RADAR- A device that provides information on range, azimuth, and/or elevation of objects by measuring the time interval between transmission and reception of directional radio pulses and correlating the angular orientation of the radiated antenna beam or beams in azimuth and/or elevation.
- Primary Radar- A radar system in which a minute portion of a radio pulse transmitted from a site is reflected by an object and then received back at that site for processing and display at an air traffic control facility.
- Secondary Radar/Radar Beacon (ATCRBS)- A radar system in which the object to be detected is fitted with cooperative equipment in the form of a radio receiver/transmitter (transponder). Radar pulses transmitted from the searching transmitter/receiver (interrogator) site are received in the cooperative equipment and used to trigger a distinctive transmission from the transponder. This reply transmission, rather than a reflected signal, is then received back at the transmitter/receiver site for processing and display at an air traffic control facility.
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR [ICAO]- A radio detection device which provides information on range, azimuth and/or elevation of objects.
- Primary Radar- Radar system which uses reflected radio signals.
- Secondary Radar- Radar system wherein a radio signal transmitted from a radar station initiates the transmission of a radio signal from another station.
RADAR APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure which utilizes Precision Approach Radar (PAR) or Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR).
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR APPROACH [ICAO]- An approach, executed by an aircraft, under the direction of a radar controller.
RADAR APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY- A terminal ATC facility that uses radar and nonradar capabilities to provide approach control services to aircraft arriving, departing, or transiting airspace controlled by the facility.
Provides radar ATC services to aircraft operating in the vicinity of one or more civil and/or military airports in a terminal area. The facility may provide services of a ground controlled approach (GCA); i.e., ASR and PAR approaches. A radar approach control facility may be operated by FAA, USAF, US Army, USN, USMC, or jointly by FAA and a military service. Specific facility nomenclatures are used for administrative purposes only and are related to the physical location of the facility and the operating service generally as follows:
Army Radar Approach Control (ARAC)
- Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (RATCF) (USN/FAA and USMC/FAA).
Radar Approach Control (RAPCON)
(USAF/FAA, USN/FAA, and USMC/FAA).
- Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) (FAA).
- Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) (FAA). (Only those towers delegated approach control authority.)
- Army Radar Approach Control (ARAC)
RADAR ARRIVAL- An aircraft arriving at an airport served by a radar facility and in radar contact with the facility.
- Used by ATC to inform an aircraft that it is identified using an approved ATC surveillance source on an air traffic controller's display and that radar flight following will be provided until radar service is terminated. Radar service may also be provided within the limits of necessity and capability. When a pilot is informed of “radar contact,” he/she automatically discontinues reporting over compulsory reporting points.
- The term used to inform the controller that the aircraft is identified and approval is granted for the aircraft to enter the receiving controllers airspace.
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR CONTACT [ICAO]- The situation which exists when the radar blip or radar position symbol of a particular aircraft is seen and identified on a radar display.
RADAR CONTACT LOST- Used by ATC to inform a pilot that the surveillance data used to determine the aircraft's position is no longer being received, or is no longer reliable and radar service is no longer being provided. The loss may be attributed to several factors including the aircraft merging with weather or ground clutter, the aircraft operating below radar line of sight coverage, the aircraft entering an area of poor radar return, failure of the aircraft's equipment, or failure of the surveillance equipment.
RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING- The observation of the progress of radar-identified aircraft, whose primary navigation is being provided by the pilot, wherein the controller retains and correlates the aircraft identity with the appropriate target or target symbol displayed on the radar scope.
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR IDENTIFICATION- The process of ascertaining that an observed radar target is the radar return from a particular aircraft.
RADAR IDENTIFIED AIRCRAFT- An aircraft, the position of which has been correlated with an observed target or symbol on the radar display.
RADAR POINT OUT- An action taken by a controller to transfer the radar identification of an aircraft to another controller if the aircraft will or may enter the airspace or protected airspace of another controller and radio communications will not be transferred.
RADAR REQUIRED- A term displayed on charts and approach plates and included in FDC NOTAMs to alert pilots that segments of either an instrument approach procedure or a route are not navigable because of either the absence or unusability of a NAVAID. The pilot can expect to be provided radar navigational guidance while transiting segments labeled with this term.
RADAR ROUTE- A flight path or route over which an aircraft is vectored. Navigational guidance and altitude assignments are provided by ATC.
RADAR SERVICE- A term which encompasses one or more of the following services based on the use of radar which can be provided by a controller to a pilot of a radar identified aircraft.
- Radar Monitoring- The radar flight-following of aircraft, whose primary navigation is being performed by the pilot, to observe and note deviations from its authorized flight path, airway, or route. When being applied specifically to radar monitoring of instrument approaches; i.e., with precision approach radar (PAR) or radar monitoring of simultaneous ILS, RNAV and GLS approaches, it includes advice and instructions whenever an aircraft nears or exceeds the prescribed PAR safety limit or simultaneous ILS RNAV and GLS no transgression zone.
- Radar Navigational Guidance- Vectoring aircraft to provide course guidance.
- Radar Separation- Radar spacing of aircraft in accordance with established minima.
- Monitoring- The use of radar for the purpose of providing aircraft with information and advice relative to significant deviations from nominal flight path.
- Separation- The separation used when aircraft position information is derived from radar sources.
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED- Used by ATC to inform a pilot that he/she will no longer be provided any of the services that could be received while in radar contact. Radar service is automatically terminated, and the pilot is not advised in the following cases:
- An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where Basic Radar service is provided.
- An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or contact approach has landed or has been instructed to change to advisory frequency.
- An arriving VFR aircraft, receiving radar service to a tower-controlled airport within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where sequencing service is provided, has landed; or to all other airports, is instructed to change to tower or advisory frequency.
- An aircraft completes a radar approach.
RADAR SURVEILLANCE- The radar observation of a given geographical area for the purpose of performing some radar function.
RADAR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES- Advisories issued to alert pilots to known or observed radar traffic which may affect the intended route of flight of their aircraft.
RADAR VECTORING [ICAO]- Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific headings, based on the use of radar.
- A device used for communication.
- Used to refer to a flight service station; e.g., “Seattle Radio” is used to call Seattle FSS.
RADIO ALTIMETER- Aircraft equipment which makes use of the reflection of radio waves from the ground to determine the height of the aircraft above the surface.
RADIO-CONTROLLED (RC)- The use of control signals transmitted radio to a remotely controlled device, as in radio-controlled model airplanes.
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR- An aircraft navigational instrument coupled with a gyro compass or similar compass that indicates the direction of a selected NAVAID and indicates bearing with respect to the heading of the aircraft.
RANDOM ALTITUDE- An altitude inappropriate for direction of flight and/or not in accordance with FAA Order JO 7110.65, paragraph 4-5-1, VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMA.
RANDOM ROUTE- Any route not established or charted/published or not otherwise available to all users.
RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MONITORING (RAIM)- A technique whereby a civil GNSS receiver/processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation signals without reference to sensors or non-DoD integrity systems other than the receiver itself. This determination is achieved by a consistency check among redundant pseudorange measurements.
RECEIVING CONTROLLER- A controller/facility receiving control of an aircraft from another controller/facility.
RECONFORMANCE- The automated process of bringing an aircraft's Current Plan Trajectory into conformance with its track.
RECREATIONAL FLYER- Pilot of a UAS who is operating under 49 USC §44809, Exception for Limited Recreational Operations of Unmanned Aircraft.
REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (RVSM) AIRSPACE- RVSM airspace is defined as any airspace between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive, where eligible aircraft are separated vertically by 1,000 feet. Authorization guidance for operations in this airspace is provided in Advisory Circular AC 91-85.
REFINED HAZARD AREA (RHA)- Used by ATC. Airspace that is defined and distributed after a failure of a launch or reentry operation to provide a more concise depiction of the hazard location than a Contingency Hazard Area.
RELEASE TIME- A departure time restriction issued to a pilot by ATC (either directly or through an authorized relay) when necessary to separate a departing aircraft from other traffic.
RELEASE TIME [ICAO]- Time prior to which an aircraft should be given further clearance or prior to which it should not proceed in case of radio failure.
REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION SERVICE (RAIS)- A temporary service provided by facilities, which are not located on the landing airport, but have communication capability and automated weather reporting available to the pilot at the landing airport.
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS AIR/GROUND FACILITY- An unmanned VHF/UHF transmitter/receiver facility which is used to expand ARTCC air/ground communications coverage and to facilitate direct contact between pilots and controllers. RCAG facilities are sometimes not equipped with emergency frequencies 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz.
(Refer to AIM.)
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO)- An unmanned communications facility remotely controlled by air traffic personnel. RCOs serve FSSs. Remote Transmitter/Receivers (RTR) serve terminal ATC facilities. An RCO or RTR may be UHF or VHF and will extend the communication range of the air traffic facility. There are several classes of RCOs and RTRs. The class is determined by the number of transmitters or receivers. Classes A through G are used primarily for air/ground purposes. RCO and RTR class O facilities are nonprotected outlets subject to undetected and prolonged outages. RCO (O's) and RTR (O's) were established for the express purpose of providing ground-to-ground communications between air traffic control specialists and pilots located at a satellite airport for delivering en route clearances, issuing departure authorizations, and acknowledging instrument flight rules cancellations or departure/landing times. As a secondary function, they may be used for advisory purposes whenever the aircraft is below the coverage of the primary air/ground frequency.
REMOTE IDENTIFICATION (RID)- A system for electronic identification and secure oversight of UAS.
(See 4 CFR Part 89.)
REMOTE PILOT- Pilot of a UAS who is not operating as a recreational flyer under 49 USC §44809, the Exception for Limited Recreational Operations of Unmanned Aircraft.
REMOTE PILOT IN COMMAND (RPIC)- The RPIC is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation of the unmanned aircraft system.
REPORTING POINT- A geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft is reported.
(Refer to AIM.)
REPORTING POINT [ICAO]- A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported.
REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE- Used by pilots to request that the entire route of flight be read verbatim in an ATC clearance. Such request should be made to preclude receiving an ATC clearance based on the original filed flight plan when a filed IFR flight plan has been revised by the pilot, company, or operations prior to departure.
REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP)- A statement of the navigational performance necessary for operation within a defined airspace. The following terms are commonly associated with RNP:
- Required Navigation Performance Level or Type (RNP-X). A value, in nautical miles (NM), from the intended horizontal position within which an aircraft would be at least 95-percent of the total flying time.
- Advanced - Required Navigation Performance (A-RNP). A navigation specification based on RNP that requires advanced functions such as scalable RNP, radius-to-fix (RF) legs, and tactical parallel offsets. This sophisticated Navigation Specification (NavSpec) is designated by the abbreviation “A-RNP”.
- Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Airspace. A generic term designating airspace, route(s), leg(s), operation(s), or procedure(s) where minimum required navigational performance (RNP) have been established.
- Actual Navigation Performance (ANP). A measure of the current estimated navigational performance. Also referred to as Estimated Position Error (EPE).
- Estimated Position Error (EPE). A measure of the current estimated navigational performance. Also referred to as Actual Navigation Performance (ANP).
- Lateral Navigation (LNAV). A function of area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates, displays, and provides lateral guidance to a profile or path.
- Vertical Navigation (VNAV). A function of area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates, displays, and provides vertical guidance to a profile or path.
REROUTE IMPACT ASSESSMENT (RRIA)- A capability within the Traffic Flow Management System that is used to define and evaluate a potential reroute prior to implementation, with or without miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions. RRIA functions estimate the impact on demand (e.g., sector loads) and performance (e.g., flight delay). Using RRIA, traffic management personnel can determine whether the reroute will sufficiently reduce demand in the Flow Constraint Area and not create excessive “spill over” demand in the adjacent airspace on a specific route segment or point of interest (POI).
RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER (RCC)- A search and rescue (SAR) facility equipped and manned to coordinate and control SAR operations in an area designated by the SAR plan. The U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Air Force have responsibility for the operation of RCCs.
RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE [ICAO]- A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue service and for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region.
RESOLUTION ADVISORY- A display indication given to the pilot by the Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II) recommending a maneuver to increase vertical separation relative to an intruding aircraft. Positive, negative, and vertical speed limit (VSL) advisories constitute the resolution advisories. A resolution advisory is also classified as corrective or preventive.
RESTRICTED AREA [ICAO]- An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.
RESUME NORMAL SPEED- Used by ATC to advise a pilot to resume an aircraft's normal operating speed. It is issued to terminate a speed adjustment where no published speed restrictions apply. It does not delete speed restrictions in published procedures of upcoming segments of flight. This does not relieve the pilot of those speed restrictions that are applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117.
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION- Used by ATC to advise a pilot to resume his/her own navigational responsibility. It is issued after completion of a radar vector or when radar contact is lost while the aircraft is being radar vectored.
RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED- Used by ATC to advise a pilot to resume published speed restrictions that are applicable to a SID, STAR, or other instrument procedure. It is issued to terminate a speed adjustment where speed restrictions are published on a charted procedure.
RNAV APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure which relies on aircraft area navigation equipment for navigational guidance.
RNAV VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURE (RVFP)- An RVFP is a special visual flight procedure flown on an IFR flight plan. It is flown in visual conditions and clear of clouds must be maintained. An RVFP is flown using an approved RNAV system to maintain published lateral and vertical paths to runways without an instrument approach procedure. It requires an ATC clearance and may begin at other points along the path of the charted procedure when approved by ATC. An RVFP is not published in the Federal Register for public use and the operator is required to have a specific Operations Specification approval. Required ceiling and visibility minima are published on the procedure chart. An RVFP does not have a missed approach procedure and is not evaluated for obstacle protection.
ROAD RECONNAISSANCE (RC)- Military activity requiring navigation along roads, railroads, and rivers. Reconnaissance route/route segments are seldom along a straight line and normally require a lateral route width of 10 NM to 30 NM and an altitude range of 500 feet to 10,000 feet AGL.
ROTOR WASH- A phenomenon resulting from the vertical down wash of air generated by the main rotor(s) of a helicopter.
ROUND-ROBIN FLIGHT PLAN- A single flight plan filed from the departure airport to an intermediary destination(s) and then returning to the original departure airport.
ROUTE- A defined path, consisting of one or more courses in a horizontal plane, which aircraft traverse over the surface of the earth.
ROUTE ACTION NOTIFICATION- EDST notification that a PAR/PDR/PDAR has been applied to the flight plan.
ROUTE AMENDMENT DIALOG (RAD)- A capability within the Traffic Flow Management System that allows traffic management personnel to submit or edit a route amendment for one or more flights.
ROUTE SEGMENT- As used in Air Traffic Control, a part of a route that can be defined by two navigational fixes, two NAVAIDs, or a fix and a NAVAID.
ROUTE SEGMENT [ICAO]- A portion of a route to be flown, as defined by two consecutive significant points specified in a flight plan.
RUNWAY- A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length. Runways are normally numbered in relation to their magnetic direction rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees; e.g., Runway 1, Runway 25.
RUNWAY [ICAO]- A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft.
RUNWAY CONDITION CODES (RwyCC)- Numerical readings, provided by airport operators, that indicate runway surface contamination (for example, slush, ice, rain, etc.). These values range from “1" (poor) to “6" (dry) and must be included on the ATIS when the reportable condition is less than 6 in any one or more of the three runway zones (touchdown, midpoint, rollout).
RUNWAY CONDITION READING- Numerical decelerometer readings relayed by air traffic controllers at USAF and certain civil bases for use by the pilot in determining runway braking action. These readings are routinely relayed only to USAF and Air National Guard Aircraft.
RUNWAY CONDITION REPORT (RwyCR)- A data collection worksheet used by airport operators that correlates the runway percentage of coverage along with the depth and type of contaminant for the purpose of creating a FICON NOTAM.
RUNWAY ENTRANCE LIGHTS (REL)-An array of red lights which include the first light at the hold line followed by a series of evenly spaced lights to the runway edge aligned with the taxiway centerline, and one additional light at the runway centerline in line with the last two lights before the runway edge.
RUNWAY GRADIENT- The average slope, measured in percent, between two ends or points on a runway. Runway gradient is depicted on Government aerodrome sketches when total runway gradient exceeds 0.3%.
RUNWAY HEADING- The magnetic direction that corresponds with the runway centerline extended, not the painted runway number. When cleared to “fly or maintain runway heading,” pilots are expected to fly or maintain the heading that corresponds with the extended centerline of the departure runway. Drift correction shall not be applied; e.g., Runway 4, actual magnetic heading of the runway centerline 044, fly 044.
RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY RUNWAY- Any runway or runways currently being used for takeoff or landing. When multiple runways are used, they are all considered active runways. In the metering sense, a selectable adapted item which specifies the landing runway configuration or direction of traffic flow. The adapted optimum flight plan from each transition fix to the vertex is determined by the runway configuration for arrival metering processing purposes.
RUNWAY OVERRUN- In military aviation exclusively, a stabilized or paved area beyond the end of a runway, of the same width as the runway plus shoulders, centered on the extended runway centerline.
RUNWAY PROFILE DESCENT- An instrument flight rules (IFR) air traffic control arrival procedure to a runway published for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form and may be associated with a STAR. Runway Profile Descents provide routing and may depict crossing altitudes, speed restrictions, and headings to be flown from the en route structure to the point where the pilot will receive clearance for and execute an instrument approach procedure. A Runway Profile Descent may apply to more than one runway if so stated on the chart.
(Refer to AIM.)
RUNWAY SAFETY AREA- A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared, or suitable, for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway. The dimensions of the RSA vary and can be determined by using the criteria contained within AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3. Figure 3-1 in AC 150/5300-13 depicts the RSA. The design standards dictate that the RSA shall be:
- Cleared, graded, and have no potentially hazardous ruts, humps, depressions, or other surface variations;
- Drained by grading or storm sewers to prevent water accumulation;
- Capable, under dry conditions, of supporting snow removal equipment, aircraft rescue and firefighting equipment, and the occasional passage of aircraft without causing structural damage to the aircraft; and,
- Free of objects, except for objects that need to be located in the runway safety area because of their function. These objects shall be constructed on low impact resistant supports (frangible mounted structures) to the lowest practical height with the frangible point no higher than 3 inches above grade.
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3.)
RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS (RWSL) SYSTEM- The RWSL is a system of runway and taxiway lighting to provide pilots increased situational awareness by illuminating runway entry lights (REL) when the runway is unsafe for entry or crossing, and take-off hold lights (THL) when the runway is unsafe for departure.
RUNWAY USE PROGRAM- A noise abatement runway selection plan designed to enhance noise abatement efforts with regard to airport communities for arriving and departing aircraft. These plans are developed into runway use programs and apply to all turbojet aircraft 12,500 pounds or heavier; turbojet aircraft less than 12,500 pounds are included only if the airport proprietor determines that the aircraft creates a noise problem. Runway use programs are coordinated with FAA offices, and safety criteria used in these programs are developed by the Office of Flight Operations. Runway use programs are administered by the Air Traffic Service as “Formal” or “Informal” programs.
- Formal Runway Use Program- An approved noise abatement program which is defined and acknowledged in a Letter of Understanding between Flight Operations, Air Traffic Service, the airport proprietor, and the users. Once established, participation in the program is mandatory for aircraft operators and pilots as provided for in 14 CFR Section 91.129.
- Informal Runway Use Program- An approved noise abatement program which does not require a Letter of Understanding, and participation in the program is voluntary for aircraft operators/pilots.