FALLEN HERO- Remains of fallen members of the United States military are often returned home by aircraft. These flights may be identified with the phrase “FALLEN HERO” added to the remarks section of the flight plan, or they may be transmitted via air/ground communications. If able, these flights will receive priority handling.
FAST FILE- An FSS system whereby a pilot files a flight plan via telephone that is recorded and later transcribed for transmission to the appropriate air traffic facility. (Alaska only.)
FEATHERED PROPELLER- A propeller whose blades have been rotated so that the leading and trailing edges are nearly parallel with the aircraft flight path to stop or minimize drag and engine rotation. Normally used to indicate shutdown of a reciprocating or turboprop engine due to malfunction.
FEEDER FIX- The fix depicted on Instrument Approach Procedure Charts which establishes the starting point of the feeder route.
FEEDER ROUTE- A route depicted on instrument approach procedure charts to designate routes for aircraft to proceed from the en route structure to the initial approach fix (IAF).
- Returning an aircraft to base.
- Delivering an aircraft from one location to another.
- Moving an aircraft to and from a maintenance base. Ferry flights, under certain conditions, may be conducted under terms of a special flight permit.
FILED- Normally used in conjunction with flight plans, meaning a flight plan has been submitted to ATC.
FILED EN ROUTE DELAY- Any of the following preplanned delays at points/areas along the route of flight which require special flight plan filing and handling techniques.
- Terminal Area Delay. A delay within a terminal area for touch-and-go, low approach, or other terminal area activity.
- Special Use Airspace Delay. A delay within a Military Operations Area, Restricted Area, Warning Area, or ATC Assigned Airspace.
- Aerial Refueling Delay. A delay within an Aerial Refueling Track or Anchor.
FILED FLIGHT PLAN- The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or his/her designated representative without any subsequent changes or clearances.
FINAL APPROACH [ICAO]- That part of an instrument approach procedure which commences at the specified final approach fix or point, or where such a fix or point is not specified.
- At the end of the last procedure turn, base turn or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure, if specified; or
At the point of interception of the last track specified in the approach procedure; and ends at a point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which:
- A landing can be made; or
- A missed approach procedure is initiated.
FINAL APPROACH COURSE- A bearing/radial/track of an instrument approach leading to a runway or an extended runway centerline all without regard to distance.
FINAL APPROACH FIX- The fix from which the final approach (IFR) to an airport is executed and which identifies the beginning of the final approach segment. It is designated on Government charts by the Maltese Cross symbol for nonprecision approaches and the lightning bolt symbol, designating the PFAF, for precision approaches; or when ATC directs a lower-than-published glideslope/path or vertical path intercept altitude, it is the resultant actual point of the glideslope/path or vertical path intercept.
FINAL APPROACH-IFR- The flight path of an aircraft which is inbound to an airport on a final instrument approach course, beginning at the final approach fix or point and extending to the airport or the point where a circle-to-land maneuver or a missed approach is executed.
FINAL APPROACH POINT- The point, applicable only to a nonprecision approach with no depicted FAF (such as an on airport VOR), where the aircraft is established inbound on the final approach course from the procedure turn and where the final approach descent may be commenced. The FAP serves as the FAF and identifies the beginning of the final approach segment.
FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT [ICAO]- That segment of an instrument approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished.
FINAL CONTROLLER- The controller providing information and final approach guidance during PAR and ASR approaches utilizing radar equipment.
FINAL GUARD SERVICE- A value added service provided in conjunction with LAA/RAA only during periods of significant and fast changing weather conditions that may affect landing and takeoff operations.
FINAL MONITOR AID- A high resolution color display that is equipped with the controller alert system hardware/software used to monitor the no transgression zone (NTZ) during simultaneous parallel approach operations. The display includes alert algorithms providing the target predictors, a color change alert when a target penetrates or is predicted to penetrate the no transgression zone (NTZ), synthesized voice alerts, and digital mapping.
FINAL MONITOR CONTROLLER- Air Traffic Control Specialist assigned to radar monitor the flight path of aircraft during simultaneous parallel (approach courses spaced less than 9000 feet/9200 feet above 5000 feet) and simultaneous close parallel approach operations. Each runway is assigned a final monitor controller during simultaneous parallel and simultaneous close parallel ILS approaches.
FIX- A geographical position determined by visual reference to the surface, by reference to one or more radio NAVAIDs, by celestial plotting, or by another navigational device.
FIX BALANCING- A process whereby aircraft are evenly distributed over several available arrival fixes reducing delays and controller workload.
FLAG- A warning device incorporated in certain airborne navigation and flight instruments indicating that:
- Instruments are inoperative or otherwise not operating satisfactorily, or
- Signal strength or quality of the received signal falls below acceptable values.
FLAMEOUT PATTERN- An approach normally conducted by a single-engine military aircraft experiencing loss or anticipating loss of engine power or control. The standard overhead approach starts at a relatively high altitude over a runway (“high key”) followed by a continuous 180 degree turn to a high, wide position (“low key”) followed by a continuous 180 degree turn final. The standard straight-in pattern starts at a point that results in a straight-in approach with a high rate of descent to the runway. Flameout approaches terminate in the type approach requested by the pilot (normally fullstop).
FLIGHT CHECK- A call sign prefix used by FAA aircraft engaged in flight inspection/certification of navigational aids and flight procedures. The word “recorded” may be added as a suffix; e.g., “Flight Check 320 recorded” to indicate that an automated flight inspection is in progress in terminal areas.
(Refer to AIM.)
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION- An airspace of defined dimensions within which Flight Information Service and Alerting Service are provided.
- Flight Information Service. A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
- Alerting Service. A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid and to assist such organizations as required.
FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE- A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (FIS-B)- A ground broadcast service provided through the ADS-B Broadcast Services network over the UAT data link that operates on 978 MHz. The FIS-B system provides pilots and flight crews of properly equipped aircraft with a cockpit display of certain aviation weather and aeronautical information.
FLIGHT INSPECTION- Inflight investigation and evaluation of a navigational aid to determine whether it meets established tolerances.
FLIGHT LEVEL- A level of constant atmospheric pressure related to a reference datum of 29.92 inches of mercury. Each is stated in three digits that represent hundreds of feet. For example, flight level (FL) 250 represents a barometric altimeter indication of 25,000 feet; FL 255, an indication of 25,500 feet.
FLIGHT LEVEL [ICAO]- A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific pressure datum, 1013.2 hPa (1013.2 mb), and is separated from other such surfaces by specific pressure intervals.
Note 1: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the standard atmosphere:
a. When set to a QNH altimeter setting, will indicate altitude;
b. When set to a QFE altimeter setting, will indicate height above the QFE reference datum; and
c. When set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa
(1013.2 mb), may be used to indicate flight levels.
Note 2: The terms `height' and `altitude,' used in Note 1 above, indicate altimetric rather than geometric heights and altitudes.
FLIGHT LINE- A term used to describe the precise movement of a civil photogrammetric aircraft along a predetermined course(s) at a predetermined altitude during the actual photographic run.
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS- A computer system that uses a large data base to allow routes to be preprogrammed and fed into the system by means of a data loader. The system is constantly updated with respect to position accuracy by reference to conventional navigation aids. The sophisticated program and its associated data base ensures that the most appropriate aids are automatically selected during the information update cycle.
FLIGHT PLAN- Specified information relating to the intended flight of an aircraft that is filed electronically, orally, or in writing with an FSS, third-party vendor, or an ATC facility.
(Refer to AIM.)
FLIGHT PLAN AREA (FPA)- The geographical area assigned to a flight service station (FSS) for the purpose of establishing primary responsibility for services that may include search and rescue for VFR aircraft, issuance of NOTAMs, pilot briefings, inflight services, broadcast services, emergency services, flight data processing, international operations, and aviation weather services. Large consolidated FSS facilities may combine FPAs into larger areas of responsibility (AOR).
FLIGHT RECORDER- A general term applied to any instrument or device that records information about the performance of an aircraft in flight or about conditions encountered in flight. Flight recorders may make records of airspeed, outside air temperature, vertical acceleration, engine RPM, manifold pressure, and other pertinent variables for a given flight.
FLIGHT RECORDER [ICAO]- Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation.
Note: See Annex 6 Part I, for specifications relating to flight recorders.
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)- An air traffic facility which provides pilot briefings, flight plan processing, en route flight advisories, search and rescue services, and assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations. FSS also relay ATC clearances, process Notices to Airmen, and broadcast aviation weather and aeronautical information. In Alaska, FSS provide Airport Advisory Services.
FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICE- An FAA field office serving an assigned geographical area and staffed with Flight Standards personnel who serve the aviation industry and the general public on matters relating to the certification and operation of air carrier and general aviation aircraft. Activities include general surveillance of operational safety, certification of airmen and aircraft, accident prevention, investigation, enforcement, etc.
FLIGHT TERMINATION- The intentional and deliberate process of terminating the flight of a UA in the event of an unrecoverable lost link, loss of control, or other failure that compromises the safety of flight.
- Investigating the operation/flight characteristics of an aircraft or aircraft component.
- Evaluating an applicant for a pilot certificate or rating.
FLY-BY WAYPOINT- A fly-by waypoint requires the use of turn anticipation to avoid overshoot of the next flight segment.
FLY HEADING (DEGREES)- Informs the pilot of the heading he/she should fly. The pilot may have to turn to, or continue on, a specific compass direction in order to comply with the instructions. The pilot is expected to turn in the shorter direction to the heading unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
FLY-OVER WAYPOINT- A fly-over waypoint precludes any turn until the waypoint is overflown and is followed by an intercept maneuver of the next flight segment.
FLYAWAY- When the pilot is unable to effect control of the aircraft and, as a result, the UA is not operating in a predictable or planned manner.
FORMATION FLIGHT- More than one aircraft which, by prior arrangement between the pilots, operate as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting. Separation between aircraft within the formation is the responsibility of the flight leader and the pilots of the other aircraft in the flight. This includes transition periods when aircraft within the formation are maneuvering to attain separation from each other to effect individual control and during join-up and breakaway.
- A standard formation is one in which a proximity of no more than 1 mile laterally or longitudinally and within 100 feet vertically from the flight leader is maintained by each wingman.
Nonstandard formations are those operating under any of the following conditions:
- When the flight leader has requested and ATC has approved other than standard formation dimensions.
- When operating within an authorized altitude reservation (ALTRV) or under the provisions of a letter of agreement.
- When the operations are conducted in airspace specifically designed for a special activity.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
FREEZE/FROZEN- Terms used in referring to arrivals which have been assigned ACLTs and to the lists in which they are displayed.
FREEZE CALCULATED LANDING TIME- A dynamic parameter number of minutes prior to the meter fix calculated time of arrival for each aircraft when the TCLT is frozen and becomes an ACLT (i.e., the VTA is updated and consequently the TCLT is modified as appropriate until FCLT minutes prior to meter fix calculated time of arrival, at which time updating is suspended and an ACLT and a frozen meter fix crossing time (MFT) is assigned).
FREEZE HORIZON- The time or point at which an aircraft's STA becomes fixed and no longer fluctuates with each radar update. This setting ensures a constant time for each aircraft, necessary for the metering controller to plan his/her delay technique. This setting can be either in distance from the meter fix or a prescribed flying time to the meter fix.
FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER- A speed adapted for each aircraft to determine fast and slow aircraft. Fast aircraft freeze on parameter FCLT and slow aircraft freeze on parameter MLDI.
FRICTION MEASUREMENT- A measurement of the friction characteristics of the runway pavement surface using continuous self-watering friction measurement equipment in accordance with the specifications, procedures and schedules contained in AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces.
FUEL REMAINING- A phrase used by either pilots or controllers when relating to the fuel remaining on board until actual fuel exhaustion. When transmitting such information in response to either a controller question or pilot initiated cautionary advisory to air traffic control, pilots will state the APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF MINUTES the flight can continue with the fuel remaining. All reserve fuel SHOULD BE INCLUDED in the time stated, as should an allowance for established fuel gauge system error.
FUSION [STARS]- the combination of all available surveillance sources (airport surveillance radar [ASR], air route surveillance radar [ARSR], ADS-B, etc.) into the display of a single tracked target for air traffic control separation services. FUSION is the equivalent of the current single-sensor radar display. FUSION performance is characteristic of a single-sensor radar display system. Terminal areas use mono-pulse secondary surveillance radar (ASR 9, Mode S or ASR 11, MSSR).