Application Process for Medical Certification

Examination Techniques
Items 25-30. Ear, Nose, and Throat


External Ear
The external ear is seldom a major problem in the medical certification of applicants. Otitis externa or a furuncle may call for temporary disqualification. Obstruction of the canal by impacted cerumen or cellular debris may indicate a need for referral to an ENT specialist for examination.

The tympanic membranes should be examined for scars or perforations. Discharge or granulation tissue may be the only observable indication of perforation. Middle ear disease may be revealed by retraction, fluid levels, or discoloration. The normal tympanic membrane is movable and pearly gray in color. Mobility should be demonstrated by watching the drum through the otoscope during a valsalva maneuver.