OBSTACLE- An existing object, object of natural growth, or terrain at a fixed geographical location or which may be expected at a fixed location within a prescribed area with reference to which vertical clearance is or must be provided during flight operation.
OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (ODP)- A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) departure procedure printed for pilot use in textual or graphic form to provide obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recommended for obstruction clearance and may be flown without ATC clearance unless an alternate departure procedure (SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned by ATC.
(Refer to AIM.)
OBSTACLE FREE ZONE- The OFZ is a three-dimensional volume of airspace which protects the transition of aircraft to and from the runway. The OFZ clearing standard precludes taxiing and parked airplanes and object penetrations, except for frangible NAVAID locations that are fixed by function. Additionally, vehicles, equipment, and personnel may be authorized by air traffic control to enter the area using the provisions of FAA Order JO 7110.65, paragraph 3-1-5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel Near/On Runways. The runway OFZ and when applicable, the inner-approach OFZ, and the inner-transitional OFZ, comprise the OFZ.
Runway OFZ. The runway OFZ is a defined volume of airspace centered above the runway. The runway OFZ is the airspace above a surface whose elevation at any point is the same as the elevation of the nearest point on the runway centerline. The runway OFZ extends 200 feet beyond each end of the runway. The width is as follows:
For runways serving large airplanes, the greater of:
- 400 feet, or
- 180 feet, plus the wingspan of the most demanding airplane, plus 20 feet per 1,000 feet of airport elevation.
For runways serving only small airplanes:
- 300 feet for precision instrument runways.
- 250 feet for other runways serving small airplanes with approach speeds of 50 knots, or more.
- 120 feet for other runways serving small airplanes with approach speeds of less than 50 knots.
- For runways serving large airplanes, the greater of:
- Inner-approach OFZ. The inner-approach OFZ is a defined volume of airspace centered on the approach area. The inner-approach OFZ applies only to runways with an approach lighting system. The inner-approach OFZ begins 200 feet from the runway threshold at the same elevation as the runway threshold and extends 200 feet beyond the last light unit in the approach lighting system. The width of the inner-approach OFZ is the same as the runway OFZ and rises at a slope of 50 (horizontal) to 1 (vertical) from the beginning.
- Inner-transitional OFZ. The inner transitional surface OFZ is a defined volume of airspace along the sides of the runway and inner-approach OFZ and applies only to precision instrument runways. The inner-transitional surface OFZ slopes 3 (horizontal) to 1 (vertical) out from the edges of the runway OFZ and inner-approach OFZ to a height of 150 feet above the established airport elevation.
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Chapter 3.)
(Refer to FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel Near/On Runways.)
OBSTRUCTION- Any object/obstacle exceeding the obstruction standards specified by 14 CFR Part 77, Subpart C.
OBSTRUCTION LIGHT- A light or one of a group of lights, usually red or white, frequently mounted on a surface structure or natural terrain to warn pilots of the presence of an obstruction.
OCEANIC AIRSPACE- Airspace over the oceans of the world, considered international airspace, where oceanic separation and procedures per the International Civil Aviation Organization are applied. Responsibility for the provisions of air traffic control service in this airspace is delegated to various countries, based generally upon geographic proximity and the availability of the required resources.
OCEANIC ERROR REPORT- A report filed when ATC observes an Oceanic Error as defined by FAA Order JO 7210.632, Air Traffic Organization Occurrence Reporting.
OCEANIC PUBLISHED ROUTE- A route established in international airspace and charted or described in flight information publications, such as Route Charts, DoD En route Charts, Chart Supplements, NOTAMs, and Track Messages.
OCEANIC TRANSITION ROUTE- An ATS route established for the purpose of transitioning aircraft to/from an organized track system.
OFF-ROUTE OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (OROCA)- A published altitude which provides terrain and obstruction clearance with a 1,000 foot buffer in non-mountainous areas and a 2,000 foot buffer in designated mountainous areas within the United States, and a 3,000 foot buffer outside the US ADIZ. These altitudes are not assessed for NAVAID signal coverage, air traffic control surveillance, or communications coverage, and are published for general situational awareness, flight planning, and in-flight contingency use.
OFF-ROUTE VECTOR- A vector by ATC which takes an aircraft off a previously assigned route. Altitudes assigned by ATC during such vectors provide required obstacle clearance.
OFFSHORE/CONTROL AIRSPACE AREA- That portion of airspace between the U.S. 12 NM limit and the oceanic CTA/FIR boundary within which air traffic control is exercised. These areas are established to provide air traffic control services. Offshore/Control Airspace Areas may be classified as either Class A airspace or Class E airspace.
- Used to indicate that an aircraft is established on the route centerline.
- Used by ATC to advise a pilot making a radar approach that his/her aircraft is lined up on the final approach course.
ON-COURSE INDICATION- An indication on an instrument, which provides the pilot a visual means of determining that the aircraft is located on the centerline of a given navigational track, or an indication on a radar scope that an aircraft is on a given track.
ONE-MINUTE WEATHER- The most recent one minute updated weather broadcast received by a pilot from an uncontrolled airport ASOS/AWOS.
OPEN LOOP CLEARANCE- Provides a lateral vector solution that does not include a return to route point.
OPERATIONS OVER PEOPLE (OOP)- Operations of small unmanned aircraft over people.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 107.)
OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS [ICAO]- The authorizations, conditions and limitations associated with the air operator certificate and subject to the conditions in the operations manual.
- They are following the same track in reciprocal directions; or
- Their tracks are parallel and the aircraft are flying in reciprocal directions; or
- Their tracks intersect at an angle of more than 135°.
OPTION APPROACH- An approach requested and conducted by a pilot which will result in either a touch-and-go, missed approach, low approach, stop-and-go, or full stop landing. Pilots should advise ATC if they decide to remain on the runway, of any delay in their stop and go, delay clearing the runway, or are unable to comply with the instruction(s).
(Refer to AIM.)
ORGANIZED TRACK SYSTEM- A series of ATS routes which are fixed and charted; i.e., CEP, NOPAC, or flexible and described by NOTAM; i.e., NAT TRACK MESSAGE.
OUT OF SERVICE/UNSERVICEABLE (U/S)- When a piece of equipment, a NAVAID, a facility or a service is not operational, certified (if required) and immediately “available” for Air Traffic or public use.
OUTER AREA (associated with Class C airspace)- Non-regulatory airspace surrounding designated Class C airspace airports wherein ATC provides radar vectoring and sequencing on a full-time basis for all IFR and participating VFR aircraft. The service provided in the outer area is called Class C service which includes: IFR/IFR-IFR separation; IFR/VFR-traffic advisories and conflict resolution; and VFR/VFR-traffic advisories and, as appropriate, safety alerts. The normal radius will be 20 nautical miles with some variations based on site-specific requirements. The outer area extends outward from the primary Class C airspace airport and extends from the lower limits of radar/radio coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control's delegated airspace excluding the Class C charted area and other airspace as appropriate.
OUTER FIX- A general term used within ATC to describe fixes in the terminal area, other than the final approach fix. Aircraft are normally cleared to these fixes by an Air Route Traffic Control Center or an Approach Control Facility. Aircraft are normally cleared from these fixes to the final approach fix or final approach course.
OUTER FIX- An adapted fix along the converted route of flight, prior to the meter fix, for which crossing times are calculated and displayed in the metering position list.
OUTER FIX ARC- A semicircle, usually about a 50-70 mile radius from a meter fix, usually in high altitude, which is used by CTAS/ERAM to calculate outer fix times and determine appropriate sector meter list assignments for aircraft on an established arrival route that will traverse the arc.
OUTER FIX TIME- A calculated time to depart the outer fix in order to cross the vertex at the ACLT. The time reflects descent speed adjustments and any applicable delay time that must be absorbed prior to crossing the meter fix.
OUTER MARKER- A marker beacon at or near the glideslope intercept altitude of an ILS approach. It is keyed to transmit two dashes per second on a 400 Hz tone, which is received aurally and visually by compatible airborne equipment. The OM is normally located four to seven miles from the runway threshold on the extended centerline of the runway.
(Refer to AIM.)
OVERHEAD MANEUVER- A series of predetermined maneuvers prescribed for aircraft (often in formation) for entry into the visual flight rules (VFR) traffic pattern and to proceed to a landing. An overhead maneuver is not an instrument flight rules (IFR) approach procedure. An aircraft executing an overhead maneuver is considered VFR and the IFR flight plan is canceled when the aircraft reaches the “initial point” on the initial approach portion of the maneuver. The pattern usually specifies the following:
- The radio contact required of the pilot.
- The speed to be maintained.
- An initial approach 3 to 5 miles in length.
- An elliptical pattern consisting of two 180 degree turns.
- A break point at which the first 180 degree turn is started.
- The direction of turns.
- Altitude (at least 500 feet above the conventional pattern).
- A “Roll-out” on final approach not less than 1/4 mile from the landing threshold and not less than 300 feet above the ground.