a NOTAM beginning with the phrase "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS"
followed by: the location of the temporary flight restrictions area; the
effective period; the area defined in statute miles; the altitudes affected; the
FAA coordination facility and commercial telephone number; the reason for the
temporary flight restrictions; the agency directing any relief activities and
its commercial telephone number; and other information considered appropriate by
the issuing authority.
1. 14 CFR Section
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft operations except those specified in
Flight restrictions Matthews, Virginia, effective immediately until 9610211200.
Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) temporary flight restrictions are in
effect. Rescue operations in progress. Only relief aircraft operations under the
direction of the Department of Defense are authorized in the airspace at and
below 5,000 feet MSL within a 2-nautical-mile radius of Laser AFB, Matthews,
Virginia. Commander, Laser AFB, in charge (897) 946-5543 (122.4). Steenson FSS
(792) 555-6141 (123.1) is the FAA coordination facility.
CFR Section 91.137(a)(2):
The following NOTAM permits flight operations in accordance with 14 CFR Section
91.137(a)(2). The on-site emergency response official to authorize media
aircraft operations below the altitudes used by the relief aircraft. Flight
restrictions 25 miles east of Bransome, Idaho, effective immediately until
9601202359 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) temporary flight
restrictions are in effect within a 4-nautical-mile radius of the intersection
of county roads 564 and 315 at and below 3,500 feet MSL to provide a safe
environment for fire fighting aircraft operations. Davis County sheriff's
department (792) 555-8122 (122.9) is in charge of on-scene emergency response
activities. Glivings FSS (792) 555-1618 (122.2) is the FAA coordination
CFR Section 91.137(a)(3):
The following NOTAM prohibits sightseeing aircraft operations.
Flight restrictions Brown, Tennessee, due to olympic activity. Effective
9606181100 UTC until 9607190200 UTC.
Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) temporary flight restrictions are in
effect within a 3-nautical-mile radius of N355783/W835242 and Volunteer VORTAC
019 degree radial 3.7 DME fix
at and below 2,500 feet MSL. Norton FSS (423) 555-6742
(126.6) is the FAA coordination facility.
CFR Section 91.138:
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft except those operating under the
authorization of the official in charge of associated emergency or disaster
relief response activities, aircraft carrying law enforcement officials,
aircraft carrying personnel involved in an emergency or legitimate scientific
purposes, carrying properly accredited news media, and aircraft operating in
accordance with an ATC clearance or instruction.
Flight restrictions Kapalua, Hawaii, effective 9605101200 UTC until 9605151500
UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.138 temporary
flight restrictions are in effect within a 3-nautical-mile radius of
N205778/W1564038 and Maui/OGG/VORTAC 275 degree radial at 14.1 nautical miles.
John Doe 808-757-4469 or 122.4 is in charge of the operation. Honolulu/HNL
808-757-4470 (123.6) FSS is the FAA coordination facility.
CFR Section 91.141:
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft.
Flight restrictions Stillwater, Oklahoma, June 21, 1996. Pursuant to 14 CFR
Section 91.141 aircraft flight operations are prohibited within a
3-nautical-mile radius, below 2000 feet AGL of N360962/W970515 and the
Stillwater/SWO/VOR/DME 176 degree radial 3.8-nautical-mile fix from 1400 local
time to 1700 local time June 21, 1996, unless otherwise authorized by ATC.
CFR Section 91.143:
The following NOTAM prohibits any aircraft of U.S. registry, or pilot any
aircraft under the authority of an airman certificate issued by the FAA.
Kennedy space center space operations area effective immediately until
9610152100 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.143, flight operations conducted
by FAA certificated pilots or conducted in aircraft of U.S. registry are
prohibited at any altitude from surface to unlimited, within the following area
30-nautical-mile radius of the Melbourne/MLB/VORTAC 010 degree radial
21-nautical-mile fix. St. Petersburg, Florida/PIE/FSS 813-545-1645 (122.2) is
the FAA coordination facility and should be contacted for the current status of
any airspace associated with the space shuttle operations. This airspace
encompasses R2933, R2932, R2931, R2934, R2935, W497A and W158A. Additional
warning and restricted areas will be active in conjunction with the operations.
Pilots must consult all NOTAMs regarding this operation.
3-5-4. Parachute Jump Aircraft
relating to parachute jump areas are contained in 14 CFR Part 105. Tabulations
of parachute jump areas in the U.S. are contained in the A/FD.
of aircraft engaged in parachute jump operations are reminded that all reported
altitudes must be with reference to mean sea level, or flight level, as
appropriate, to enable ATC to provide meaningful traffic information.
operations in the vicinity of an airport without an operating control tower -
there is no substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of an airport. It is
essential that pilots conducting parachute operations be alert, look for other
traffic, and exchange traffic information as recommended in paragraph 4-1-9,
Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers. In
addition, pilots should avoid releasing parachutes while in an airport traffic
pattern when there are other aircraft in that pattern. Pilots should make
appropriate broadcasts on the designated Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
(CTAF), and monitor that CTAF until all parachute activity has terminated or the
aircraft has left the area. Prior to commencing a jump operation, the pilot
should broadcast the aircraft's altitude and position in relation to the
airport, the approximate relative time when the jump will commence and
terminate, and listen to the position reports of other aircraft in the area.
3-5-5. Published VFR
Published VFR routes for transitioning around,
under and through complex airspace such as Class B airspace were developed
through a number of FAA and industry initiatives. All of the following terms,
i.e., "VFR Flyway" "VFR Corridor" and "Class B Airspace VFR Transition Route"
have been used when referring to the same or different types of routes or
airspace. The following paragraphs identify and clarify the functionality of
each type of route, and specify where and when an ATC clearance is required.
a. VFR Flyways.
Flyways and their associated Flyway Planning Charts were developed from the
recommendations of a National Airspace Review Task Group. A VFR Flyway is
defined as a general flight path not defined as a specific course, for use by
pilots in planning flights into, out of, through or near complex terminal
airspace to avoid Class B airspace. An ATC clearance is NOT required to fly
VFR Flyway Planning Chart
2. VFR Flyways are depicted on the reverse side
of some of the VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC),
commonly referred to as Class B airspace charts. (See
FIG 3-5-1.) Eventually all TACs will include a VFR
Flyway Planning Chart. These charts identify VFR
flyways designed to help VFR pilots avoid major
controlled traffic flows. They may further depict
multiple VFR routings throughout the area which
may be used as an alternative to flight within Class B
airspace. The ground references provide a guide for
improved visual navigation. These routes are not
intended to discourage requests for VFR operations
within Class B airspace but are designed solely to
assist pilots in planning for flights under and around
busy Class B airspace without actually entering
Class B airspace.
3. It is very important to remember that these
suggested routes are not sterile of other traffic. The
entire Class B airspace, and the airspace underneath
it, may be heavily congested with many different
types of aircraft. Pilot adherence to VFR rules must
be exercised at all times. Further, when operating
beneath Class B airspace, communications must be
established and maintained between your aircraft and
any control tower while transiting the Class B,
Class C, and Class D surface areas of those airports
under Class B airspace.
b. VFR Corridors.
1. The design of a few of the first Class B
airspace areas provided a corridor for the passage of
uncontrolled traffic. A VFR corridor is defined as
airspace through Class B airspace, with defined
vertical and lateral boundaries, in which aircraft may
operate without an ATC clearance or communication
with air traffic control.
2. These corridors are, in effect, a
through Class B airspace. (See FIG 3-5-2.) A classic
example would be the corridor through the Los
Angeles Class B airspace, which has been subsequently changed to Special Flight Rules airspace
(SFR). A corridor is surrounded on all sides by
Class B airspace and does not extend down to the
surface like a VFR Flyway. Because of their finite
lateral and vertical limits, and the volume of VFR
traffic using a corridor, extreme caution and vigilance
must be exercised.
3. Because of the heavy traffic volume and the
procedures necessary to efficiently manage the flow
of traffic, it has not been possible to incorporate VFR
corridors in the development or modifications of
Class B airspace in recent years.
c. Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes.
1. To accommodate VFR traffic through certain
Class B airspace, such as Seattle, Phoenix and
Los Angeles, Class B Airspace VFR Transition
Routes were developed. A Class B Airspace VFR
Transition Route is defined as a specific flight course
depicted on a TAC for transiting a specific Class B
airspace. These routes include specific ATC-assigned
altitudes, and pilots must obtain an ATC clearance
prior to entering Class B airspace on the route.
2. These routes, as depicted in FIG 3-5-3, are
designed to show the pilot where to position the
aircraft outside of, or clear of, the Class B airspace
where an ATC clearance can normally be expected
with minimal or no delay. Until ATC authorization is
received, pilots must remain clear of Class B
airspace. On initial contact, pilots should advise ATC
of their position, altitude, route name desired, and
direction of flight. After a clearance is received, pilots
must fly the route as depicted and, most importantly,
adhere to ATC instructions.
VFR Transition Route
3-5-6. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)
a. Background. TRSAs were originally established as part of the Terminal Radar Program at
selected airports. TRSAs were never controlled
airspace from a regulatory standpoint because the
establishment of TRSAs was never subject to the
rulemaking process; consequently, TRSAs are not
contained in 14 CFR Part 71 nor are there any TRSA
operating rules in 14 CFR Part 91. Part of the Airport
Radar Service Area (ARSA) program was to
eventually replace all TRSAs. However, the ARSA
requirements became relatively stringent and it was
subsequently decided that TRSAs would have to
meet ARSA criteria before they would be converted.
TRSAs do not fit into any of the U.S. airspace classes;
therefore, they will continue to be non-Part 71
airspace areas where participating pilots can receive
additional radar services which have been redefined
as TRSA Service.
b. TRSAs. The primary airport(s) within the
TRSA become(s) Class D airspace. The remaining
portion of the TRSA overlies other controlled
airspace which is normally Class E airspace
beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and established to
transition to/from the en route/terminal environment.
c. Participation. Pilots operating under VFR are
encouraged to contact the radar approach control and
avail themselves of the TRSA Services. However,
participation is voluntary on the part of the pilot. See
Chapter 4, Air Traffic Control, for
details and procedures.
d. Charts. TRSAs are depicted on VFR sectional
and terminal area charts with a solid black line and
altitudes for each segment. The Class D portion is
charted with a blue segmented line.