U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

ORDER
JO 7110.10W
Effective Date:
March 7, 2013
 
     
Subject:  Flight Services
  Includes:  Change 1 effective 8/22/13
 

Chapter 12. Phraseology

Section 1. General

12-1-1. PURPOSE

This chapter prescribes standardized procedures and phraseologies to be used by specialist when communicating weather and aeronautical information in broadcast, radiotelephone, and interphone communications. Where position or procedure-specific phraseology is required, reference is to be made to the relevant chapter of this order.

12-1-2. PHRASEOLOGY

The annotation PHRASEOLOGY denotes the prescribed words and/or phrases to be used in communications.

NOTE-
Specialists may, after first using the prescribed phraseology for a specific procedure, rephrase the message to ensure the content is understood. Good judgment must be exercised when using nonstandard phraseology.

12-1-3. WORDS AND PHRASES

Use the words or phrases in broadcast, radiotelephone, and interphone communications as contained in the Pilot/Controller Glossary.

12-1-4. ANNOUNCING MISSING ITEMS

With the exception of RVR, announce the word “missing” when any item or component of a weather report is not reported, or in place of unreadable or obviously incorrect items or portions of weather reports. When appropriate, instead of speaking the name of several locations with missing reports, announce: “Other scheduled reports missing.”

NOTE-
On occasion, a parameter from an automated observation may be reported as missing in the body of the report but is available as a manually reported parameter in the remarks section. When the report is spoken, include the manually reported element in its proper sequence within the report.

12-1-5. ICAO PHONETICS

Use the ICAO pronunciation of numbers and, as necessary, individual letters for clarity. The ICAO radiotelephony alphabet and pronunciation guide are contained in TBL 12-1-1.

TBL 12-1-1
ICAO Phonetics

Character

Word

Pronunciation

0

Zero

ZE-RO

1

One

WUN

2

Two

TOO

3

Three

TREE

4

Four

FOW-ER

5

Five

FIFE

6

Six

SIX

7

Seven

SEV-EN

8

Eight

AIT

9

Nine

NIN-ER

 

 

 

A

Alfa

ALFAH

B

Bravo

BRAHVOH

C

Charlie

CHARLEE

D

Delta

DELLTAH

E

Echo

ECKOH

F

Foxtrot

FOKSTROT

G

Golf

GOLF

H

Hotel

HOHTELL

I

India

INDEEAH

J

Juliett

JEWLEEETT

K

Kilo

KEYLOH

L

Lima

LEEMAH

M

Mike

MIKE

N

November

NOVEMBER

O

Oscar

OSSCAR

P

Papa

PAHPAH

Q

Quebec

KEHBECK

R

Romeo

ROWMEOH

S

Sierra

SEEAIRAH

T

Tango

TANGGO

U

Uniform

YOUNEEFORM

V

Victor

VIKTAH

W

Whiskey

WISSKEY

X

X-ray

ECKSRAY

Y

Yankee

YANGKEY

Z

Zulu

ZOOLOO

NOTE-
Syllables to be emphasized in pronunciation are in bold face.

12-1-6. RELAY OF ATC COMMUNICATIONS

Prefix a clearance, information, or a request for information which will be relayed from a control facility to an aircraft with the appropriate phrase “A-T-C clears,” “A-T-C advises,” or “A-T-C requests.”

12-1-7. EXPEDITIOUS COMPLIANCE

a. Use the word “immediately” only when expeditious compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation.

b. Use the word “expedite” only when prompt compliance is required to avoid the development of an imminent situation.

c. In either case, and if time permits, include the reason for this action.

12-1-8. WEATHER PHRASEOLOGY

Use the following phraseology and procedures for stating surface weather observations and for information similarly encoded in other aviation weather products and forecasts.

a. Location.

1. Announce the geographic name (not the identifier) once.

EXAMPLE-
“Paducah.”

2. When the location name is duplicated within 500 miles, follow the location name with the state name.

EXAMPLE-
“Columbus, Ohio.”

3. When weather reports originate at more than one airport at the same geographical location, identify the airport.

EXAMPLE-
“Anchorage, Merrill.”
“Chicago, O'Hare.”

4. Where it is considered necessary and is requested by the military base commander, broadcast military observations by stating the location, the name of the airport if different, and the controlling military branch.

EXAMPLE-
“Joint Base Andrews.”
“Elmendorf, Air Force Base.”
“Fort Riley, Marshall Army Air Field.”
“Norfolk Naval Air Station.”

b. If “AUTO” appears after the date/time element and is presented as a singular report, follow the location with the word “AUTOMATED.”

PHRASEOLOGY-
(Location) AUTOMATED.

c. If a special report is the most recent observation available, follow the location with the words “SPECIAL WEATHER REPORT,” (last two digits of the time) “OBSERVATION.” Use data from the record report to fill in the items not included in the special observation, such as temperature and dew point.

d. If the weather data is not available, state the location and the word “missing.”

e. Wind Direction and Speed. Announce surface wind direction and speed by stating the word “wind” followed by the separate digits of the wind direction to the nearest 10 degrees and the separate digits of the speed. A “G” between two wind speed values is announced as “gusts.” State local wind as it appears in the report. Announce the variability of wind at the end of the wind group. (See TBL 12-1-2.)

TBL 12-1-2
Wind Direction and Speed

Wind

Phraseology

00000KT

WIND CALM.

26012KT

WIND TWO SIX ZERO AT ONE TWO.

29012KT 260V320

WIND TWO NINER ZERO AT ONE TWO WIND VARIABLE BETWEEN TWO SIX ZERO AND THREE TWO ZERO.

30008KT

WIND THREE ZERO ZERO AT EIGHT.

36012G20KT

WIND THREE SIX ZERO AT ONE TWO GUSTS TWO ZERO.

VRB04KT

WIND VARIABLE AT FOUR.

f. Visibility.

State the word “visibility” followed by the visibility values in miles and/or fractions of miles, except announce values indicated by the figure 0 as “zero.” Announce the separate digits of whole numbers as applicable. (See TBL 12-1-3.)

TBL 12-1-3
Visibility

Contraction

Phraseology

0SM

Visibility zero.

1/16SM

Visibility one sixteenth.

1/8SM

Visibility one eighth.

M1/4SM

Visibility less than one quarter.

3/4SM

Visibility three quarters.

11/2SM

Visibility one and one-half.

8SM

Visibility eight.

25SM

Visibility two five.

NOTE-
When visibility is less than 3 miles and variable, this information is reported in the remarks.

g. RVR/RVV.

1. Provide RVR/RVV information by stating the runway, the abbreviation RVR/RVV, and the indicated value. The abbreviations “R­V­R” or “R­V­V” may be spoken in lieu of “visual range” or “visibility value.” When the indicated values are separated by a V, preface the values with the words “variable,” followed by the first value, the word “to,” then the second value. (See TBL 12­1­4.)

TBL 12-1-4
RVR/RVV

RVR/RVV

Phraseology

R36VV11/2

“Runway three six, R-V-V one and one-half.”

R05LVV1V2

“Runway five left, R-V-V variable between one and two.”

R18/2000V3000FT

“Runway one eight, R-V-R variable between two thousand to three thousand. Or Runway one eight visual range variable between two thousand and three thousand.”

R26R/2400FT

“Runway two six right visual range two thousand four hundred.”

2. When there is a requirement to issue an RVR or RVV value and a visibility condition greater or less than the reportable values of the equipment is indicated, state the condition as “MORE THAN” or “LESS THAN” the appropriate minimum or maximum readable value. (See TBL 12­1­5.)

TBL 12-1-5
RVR/RVV

RVR/RVV

Phraseology

R16/M0600FT

``Runway one six runway visual range less than six hundred. Or Runway one six R-V-R less than six hundred.''

R36L/M0600V2500FT

``Runway three six left, R-V-R variable between less than six hundred and two thousand five hundred. Or Runway three six left visual range variable between less than six hundred and two thousand five hundred.''

R36/P6000FT

``Runway three six R-V-R more than six thousand. Or Runway three six visual range more than six thousand.''

h. Weather Elements. TBL 12­1­6 depicts sample phraseology for weather element contractions. Intensity refers to precipitation, not descriptors. Proximity is spoken after the phenomenon to which it refers. Descriptors are spoken ahead of weather phenomenon with the exception of ``showers'' which is spoken after the precipitation. TBL 12­1­7 contains a complete list of weather elements and appropriate phraseology.

TBL 12-1-6
Examples of Combining Intensity, Descriptors and Weather Phenomenon.

Contractions

Phraseology

BLSN

BLOWING SNOW

-FZRAPL

LIGHT FREEZING RAIN, ICE PELLETS

FZRA

FREEZING RAIN

FZDZ

FREEZING DRIZZLE

MIFG

SHALLOW FOG

-SHRA

LIGHT RAIN SHOWERS

SHRA

RAIN SHOWERS

SHSN

SNOW SHOWERS

TSRA

THUNDERSTORM, RAIN

+TSRA

THUNDERSTORM, HEAVY RAIN (SHOWERS)1

+TSRAGR

THUNDERSTORM, HEAVY RAIN, HAIL

VCSH

SHOWERS IN THE VICINITY

1Since thunderstorms imply showery precipitation, ``showers'' may be used to describe precipitation that accompany thunderstorms.

TBL 12-1-7
Weather Elements

INTENSITY
or
PROXIMITY
1

DESCRIPTOR


2

PRECIPITATION


3

OBSCURATION


4

OTHER


5

-

Light

MI

Shallow

DZ

Drizzle

BR

Mist

PO

Well-
Developed
Dust/Sand
Whirls

 

 

BC

Patchy

RA

Rain

FG

Fog

SQ

Squalls

 

Moderate
(No Qualifier)

DR

Low Drifting

SN

Snow

FU

Smoke

FC
+FC

Funnel Cloud,
Tornado or
Waterspout

 

 

BL

Blowing

SG

Snow Grains

DU

Dust

SS

Sandstorm

+

Heavy

SH

Showers

IC

Ice Crystals

SA

Sand

DS

Duststorm

 

 

TS

Thunderstorm

PL

Ice Pellets

HZ

Haze

 

 

VC

In the Vicinity

FZ

Freezing

GR

Hail

PY

Spray

 

 

 

 

PR

Partial

GS

Small Hail or
Snow Pellets
(<1/4”)

VA

Volcanic Ash

 

 

 

 

 

 

UP

*Unknown
Precipitation

 

 

 

 

* Automated stations only.

i. Ceiling and Sky Coverage.

1. State sky coverage in the same order as reported on the weather observation. Announce ceiling as follows: (See TBL 12-1-8.)

TBL 12-1-8
Ceiling and Sky Coverage

Designator

Phraseology

BKN0001

SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED

BKN0002

CEILING LESS THAN FIVE ZERO BROKEN

FEW0001

SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED

FEW0002

FEW CLOUDS AT LESS THAN FIVE ZERO

(lowest layer aloft) BKN/OVC

(precede with) CEILING

SCT0001

SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED

SCT0002

LESS THAN FIVE ZERO SCATTERED

VV

INDEFINITE CEILING

1 Surface-based obscurations. Requires remarks, i.e. RMK FG SCT000, FU BKN000, etc.

2 No remark means the layer is aloft.

2. State cloud heights in tens, hundreds and/or thousands of feet. (See TBL 12-1-9.)

TBL 12-1-9
Cloud Heights

Number

Phraseology

0001

ZERO

003

THREE HUNDRED

018

ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED

200

TWO ZERO THOUSAND

1 Spoken as zero only when used with VV.

NOTE-
1. When the ceiling is less than 3,000 feet and variable, the variable limits will be reported in the remarks.

2. When communicating weather information on the TIBS broadcast or telephone, specialist may announce cloud heights in either group form or in hundreds or thousands of feet, such as seventeen thousand or one seven thousand.

3. “Group form” is the pronunciation of a series of numbers as the whole number, or pairs of numbers they represent rather than pronouncing each separate digit. The use of group form may, however, be negated by four­digit identifiers or the placement of zeros in the identifier.

3. Announce sky conditions as indicated below. (See TBL 12­1­10.)

TBL 12-1-10
Sky Conditions

Contraction

Phraseology

BKN

(height) BROKEN

CLR1

CLEAR BELOW ONE TWO THOUSAND

FEW

FEW CLOUDS AT (height)

OVC

(height) OVERCAST

SCT

(height) SCATTERED

SKC

CLEAR

1 Automated weather reports.

4. TBL 12­1­11 contains examples of broadcast phraseology of sky and ceiling conditions.

TBL 12-1-11
Sky and Ceiling Conditions

Condition

Phraseology

BKN000 BKN010 BKN050 RMK FG BKN000

SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED, CEILING ONE THOUSAND BROKEN, FIVE THOUSAND BROKEN. FOG OBSCURING FIVE TO SEVEN EIGHTS OF THE SKY.

BKN010

CEILING ONE THOUSAND BROKEN.

SCT000 SCT020 OVC035 RMK FG SCT000

SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED, TWO THOUSAND SCATTERED, CEILING THREE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED OVERCAST. FOG OBSCURING THREE TO FOUR EIGHTS OF THE SKY.

SCT020 OVC250

TWO THOUSAND SCATTERED, CEILING TWO FIVE THOUSAND OVERCAST.

VV000

INDEFINITE CEILING ZERO.

VV012

INDEFINITE CEILING ONE THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED.

j. Announce surface temperature and dew point by stating the words “temperature” or “dew point,” as appropriate, followed by the temperature in degrees Celsius. Temperatures below zero are announced by prefixing the word “minus” before the values. (See TBL 12­1­12.)

TBL 12-1-12
Temperature/Dewpoint

Reading

Phraseology

02/M01

``Temperature two, dew point minus one.''

04/02

``Temperature four, dew point two.''

18/13

``Temperature one eight, dew point one three.''

k. Altimeter Setting.

1. State the word “altimeter” followed by the four digits of the altimeter setting. (See TBL 12­1­13.)

TBL 12-1-13
Altimeter Setting

Altimeter Setting

Phraseology

A2989

``Altimeter two niner eight niner.''

A3001

``Altimeter three zero zero one.''

A3025

``Altimeter three zero two five.''

2. Identify the source of all altimeter settings when issued, if not given as part of an identified surface observation. Provide the time of the report if more than one hour old.

PHRASEOLOGY-
(airport name) (time of report if more than one hour old) ALTIMETER (setting).

3. If a request for the altimeter setting in MBs is received, announce the separate digits of the MB equivalent value, using the MB conversion chart, followed by the word “Mbs.” If the MB setting is not a whole number, always round down. (See TBL 13­1­14.)

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 4­3­5f, Routine Radio Contacts

TBL 12-1-14
Millibar Conversion

Millibar Conversion

Phraseology

956.3

``Altimeter niner five six millibars.''

1002.0

``Altimeter one zero zero two millibars.''

1058.9

``Altimeter one zero five eight millibars.''

4. When altimeter is in excess of 31.00:

(a) Advise all aircraft.

PHRASEOLOGY-
ALTIMETER GREATER THAN THREE ONE ZERO ZERO. HIGH PRESSURE ALTIMETER PROCEDURES ARE IN EFFECT.

(b) Advise VFR aircraft to set altimeter to 31.00 en route.

PHRASEOLOGY-
RECOMMEND YOU SET ALTIMETER THREE ONE ZERO ZERO EN ROUTE.

12-1-9. WEATHER REMARKS

Announce pertinent remarks from surface weather observations in accordance with FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions, and as shown in the following tables. Do not state additive data or other information intended for NWS analysis or processing that does not contribute to the description of the conditions occurring at the station.

a. Sky and Ceiling (See TBL 12-1-15.)

TBL 12-1-15
Sky and Ceiling

Contraction

Phraseology

CIG 005V010

``Ceiling variable between five hundred and one thousand.''

CIG 020 RY11

``Ceiling two thousand at runway one one.''

CB N MOV E

``Cumulonimbus north moving east.''

CBMAM DSNT S

``Cumulonimbus mammatus distant south.''

CLDS TPG MT SW

``Clouds topping mountain southwest.''

CONTRAILS N FL420

``Condensation trails north at flight level four two zero.''

FRQ LTCIC VC

``Frequent lightning in cloud in the vicinity.''

LWR CLDS NE

``Lower clouds northeast.''

OCNL LTGICCG NW

``Occasional lightning in cloud and cloud to ground northwest.''

RDGS OBSCD W-N

``Ridges obscured west through north.''

b. Obscuring Phenomena. (See TBL 12-1-16.)

TBL 12-1-16
Obscuring Phenomena

Contraction

Phraseology

BLSN SCT000

``Blowing snow obscuring three to four-eights of the sky.''

DU BKN000

``Dust obscuring five to seven-eights of the sky.''

FG FU FEW000

``Fog and smoke obscuring one to two-eights of the sky.''

FU SCT020

``Smoke layer two thousand scattered.''

SN BKN000

``Snow obscuring five to seven-eights of the sky.''

c. Visibility. (See TBL 12-1-17.)

TBL 12-1-17
Visibility

Contraction

Phraseology

SFC VIS 1/2

``Surface visibility one-half.''

SFC VIS 15 TWRINC

``Surface visibility one five, tower in clouds.''

TWR VIS 3/4

``Tower visibility three-quarters.''

VIS S 1 W 1/4

``Visibility south one, west one-quarter.''

VIS 1V3

``Visibility variable between one and three.''

d. Weather and obstruction to visibility.
(See TBL 12-1-18.)

TBL 12-1-18
Weather and Obstruction

Contraction

Phraseology

BCFG S

``Patchy fog south.''

DUST DEVILS NW

``Dust devils northwest.''

FG DSIPTG

``Fog dissipating.''

FU DRFTG OVR FLD

``Smoke drifting over field.''

FUOCTY

``Smoke over city.''

GR 2

``Hailstones two inches in diameter.''

INTMT -RA

``Intermittent light rain.''

OCNL LTG DSNT NW

``Occasional lightning distant northwest.''

OCNL SHRA

``Occasional moderate rain showers.''

-RA OCNLY +RA

``Light rain occasionally heavy.''

RAB30

``Rain began at three zero.''

SNB15E40

``Snow began at one five, ended at four zero.''

SNINCR 5/10

``Snow increase five inches during past hour, ten inches on the ground.''

TS OHD MOV E

``Thunderstorm overhead, moving east.''

FRQ LTGCG TS W MOV E

``Frequent lightning cloud to ground, thunderstorm west moving east.''

UNCONFIRMED TORNADO 15W OKC MOV NE 2015

``Unconfirmed tornado one five west of Oklahoma City, moving northeast sighted at two zero one five zulu.''

WET SN

``Wet snow.''

e. Wind. (See TBL 12-1-19.)

TBL 12-1-19
Wind

Contraction

Phraseology

PK WND 33048/22

``Peak wind three three zero at four eight occurred at two two past the hour.''

WSHFT 30

``Wind shifted at three zero.''

f. Pressure. (See TBL 12-1-20.)

TBL 12-1-20
Pressure

Contraction

Phraseology

PRESFR

``Pressure falling rapidly.''

PRESRR

``Pressure rising rapidly.''

g. Freezing Level Data. (See TBL 12-1-21.)

TBL 12-1-21
Freezing Level Data

Contraction

Explanation

RADAT 87045

Relative humidity 87 percent, only crossing of zero degrees Celsius isotherm was four thousand five hundred M-S-L.

RADAT 87L024105

Relative humidity 87 percent at the lowest crossing of zero degrees Celsius. Two crossings occurred at two thousand four hundred and one zero thousand five hundred M-S-L.

RADAT MISG

The sounding terminated below the first crossing of the zero degree Celsius isotherm. Temperatures were all above freezing.

RADAT ZERO

The entire sounding was below zero degrees Celsius.

h. Icing Data. (See TBL 12-1-22.)

TBL 12-1-22
Icing Data

Contraction

Explanation

RAICG 12 MSL

Icing at one thousand two hundred M-S-L.

RAICG 24 MSL SNW

Icing at two thousand four hundred M-S-L in snow.

i. Maintenance Data. (See TBL 12-1-23.)

TBL 12-1-23
Maintenance Data

RVR/RVV

Phraseology

PNO

``Precipitation amount not available.''

RVRNO

``R-V-R (or runway visual range) information not available.''

TSNO

``Thunderstorm/lightning information not available.''

VISNO

``Visibility sensor information not available.''

12-1-10. WEATHER ADVISORIES

a. When announcing weather advisories, include the complete advisory description including the product name and alphanumeric identification. Specify Eastern, Central, or Western section as applicable when stating WSTs.

PHRASEOLOGY-
AIRMET
ALERT WEATHER WATCH, ONE ZERO SEVEN FOR SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS
CONVECTIVE SIGMET TWO SEVEN EASTERN
HOUSTON CENTER WEATHER ADVISORY ONE, ISSUANCE TWO
SIGMET WHISKEY THREE

b. Do not read the OUTLOOK section of WSTs when stating the advisory. Data contained in the OUTLOOK concerning convective activity location, movement, and intensity may be extracted for compilation in forecast summarizations.

EXAMPLE-
``Convective SIGMET one seven Eastern-from five zero south of St. Petersburg to three zero south of Columbus, line of thunderstorms three five miles wide moving east at one five knots. Maximum tops four seven thousand.''

c. VNR. When VFR flight is proposed and sky conditions or visibilities are present or forecast, surface based or aloft that, in your judgment, would make visual flight doubtful, include one of the following statements:

PHRASEOLOGY-
V-F-R FLIGHT NOT RECOMMENDED (location if applicable) DUE TO (conditions).
or
V-F-R NOT RECOMMENDED.

12-1-11. RADAR

Use the following phraseology and procedures for communicating radar products:
Radar displays. When stating precipitation intensity from a radar display (such as NEXRAD), use the following four categories as appropriate:

a. Light: (Equates to radar return levels of less than 30 dBZ.)

b. Moderate: (Equates to radar return levels of 30 to 40 dBZ.)

c. Heavy: (Equates to radar return levels of greater than 40 to 50 dBZ.)

d. Extreme: (Equates to radar return levels of greater than 50 dBZ.)

12-1-12. WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT FORECAST (FB)

When announcing the FB, use the following phraseology and procedures:

a. State the altitude, then announce wind direction and speed by the separate digits of the wind direction to the 10­degree multiple, the word AT, and the separate digits of the speed.

b. When the forecast speed is less than 5 knots, the coded group is 9900 and read, “light and variable.”

c. Encoded wind speed 100 to 199 knots have 50 added to the direction code and 100 subtracted from the speed.

d. If wind speed is forecast at 200 knots or greater, the wind group is coded as 199 knots; for example, 7799 is decoded 270 degrees at 199 knots or greater.

e. A six­digit group includes forecast temperature. Provide temperatures on request only, stating the word ”temperature,” followed by the word “minus,” as appropriate, and the separate digits. (See TBL 12­1­24.)

TBL 12-1-24
Altitude

Coded

Phraseology

2707

``(altitude), two seven zero at seven.''

7799

``(altitude), two seven zero at one niner niner or greater.''

850552

``(altitude), three five zero at one zero five, temperature minus five two.''

9900+00

``(altitude), light and variable, temperature zero.''

12-1-13. NUMBER USAGE

State numbers as follows:

a. Serial numbers. The separate digits.
(See TBL 12-1-25.)

TBL 12-1-25
Serial Numbers

Number

Phraseology

11,495

``One one four niner five.''

20,069

``Two zero zero six niner.''

b. Altitudes or flight levels.

1. Altitudes. Pronounce each digit in the number of hundreds or thousands followed by the word “hundred” or “thousand,” as appropriate. (See TBL 12­1­26.)

TBL 12-1-26
Altitudes

Altitude

Phraseology

5,000

``Five thousand.''

10,000

``One zero thousand.''

11,500

``One one thousand five hundred.''

2. Altitudes may be restated in group form for added clarity if the specialist chooses.
(See TBL 12-1-27.)

TBL 12-1-27
Altitudes - continued

Altitude

Phraseology

10,000

``Ten thousand.''

11,500

``Eleven thousand five hundred.''

3. Flight levels. The words “flight level,” followed by the separate digits of the flight level.
(See TBL 12-1-28.)

TBL 12-1-28
Flight Levels

Flight Level

Phraseology

180

``Flight level one eight zero.''

270

``Flight level two seven zero.''

4. MDA/DH Altitudes. The words “minimum descent altitude” or “decision height,” followed by separate digits of the MDA/DH altitude. (See TBL 12­1­29.)

TBL 12-1-29
MDA/DH Altitude

Altitude

Phraseology

486

``Decision height, four eight six.''

1,320

``Minimum descent altitude, one three two zero.''

c. Time.

1. General time information. The four separate digits of the hour and minutes in terms of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (See TBL 12-1-30.)

TBL 12-1-30
Coordinated Universal Time

Time

Phraseology

0115 (UTC)

``Zero one one five.''

1315 (UTC)

``One three one five.''

2. Upon request. The four separate digits of the hours and minutes in terms of UTC followed by the local time equivalent; or the local time equivalent only. Local time may be based on the 24­hour clock system. (See TBL 12­1­31.) The term “ZULU” may be used to denote UTC.

TBL 12-1-31
Coordinated Universal Time

Time

Phraseology

2:30 p.m.
 or

``Two thirty P-M. local.''

2230 (UTC), 2:30 p.m
 or

``Two two three zero, two thirty P-M. local.''

2230 (UTC), 1430 PST

``Two two three zero, one four three zero Pacific or local.''

3. Time check. The word ``time'' followed by the four separate digits of the hour and minutes, and nearest quarter minute. Fractions of a quarter minute less than eight seconds are stated as the preceding quarter minute; fractions of a quarter minute of 8 seconds or more are stated as the succeeding quarter minute. (See TBL 12­1­32.)

TBL 12-1-32
Time Check

Time

Phraseology

1415:06

``Time, one four one five.''

1415:10

``Time, one four one five and one-quarter.''

4. Abbreviated time. The separate digits of the minutes only. (See TBL 12-1-33.)

TBL 12-1-33
Abbreviated Time

Time

Phraseology

1415

``One five.''

1420

``Two zero.''

NOTE-
Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds.

d. Field elevation. The words “field elevation,” followed by the separate digits of the elevation. (See TBL 12-1­34.)

TBL 12-1-34
Field Elevation

Elevation

Phraseology

17 feet

``Field elevation, one seven.''

187 feet

``Field elevation, one eight seven.''

2,817 feet

``Field elevation, two eight one seven.''

e. The number “0” is stated as “zero,” except where it is used in approved “group form” for authorized aircraft callsigns and in stating altitudes.

EXAMPLE-
``Field elevation one six zero.''
``Heading three zero zero.''
``One zero thousand five hundred.''
“Western five thirty.”
“Ten thousand five hundred.”
“EMAIR One Ten”

f. Heading. The word “heading,” followed by the three separate digits of the number of degrees, omitting the word “degrees.” Use heading 360 degrees to indicate a north heading. (See TBL 12­1­35.)

TBL 12-1-35
Heading/Degrees

Heading

Phraseology

5 degrees

``Heading, zero zero five.''

30 degrees

``Heading, zero three zero.''

360 degrees

``Heading, three six zero.''

g. Radar beacon codes. The word squawk followed by the separate digits of the four-digit code. (See TBL 12-1-36.)

TBL 12-1-36
Radar Beacon

Code

Phraseology

1000

``Squawk one zero zero zero.''

2100

``Squawk two one zero zero.''

h. Runways. The word “runway” followed by the separate digits of the runway designation. For a parallel runway, state the word “left,” “right,” or “center” if the letter “L,” “R,” or “C “ is included in the designation. (See TBL 12­1­37.)

TBL 12-1-37
Runway Designation

Designation

Phraseology

3

``Runway three.''

8L

``Runway eight left.''

27R

``Runway two seven right.''

i. Frequencies.

1. The separate digits of the frequency, inserting the word “point” where the decimal occurs. When the frequency is in the L/MF or HF band, include the word “kilohertz.” (See TBL 12­1­38.)

TBL 12-1-38
Frequencies

Frequency

Phraseology

302 kHz

``Three zero two kilohertz.''

5631 kHz

``Five six three one kilohertz.''

126.55 MHz

``One two six point five five.''

135.275 MHz

``One three five point two seven.''

2. Issue MLS/TACAN frequencies by stating the assigned two­ or three­ digit channel number.

EXAMPLE-
``M-L-S channel five three zero.''
``TACAN channel niner seven.''

j. Speeds.

1. The separate digits of the speed followed by the word knots. (See TBL 12-1-39.)

TBL 12-1-39
Speed

Speed

Phraseology

95

``Niner five knots.''

185

``One eight five knots.''

250

``Two five zero knots.''

2. For Mach speeds, the word “mach,” followed by the separate digits of the Mach number inserting the word “point” where the decimal occurs. (See TBL 12­1­40.)

TBL 12-1-40
Speed

Mach Number

Phraseology

0.64

``Mach point six four.''

0.7

``Mach point seven.''

1.5

``Mach one point five.''

k. Miles. The separate digits of the mileage followed by the word mile(s). (See TBL 12-1-41.)

TBL 12-1-41
Miles

Miles

Phraseology

30

``Three zero miles.''

12-1-14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION

Identify facilities as follows:

a. Airport traffic control towers. State the name of the facility followed by the word “tower.” Where military and civil airports are located in the same general area and have similar names, state the name of the military service followed by the name of the military facility and the word “tower.”

EXAMPLE-
``Barksdale Tower.''
``Columbus Tower.''
``Navy Jacksonville Tower.''

b. Function within a terminal facility. State the name of the facility followed by the name of the function.

EXAMPLE-
``Boston Departure.''
``LaGuardia Clearance Delivery.''
``O'Hare Ground.''

c. Approach control facilities, including TRACONs, RAPCONs, RATCFs, and ARACs. State the name of the facility followed by the word approach. Where military and civil facilities are located in the same general area and have similar names, state the name of the military service followed by the name of the military facility and the word “approach”.

EXAMPLE-
``Denver Approach.''
``Griffiss Approach.''
``Navy Jacksonville Approach.''

d. Air route traffic control centers. State the name of the facility followed by the word “center.”

e. When calling or replying on an interphone line which connects only two facilities, you may omit the facility's name.

EXAMPLE-
``Flight Data.''
``Inflight, clearance request.''

f. Flight service stations.

1. Inflight position. State the name of the FSS followed by the word “radio,” and position if appropriate.

EXAMPLE-
``Fairbanks Radio.''
``Miami Radio, Inflight.''

2. Flight Watch position. State the name of the associated ARTCC followed by the words “FLIGHT WATCH.”

EXAMPLE-
``Indianapolis Flight Watch.''

3. When calling or replying on interphone lines connecting more than one facility, state the name of the FSS followed by the word “radio.”

EXAMPLE-
``Cleveland Radio.''

4. When answering public access telephone lines, state the geographical name of the FSS and the words “Flight Service.” Contract facilities must answer public access lines by stating the name of the service provider and type.

EXAMPLE-
``Juneau Flight Service.''
``(Service Provider Name) Flight Service.''

g. Radar facilities having ASR or PAR but not providing approach control service. State the name of the facility followed by the letters “G­C­A.”

EXAMPLE-
``Chanute G-C-A.''
``Corpus Christi G-C-A.''
``Davison G-C-A.''

12-1-15. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION

a. Civil. State the aircraft type, the model, the manufacturer's name, or the prefix “November,” followed by the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration.

EXAMPLE-
``Bonanza One Two Three Four Tango.''
``Douglas Three Zero Five Romeo.''
``Jet Commander One Four Two Four.''
``November One Two Three Four Golf.''

NOTE-
The prefix November denotes a U.S. aircraft registry.

1. Air carrier and other civil aircraft having FAA authorized call signs. State the call sign, in accordance with FAAO JO 7340.2, Contractions, followed by the flight number in group form.

EXAMPLE-
“American Five Twenty­One.”
“United One Zero One.”
“General Motors Thirty­Fifteen.”
“Delta One Hundred.”

2. If aircraft identification becomes a problem, the call sign must be restated after the flight number of the aircraft involved.

EXAMPLE-
``American Five Twenty-One American.''
``Commuter Six Eleven Commuter.''
``General Motors Thirty-Seven General Motors.''

REFERENCE-
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2­1­13, Aircraft Identification Problems

3. Air taxi and commercial operators not having FAA­authorized call signs. State the prefix “TANGO” on initial contact, if used by the pilot, followed by the registration number. The prefix may be dropped in subsequent communications.

EXAMPLE-
On initial contact.
``Tango Mooney Five Five Five Two Quebec.''
or
``Tango November Five Five Five Two Quebec.''
On subsequent contacts.
``Mooney Five Two Quebec.''
or
``November Five Two Quebec.''

b. MEDEVAC aircraft.

1. Air carrier/taxi/ambulance. State the prefix “MEDEVAC” if used by the pilot, followed by the call sign and flight number in group form.

EXAMPLE-
“MEDEVAC Delta Fifty­One.”

NOTE-
Use of “MEDEVAC” call sign indicates that operational priority is requested.

2. Civilian airborne ambulance. State the word “MEDEVAC,” followed by the numbers/letters of the registration number.

EXAMPLE-
“MEDEVAC Two Six Four Six X­Ray.”

c. U.S. Military. State one of the following:

1. The service name followed by the word “copter,” when appropriate, and the last 5 digits of the serial number.

EXAMPLE-
EXAMPLE­
“Guard Two Six Three.”
“Army Copter Three Two One Seven Six.”
“Coast Guard Six One Three Two Seven.”
“Navy Five Six Seven One Three.”

2. If aircraft identification becomes a problem when the above procedures are used, the call sign must be restated after the flight number of the aircraft involved in accordance with FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para. 2­1­13, Aircraft Identification Problems, will apply.

EXAMPLE-
“Army Copter Three Two One Seven Six Army Copter.”
“Coast Guard Six One Three Two Seven Coast Guard.”

3. Special military operations. State one of the following followed the last 5 digits of the serial number:

(a) Air evacuation flights. “AIR EVAC,” “MARINE AIR EVAC,” or “NAVY AIR EVAC.”

EXAMPLE-
``AIR EVAC One Seven Six Five Two.''

(b) Rescue flights. (Service name) “RESCUE.”

EXAMPLE-
“Air Force Rescue Six One Five Seven Niner.”

(c) Air Mobility Command. “REACH.”

EXAMPLE-
“Reach Seven Eight Five Six Two.”

(d) Special Air Mission. “SAM.”

EXAMPLE-
“Sam Niner One Five Six Two.”

(e) USAF Contract Aircraft. “LOGAIR.”

EXAMPLE-
“Logair Seven Five Eight Two Six.”

4. Military tactical and training.

(a) U.S. Air Force, Air National Guard, Military District of Washington priority aircraft, and USAF civil disturbance aircraft. Pronounceable words of 3 to 6 letters followed by a 1 to 4 digit number.

EXAMPLE-
“Paul Two Zero.”
“Pat One Five Seven.”
“Graydog Four.”

NOTE-
Then the “Z” suffix described in para 6­5­3, USAF/USN Undergraduate Pilots, is added to identify aircraft piloted by USAF/USN undergraduate pilots, the call sign will be limited to a combination of six characters. Do not use this suffix, however, in ground­to­air communication.

(b) Navy or Marine fleet and training command aircraft. The service name and 2 letters or a digit and a letter (use letter phonetic equivalents) followed by 2 or 3 digits.

EXAMPLE-
“Marine Four Charlie Two Three Six.”
“Navy Golf Alpha Two One.”

(c) NORAD interceptors. An assigned double­letter two­digit flight number.

EXAMPLE-
“Alpha Kilo One Five.”

(d) Navy Fleet Support Missions. When handling Navy Fleet Support Mission aircraft, use the words “Special Flight Number,” followed by the number as given by the pilot.

d. Foreign registry. State one of the following:

1. Civil. State the aircraft type or the manufacturer's name followed by the letters/numbers of the aircraft registration, or state the letters or digits of the aircraft registration or call sign.

EXAMPLE-
“Stationair F­L­R­B.”
“C­F­L­R­B.”
“Canadian Foxtrot Lima Romeo Bravo.”

NOTE-
Letters may be spoken individually or phonetically.

2. Air carrier. The abbreviated name of the operating company followed by:

(a) The letters or digits of the registration or call sign.

EXAMPLE-
“Air France F­L­R­L­G.”

NOTE-
Letters may be spoken individually or phonetically in accordance with the format used by the pilot.

(b) The flight number in group form, or separate digits may be used if that is the format used by the pilot.

EXAMPLE-
“Scandinavian Six Eight.”
“Scandinavian Sixty­eight.”

3. Foreign Military.

(a) Except for military services identified in FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions, state the name of the country and the military service followed by the separate digits or letters of the registration or call sign.

EXAMPLE-
“Brazilian Air Force Five Three Two Seven Six.”
“Canforce Five Six Two Seven.”

e. Presidential aircraft and Presidential family aircraft.

1. When the President is aboard a military aircraft, state the name of the military service followed by the word “One.”

EXAMPLE-
“Air Force One.”
“Army One.”
“Marine One.”

2. When the President is aboard a civil aircraft, state the words “Executive One.”

3. When a member of the President's family is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret Service or the White House Staff determines it is necessary, state the words “Executive One Foxtrot.”

f. Vice Presidential aircraft.

1. When the Vice President is aboard a military aircraft, state the name of the military service followed by the word ”Two.”

EXAMPLE-
“Air Force Two.”
“Army Two.”
“Marine Two.”

2. When the Vice President is aboard a civil aircraft, state the words “Executive Two.”

3. When a member of the Vice President's family is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret Service or the White House Staff determines it is necessary, state the words “Executive Two Foxtrot.”

g. DOT and FAA flights. The following alphanumeric identifiers and radio/ interphone call signs are for use in air/ground communications when the Secretary of Transportation, Deputy Secretary of Transportation, FAA Administrator, or FAA Deputy Administrator have a requirement to identify themselves:

1. Department of Transportation.

(a) Secretary:

(1) Identifier ­ DOT­1.

(2) Call Sign ­ Transport­1.

(b) Deputy Secretary:

(1) Identifier ­ DOT­2.

(2) Call Sign ­ Transport­2

2. Federal Aviation Administration.

(a) Administrator:

(1) Identifier ­ FAA­1.

(2) Call Sign ­ Safe Air­1.

(b) Deputy Administrator:

(1) Identifier ­ FAA­2

(2) Call Sign ­ Safe Air­2.

PHRASEOLOGY-
Grand Forks Radio, Transport Two, (message).
Miami Radio, Safe Air One, (message).

h. Other special flights.

1. Department of Energy flights. State the letters “R­A­C” (use phonetic alphabet equivalents), followed by the last 4 separate digits of the aircraft registration number.

EXAMPLE-
“Romeo Alfa Charlie One Six Five Three.”

2. Semiautomatic Flight Inspections. State the code name “SAFI,” followed by the separate digits of the grid number as filed.

EXAMPLE-
“SAFI Five Two Seven.”

3. Flight Inspection of navigational aids. State the call sign “Flight Check,” followed by the digits of the registration number.

EXAMPLE-
“Flight check Three Niner Six Five Four.”

4. USAF aircraft engaged in aerial sampling missions. State the call sign “SAMP,” followed by the last three digits of the serial number.

EXAMPLE-
“SAMP Three One Six.”

5. United States governmental Departments or Agencies, with a demonstrated and approved need, have been granted special domestic/ICAO telephonies (call signs). These items are contained in FAA Order JO 7110.67, Special Aircraft Operations by Federal, State Law Enforcement, Military Organizations, and Special Activities.

i. Use a pilot's name in identification of an aircraft only in special or emergency situations.

12-1-16. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES

Except for heavy aircraft, describe aircraft as follows:

a. Military.

1. Military designator with number spoken in group form; or

2. Service and type; or

3. Type only if no confusion or misidentification is likely.

EXAMPLE-
“Air Force Bomber.”
“B­One.”
“Bomber.”
“F­Fifteen.”
“Fighter.”
“Navy Fighter.”

b. Air Carrier.

1. Manufacturer's name or model.

2. Add the manufacturer's name, company name or other identifying features when confusion or misunderstanding is likely.

EXAMPLE-
“American M­D Eighty Seven­Thirty­Seven.”
“Boeing Seven­Fifty­Seven.”
“L­Ten­Eleven.”

c. General Aviation and Air Taxi.

1. Manufacturer's model, name, or designator.

2. Manufacturer's name, or add color when considered advantageous.

EXAMPLE-
“Airliner.''
“Blue and White King Air.”
“Cessna Four­Oh­One.”
“Cessna Three Ten.”
“Green Apache.”
“P­A Twenty­Two.”
“Tri­Pacer.”

12-1-17. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CODES

When communicating this information (aircraft equipment suffixes) state the aircraft type, the word “slant,” and the appropriate phonetic letter equivalent of the suffix.

EXAMPLE-
“Boeing Seven­Oh­Seven slant Romeo.”
“D­C Six slant Tango.”
“F­Eight­E slant Papa.”
“F­Four­C slant November.”

12-1-18. AIRWAYS AND ROUTES

Describe airways, routes, or jet routes as follows:

a. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN airways or jet routes. State the word “Victor” or the letter “J,” followed by the number of the airway or route in group form. For RNAV routes, add the word “Romeo.”

EXAMPLE-
“J Eight Thirty Romeo.”
“J Five Thirty­Three.”
“Offset one zero miles right of J Eight Thirty Romeo.”
“Victor Seven Ten Romeo.”
“Victor Twelve.”

b. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN alternate airways. State the word “Victor,” followed by the number of the airway in group form and the alternate direction.

EXAMPLE-
“Victor Twelve South.”

c. Colored/L/MF airways. State the color of the airway followed by the number in group form.

EXAMPLE-
“Blue Eighty­One.”

d. Named Routes. State the words “North American Route” or “Bahama Route,” followed by the number of the route in group form.

EXAMPLE-
“North American Route Fifty.”
“Bahama Route Fifty­Five Victor.”

e. Military Training Routes ( MTRs). State the letters “I­R” or “V­R,” followed by the number of the route in group form.

EXAMPLE-
“I­R Five Thirty­One.”
“V­R Fifty­two.”

12-1-19. NAVAID TERMS

a. Announce NAVAIDs as follows in TBL 12­1­42:

TBL 12-1-42
NAVAID Terms

Contraction

Phraseology

DME

D­M­E

GNSS

Global Navigation Satellite System

GPS

Global Positioning System

ILS

I­L­S

LOM

Outer compass locator

MLS

M­L­S

NDB

Nondirectional radio beacon

RNAV

Area Navigation System

TACAN

TACK­AN

VOR

V­O­R

VORTAC

VOR­ (as in “vortex”) TACK

WAAS

Wide Area Augmentation System

b. Describe radials, arcs, courses, bearings, and quadrants of NAVAIDs as follows:

1. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN/MLS NAVAIDs. State the name of the NAVAID followed by the separate digits of the radial/azimuth (omitting the word degrees) and the word “radial/azimuth.”

EXAMPLE-
“Appleton Zero Five Zero Radial.”
“Lindburg Runway Two Seven MLS two six zero azimuth.”

2. Arcs about VOR­DME/VORTAC/TACAN/MLS NAVAIDs. State the distance in miles from the NAVAID followed by the words ``mile arc,'' the direction from the NAVAID in terms of the eight principal points of the compass, the word “of,” and the name of the NAVAID.

EXAMPLE-
“Two zero mile arc southwest of O'Hare Runway Two Seven Left M­L­S.”

3. Quadrant within a radius of NAVAID. State direction from NAVAID in terms of the quadrant; e.g. NE, SE, SW, NW, followed by the distance in miles from the NAVAID.

EXAMPLE-
“Cleared to fly northeast quadrant of Philipsburg VORTAC within four zero mile radius.”

REFERENCE-
P/CG Term, QUADRANT.

4. Nondirectional beacons. State the course to or the bearing from the radio beacon, omitting the word “degree,” followed by the words “course to” or “bearing from,” the name of the radio beacon, and the words “radio beacon”.

EXAMPLE-
“Three four zero bearing from Randolph Radio Beacon.”

12-1-20. NAVAID FIXES

Describe fixes determined by reference to a radial/localizer/azimuth and distance from a VOR­DME/VORTAC/TACAN/ILS­DME or MLS as follows:

a. When a fix is not named, state the name of the NAVAID, followed by a specified radial/localizer/azimuth, and state the distance in miles followed by the phrase “mile fix.”

EXAMPLE-
“Appleton zero five zero radial three seven mile fix.”
“Reno localizer back course four mile fix.”
“Hobby Runway One Two M­L­S zero niner zero azimuth one two mile fix.”

b. When a fix is charted on a SID, STAR, en route chart, or approach plate, state the name of the fix followed by the phrase “D­M­E fix” or “waypoint,” as appropriate.

EXAMPLE-
“Shaum D­M­E Fix.”
“Shaum Waypoint.”

c. Use specific terms to describe a fix. Do not use expressions such as “passing Victor Twelve” or “passing J Eleven.”

12-1-21. RUNWAY CONDITIONS

a. State factual information as reported by airport management concerning the condition of the runway surface and describing the accumulation of precipitation. Furnish quality of braking action as received from pilots or airport management to all aircraft as follows:

1. Describe the quality of braking action using the terms good, fair, poor, or nil. If the pilot or airport management reports braking action in other than the foregoing terms, ask them to categorize braking action in these terms.

2. Include the type of aircraft or vehicle (if known) from which the report is received.

EXAMPLE-
“All runways covered by packed snow six inches deep.”
“Braking action poor reported by an F Twenty­Seven.”

3. If the braking action report affects only a portion of a runway, obtain enough information from the pilot or airport management to describe braking action in terms easily understood by the pilot.

EXAMPLE-
“Braking action poor first half of runway, reported by a Gulfstream Two.”
“Braking action poor beyond the intersection of Runway Two Seven, reported by a Boeing Seven Twenty­Seven.”

NOTE-
Descriptive terms, such as first/last half of the runway, should normally be used rather than landmark descriptions; for example, opposite the fire station, south of a taxiway.

b. State runway friction measurement readings/values as received from airport management to aircraft as follows:

1. At airports with friction measuring devices, provide runway friction reports, as received from airport management, to pilots on request. State the runway number followed by the MU number for each of the three runway zones, the time of the report in UTC, and a word describing the cause of the runway friction problem.

EXAMPLE-
“Runway Two Seven, MU forty­two, forty­one, twenty­eight at one zero one eight ZULU, ice.”

2. Issue the runway surface condition and/or the runway condition reading (RCR), if provided, to all USAF and ANG aircraft. Issue the RCR to other aircraft upon request.

EXAMPLE-
“Ice on runway, R­C­R Zero Five, patchy.”

NOTE-
USAF has established RCR procedures for determining the average deceleration readings of runways under conditions of water, slush, ice, or snow. The use of RCR code is dependent upon a pilot's having a “stopping capability chart” specifically applicable to his/her aircraft. USAF offices furnish RCR information at airports serving USAF and ANG aircraft.

 
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