Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners
Application Process for Medical Certification - Examination Techniques
Item 48. General Systemic
A protocol for examinations applicable to Item 48 is not provided because the necessary
history-taking, observation, and other examination techniques used in examining other systems have already revealed much of what can be known about the status of the applicant's endocrine and other systems. For example, the examination of the skin alone can reveal important signs of thyroid dysfunction, Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, and several other endocrine disorders. The eye may reflect a thyroid disorder (exophthalmos) or diabetes (retinopathy).
When the Examiner reaches Item 48 in the course of the examination of an applicant, it is recommended that the Examiner take a moment to review and determine if key procedures have been performed in conjunction with examinations made under other items, and to determine the relevance of any positive or abnormal findings.