GEN 1.7 Differences From ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures

NOTE-

See GEN 1.6 for the availability of Title 14 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Parts 1-199.

ANNEX 1 - PERSONNEL LICENSING

Chapter 1

Definitions and General Rules Concerning Licences

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “error management” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA training publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “competency unit” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA regulations and publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “airmanship” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA regulations and publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

The United States does not require the training organizations to have a quality assurance system as outlined in ICAO Annex 1, Appendix 2, Item 4.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “performance criteria” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA regulations and publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “quality system” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in FAA policy publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “competency element” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA regulations and publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Through the term “airship,” the US also requires that it be “steerable.”

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “threat management” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “credit” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA regulations and publications.

Chapter I Reference Definition

Though the term “competency” is not specifically defined in the U.S. regulations, it is amply implemented in the FAA regulations and publications.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.2.5.2

The maximum validity allowed for non-FAA air traffic controllers (required to hold an FAA Second-Class airman medical certificate) is 12 months.

The maximum validity allowed for FAA air traffic controllers is 24 months for those under age 40 who work at FAA terminals or centers.

U.S. free balloon and glider pilots are not required to hold medical certificates but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.2.5.2.2

U.S. commercial pilots engaging in single-crew commercial air transport operations carrying passengers have a 12-month validity on their medical assessments regardless of age.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.2.5.2.3

U.S. commercial pilots have a 12-month validity on their medical assessments regardless of age.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.2.5.2.4

U.S. free balloon and glider pilots are not required to hold a medical certificate but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

 

Certain holders of U.S. private pilot licenses (operating domestically) are not required to hold an FAA medical certificate but must meet U.S. (“Basic Med”) regulations effective May 1, 2017. “Basic Med" requires a medical education course every 24 months and medical examination every 48 months.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.2.5.2.5

U.S. private pilots required to hold an FAA Third-Class medical certificate who have passed their 50th birthday have a 24-month validity on their medical assessments.

U.S. free balloon and glider pilots are not required to hold medical certificates but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.2.5.2.6

The United States does not defer medical examinations.

Chapter 2

Licences and Ratings for Pilots

Chapter 2 Reference 2.1.9.2

The United States only allows pilots to log SIC flight experience in an aircraft that requires an SIC by type design or by an operational requirement.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.1.9.3

SIC experience (hours) may only be used towards obtaining an Airline Transport Pilot certificate with an Airplane rating. Then, only 1/3 of the SIC time may be applied, with a maximum allowable 500 hrs as SIC.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3

U.S. student pilots must meet the requirements of an FAA Third-Class medical certificate which are equivalent to ICAO Class 2 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.1.4

U.S. private pilots required to hold an FAA Third-Class medical certificate must meet the requirements of an FAA Third-Class medical certificate which are equivalent to ICAO Class 2 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.1.4

U.S. commercial pilots must meet the requirements of an FAA Second-Class medical certificate which are equivalent to ICAO Class 1 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.1

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.2

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.3.1

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.3.2

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.4

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.2.1

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.2.2

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.2.3

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.3.1

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.3.2

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.3.3

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.4.1

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.4.2

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL. However, the FAA could approve a part 141 special curriculum or part 142 training curriculum for operators wanting to train persons to meet the ICAO MPL requirements.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.6.1.1.

The United States minimum age is 23.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.6.1.4

U.S. airline transport pilots must meet the requirements of an FAA First-Class medical certificate which are equivalent to ICAO Class 1 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.6.5.1.1.

The United States requires 1500 hrs of total flight experience, but only 250 hours PIC need to be in Powered-lift.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.7.1.3.1

U.S. private pilots required to hold an FAA Third-Class medical certificate who hold an airplane instrument rating are not required to comply with ICAO Class 1 hearing standards. U.S. hearing requirements for FAA First- and Third-Class medical certificates are equivalent to ICAO Class 1 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.7.1.3.2

U.S. private pilots are not required to comply with ICAO Class 1 physical, mental and visual requirements to hold an airplane instrument rating.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.8.2.2

The United States has no 14 CFR provisions for MPL. However, the FAA could approve a part 141 special curriculum or a part 142 training curriculum for operators wanting to train persons to meet the ICAO MPL requirements.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.9.1.5

U.S. glider pilots are not required to hold a medical certificate but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.10.1.5

U.S. free balloon pilots are not required to hold a medical certificate but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

Chapter 3

Licences for Flight Crew Members other than Licences for Pilots

Chapter 3 Reference 3.2.1.5

U.S. flight navigators must meet the requirements of an FAA Second-Class medical certificate which are equivalent to ICAO Class 2 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.3.1.5

U.S. flight engineers must meet the requirements of an FAA Second-Class medical certificate which are equivalent to ICAO Class 2 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 4

Licences and Ratings for Personnel other than Flight Crew Members

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.1.3

The United States does not require 4 years of experience to qualify to take the written examination for a mechanic's airframe and powerplant license.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.2.3.1

The United States endorses the certification privileges on the licence.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.2.4

The United States does not allow an approved maintenance organization to appoint non-licensed personnel to exercise the privileges of 4.2.2 within the U.S.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.2

Non-FAA air traffic controllers must meet the requirements of an FAA Second-Class medical certificate which meets the intent of ICAO Class 3 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.4.1.1

The United States requires that an applicant be at least 18 years of age.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.4.1.3

Intentionally left blank.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.4.1.4

Non-FAA air traffic controllers must meet the requirements of an FAA Second-Class medical certificate which meets the intent of ICAO Class 3 with exceptions specified in Chapter 6.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.6.1.1

The United States requires the applicant shall not be less than 23 years of age.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.6.1.3.2

The United States permits the applicant to have two years of experience in the last three years.

Chapter 5

Specifications for Personnel Licences

Chapter 5 Reference 5.1.3

The United States only issues certificates in the English language.

Chapter 6

Medical Provisions for Licencing: Please note:

References containing

6.3 refer to airline transport pilots and commercial pilots;

6.4 refer to private pilots, free balloon pilots, glider pilots, student pilots, flight engineers, and flight navigators; and

6.5 refer to air traffic controllers.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.2.3.2

The United States uses a variety of methods for testing visual acuity that meet the intent of ICAO Recommended Practice. Illumination levels are set by manufactured standards.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.1.2

An FAA first-class medical certificate is required when exercising the privileges of an airline transport pilot and an FAA second-class medical certificate is required when exercising the privileges of a commercial pilot, a flight engineer, or a flight navigator. The United States has no provisions for MPL.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.2.6 

Electrocardiography is not required for airline transport pilots at first issue unless the individual is age 35 or older and not for commercial pilots, flight engineers, or flight navigators unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.2.6.1

Electrocardiography is required in re-examination of airline transport pilot applicants over the age of 40 every 12 months. Electrocardiography is not specifically required for commercial pilots, flight engineers, or flight navigators unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.2.6.2

Electrocardiography is required in re-examination of airline transport pilot applicants over the age of 40 every 12 months. Electrocardiography is not specifically required for commercial pilots, flight engineers, or flight navigators unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.2.9.1 

Chest radiography is not specifically required unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.3.2 (b)

A specific requirement that a [spare] set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privileges of the license is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.3.2.1 (c)

A specific requirement that a set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privileges of the license [with contact lenses] is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.3.2.3 

The demonstration of compliance with visual acuity by providing a full ophthalmic report is not required.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.3.4 

The demonstration of compliance with the visual requirements to be made with only one pair of corrective lenses is not specifically required.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.3.4.1 

A requirement that a second pair of near-correction spectacles be kept available when exercising the privileges of the license is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.4.1.1 

Applicants are not required to demonstrate normal hearing against a background noise that reproduces or simulates the masking properties of flight deck noise upon speech and beacon signals.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.4.1.2 

Applicants are not required to take a practical hearing test.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.1.1 

U.S. free balloon and glider pilots are not required to hold a medical certificate but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.1.2 

U.S. free balloon and glider pilots are not required to hold a medical certificate but are prohibited from operating during periods of medical deficiency.

 

Certain holders of U.S. private pilot licenses (operating domestically) are not required to hold an FAA medical certificate but must meet U.S. (“Basic Med”) regulations effective May 1, 2017. “Basic Med" requires a medical education course every 24 months and medical examination every 48 months.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.2.6 

Electrocardiography for applicants for third-class airman (private pilot) medical certification is not required at first issue unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.2.6.1 

Routine electrocardiography for applicants for FAA third-class airman (private pilot) medical certification is not required unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.2.6.2 

Electrocardiography for applicants for FAA third-class airman (private pilot) medical certification is not required at first issue unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.2.9.1 

Chest radiography for private pilots is not specifically required unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.3.2 (b)

A specific requirement that a [spare] set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privileges of the license is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.3.2.1 (c)

A specific requirement that a set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privileges of the license [with contact lenses] is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.3.2.3 

The demonstration of compliance with visual acuity by providing a full ophthalmic report is not required.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.3.4 

The demonstration of compliance with the visual requirements to be made with only one pair of corrective lenses is not specifically required.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.3.4.1 

A requirement that a second pair of near-correction spectacles be kept available when exercising the privileges of the license is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.2.6 

Electrocardiography is required for FAA air traffic controllers at first issue but not for non-FAA ATCs unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.2.6.1

Electrocardiography is required for FAA ATCs but not for non-FAA ATCs unless clinically indicated.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.3.2 (b)

A specific requirement that a [spare] set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privileges of the license is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.3.2.1 (c)

A specific requirement that a set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privileges of the license [with contact lenses] is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.3.2.3 

The demonstration of compliance with visual acuity by providing a full ophthalmic report is not required.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.3.4

The demonstration of compliance with the visual requirements to be made with only pair of corrective lenses is not specifically required.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.3.4.1

A requirement that a second pair of near-correction spectacles be kept available when exercising the privileges of the license is not established.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.4.1.1

Applicants are not required to demonstrate normal hearing against a background noise that reproduces or simulates an air traffic control working environment.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.4.1.2

Applicants are not required to take a practical hearing test.

ANNEX 2 - RULES OF THE AIR

Chapter 1

Definitions

Advisory Airspace

Advisory service is provided in terminal radar areas and the outer areas associated with Class C and Class E airspace areas.

Aerodrome control tower

In the U.S., an “aerodrome control facility” is referred to as a “tower” or “airport traffic control tower”; “aerodrome control” is referred to as “airport traffic control service.”

Aerodrome Traffic Zone

There are no more Control Zones (Airport Traffic Zones) or Airport Traffic Areas (ATA). In the 7110.65, PCG, Controlled Airspace covers the defined dimensions of airspace. Class D was formerly the ATA (normally a 5NM radius around the airport). The old Control Zones were extensions of the ATA to encompass (ILS) Approach Paths.

Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS)

The U.S. uses “traffic alert collision avoidance system (TCAS)." TCAS is an airborne collision avoidance system based on radar beacon signals and operates independent of ground−based equipment. TCAS−I generates traffic advisories only. TCAS−II generates traffic advisories and resolution (collision avoidance) advisories in the vertical plane.

Air-ground Control Radio Station

FAA Pilot Controller Glossary defines a Flight Service Station (FSS) as an air traffic facility which provides pilot briefings, flight plan processing, en route flight advisories, search and rescue services, and assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations. FSSs also relay ATC clearances, process Notices to Airmen, and broadcast aviation weather and aeronautical information. In Alaska, FSSs provide Airport Advisory Services.

Air-taxiing

The U.S. uses “hover taxi” for this maneuver above 100 feet above ground level (AGL) and “air taxi” below 100 feet AGL.

Area control service

The U.S. does not use the term “area control service” to indicate controlled flight in controlled areas.

Area control centre

The U.S. equivalent facility for an Area Control Centre (ACC) is an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).

ATS route

In U.S. domestic airspace, the term “ATS route” is not used. Routes in the U.S. include VOR airways, jet routes, substitute routes, and off-airway routes. The U.S. also uses instrument departure procedures (DPs) and standard terminal arrivals (STARs).

Controlled airspace

The U.S. terms for controlled airspace have different parameters than for ICAO.

Current Flight Plan

FAA Pilot Controller Glossary (PCG) defines flight plan as “specified information relating to the intended flight of an aircraft that is filed orally or in writing with an FSS or an ATC facility." The Pilot Controller Glossary makes a specific distinction between current flight plan and filed flight plans, defining filed flight plans as “filed...without any subsequent changes or clearances." Therefore, the PCG definition of flight plan includes changes brought about by clearances or amendments

Danger area

The term “danger area” is not used within the U.S. or any of its possessions or territories.

Estimated off-block time

The U.S. uses the term “estimated departure time” for domestic operations.

Flight information centre

The U.S. does not operate flight information centers (FICs). In the U.S., the services provided by FICs are performed by air traffic control (ATC) facilities, flight service stations (FSSs), and rescue coordination centers (RCCs).

Ground Visibility

The U.S. defines Ground Visibility as: Prevailing horizontal visibility near the earth's surface as reported by the United States National Weather Service or an accredited observer.

Instrument meteorological conditions

The U.S. air traffic service units use the phrase “IFR conditions.”

Level

The U.S. uses “altitude” or “flight level” rather than “level” and “cruising altitude” rather than “cruising level.'' The term “level” is not used to mean “height,” “altitude,” or “flight level.”

Movement area

In the U.S., the term “movement area” means “the runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport/heliport which are utilized for taxiing, hover taxiing, air-taxiing, take-off and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. At those airport/heliports with a tower, specific approval for entry onto the movement area must be obtained from ATC.”
The U.S. does not use an all-inclusive term to denote the movement area plus loading ramps and parking areas of an airport, nor does the U.S. use the term “maneuvering area'' in any related context.

Repetitive flight plan (RPL)

The U.S. uses the term “stored flight plan” for domestic operations.

Terminal control area

In the U.S., “terminal control area” has been replaced by “Class B airspace/area.” Standard IFR services are provided to IFR aircraft operating in Class B airspace.
Class B airspace CFR 14 part 71.41, exceeds TCA with more restrictive airman's qualifications and aircraft certifications.

Total estimated elapsed time

The U.S. uses “estimated time en route” for domestic operations.

Traffic Avoidance Advice

The U.S. uses the term Traffic Advisory

Transition altitude

In U.S. domestic airspace, “transition altitude,” “layer” and “level” are not used; however, in the U.S., flight levels begin at FL 180 where the reference datum of 29.92 inches of mercury is used as the constant atmospheric pressure. Below FL 180, altitudes are based on barometric pressure readings. QNH and QFE altimeter settings are not provided in domestic U.S. airspace.

Visibility

The U.S. defines Visibility as: The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night. Visibility is reported as statute miles, hundreds of feet, or meters. The U.S. identifies the following classes of visibility: Flight Visibility, Ground Visibility, Prevailing Visibility, Runway Visibility Value, and Runway Visual Range.

Visual meteorological conditions

The U.S. air traffic service units use the phrase “VFR conditions.”

Chapter 2

Applicability of the Rules of the Air

2.2

See difference under “Movement area.”

2.5

Except in an emergency, no pilot of a civil aircraft may allow a person who appears to be intoxicated or who demonstrates by manner or physical indications that the individual is under the influence of drugs (except a medical patient under proper care) to be carried in that aircraft.

Chapter 3

General Rules

3.1.8

In addition, aircraft shall not be flown in formation flight when passengers are carried for hire.

3.2 Note

See difference under “Movement area.”

3.2.2.6.1

See difference under “Movement area.”

3.2.3.2 d)

The U.S. national regulations do not require aircraft on the movement area of an airport, whose engines are running, to display lights which indicate that fact from sunset to sunrise.

3.2.5

Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft within a Class B, C, or D surface area except for the purpose of landing at, or taking off from, an airport within that area.

 

In addition, in the case of a helicopter approaching to land, avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft.

 

In addition, no person may, within a Class B, C, or D surface area operate an aircraft to, from, or on an airport having a control tower operated by the U.S. unless two-way radio communications are maintained between that aircraft and the control tower.

3.3.1.2

In the U.S., ATC flight plans are not required for VFR flight in Class C, D, or E airspace.

3.3.1.2.1 d)

Requirements pertaining to filing flight plans for flights operating across U.S. borders and for identification purposes are described in 14 CFR Part 9l (Section 91.84) and Part 99.

3.3.1.2.2

The U.S. requires that domestic flight plans be submitted at least 30 minutes before departure. For international flights, the U.S. recommends that they be transmitted so that they are received by ATC authorities in each Flight Information Region (FIR) to be entered, at least 2 hours prior to entry, unless otherwise provided in that State's requirements.

3.6.1

Air traffic control clearances are not needed for VFR flight in U.S. Class C, D, or E airspace.

3.6.2.4

When meteorological conditions fall below the minimum specified for en route VFR flights, the pilot of the aircraft shall not continue his/her flight in such conditions, except in emergency, beyond the extent necessary to return to his/her departure point or to the nearest suitable landing point.

3.6.5.2 (Communication Failure)

Two-way Radio Communications Failure 
a. It is virtually impossible to provide regulations and procedures applicable to all possible situations associated with two-way radio communications failure. During two-way radio communications failure, when confronted by a situation not covered in the regulation, pilots are expected to exercise good judgment in whatever action they elect to take. Should the situation so dictate they should not be reluctant to use the emergency action contained in 14 CFR Section 91.3(b) 
b. Whether two-way communications failure constitutes an emergency depends on the circumstances, and in any event, it is a determination made by the pilot. 14 CFR Section 91.3(b) authorizes a pilot to deviate from any rule in Subparts A and B to the extent required to meet an emergency.
c. In the event of two-way radio communications failure, ATC service will be provided on the basis that the pilot is operating in accordance with 14 CFR Section 91.185. A pilot experiencing two-way communications failure should (unless emergency authority is exercised) comply with 14 CFR Section 91.185 quoted below
1. General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio communications failure when operating under IFR shall comply with the rules of this section.

3.6.5.2.2

In the event of two-way communications failure in the U.S., ATC service is predicated on pilot compliance with the provisions of 14 CFR Part 91 (Section 91.185). If the failure occurs in IMC, or if VFR cannot be complied with, each pilot is to continue the flight according to the following:
Route

  1. By the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
    b) If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance;
    c) In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or
    d) In the absence of an assigned route or a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance, by the route filed in the flight plan.

 

Altitude - At the HIGHEST of the following altitudes or flight levels FOR THE ROUTE SEGMENT BEING FLOWN:

  1. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
    b) The minimum altitude/flight level as prescribed for IFR operations; or
    c) The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance.

 

IFR conditions - If the failure occurs in IFR conditions, or if subparagraph 2 above cannot be complied with, each pilot shall continue the flight according to the following: 

  1. Route. 
    1. By the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received; 
      (2) If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance; 
      (3) In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or 
      (4) In the absence of an assigned route of a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance by the route filed in the flight plan.
  2. Altitude. At the HIGHEST of the following altitudes or flight levels FOR THE ROUTE SEGMENT BEING FLOWN: 
    1. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received; 
      (2) The minimum altitude (converted, if appropriate) to minimum flight level as prescribed in 14 CFR Section 91.121(c) for IFR operations; or 
      (3) The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance.

Basic VFR Weather Minimums

Airspace

Flight Visibility

Distance from Clouds

Class A

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Class B

3 statute miles

Clear of Clouds

Class C

3 statute miles

500 feet below
1,000 feet above
2,000 feet horizontal

Class D

3 statute miles

500 feet below
1,000 feet above
2,000 feet horizontal

Class E
Less than 10,000 feet MSL


3 statute miles


500 feet below
1,000 feet above
2,000 feet horizontal

At or above 10,000 feet MSL

5 statute miles

1,000 feet below
1,000 feet above
1 statute mile horizontal

Class G
1,200 feet or less above the surface (regardless of MSL altitude).

 

 

For aircraft other than helicopters:

 

 

Day, except as provided in §91.155(b)

1 statute mile

Clear of clouds

Night, except as provided in §91.155(b)

3 statute miles

500 feet below
1,000 feet above
2,000 feet horizontal

For helicopters

 

 

Day

½ statute mile

Clear of Clouds

Night, except as provided in §91.155(b)

1 statute mile

Clear of Clouds

More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than 10,000 feet MSL.

 

 

Day

1 statute mile

500 feet below
1,000 feet above
2,000 feet horizontal

Night

3 statute miles

500 feet below
1,000 feet above
2,000 feet horizontal

More than 1,200 feet above the surface and at or above 10,000 feet MSL.

5 statute miles

1,000 feet below
1,000 feet above
1 statute mile horizontal

Chapter 4

Visual Flight Rules

4.1 and
Table 4-1

There is no Class F airspace in the U.S. Basic VFR weather minimums are listed in the table above.

4.1 a)

Except as otherwise authorized by the appropriate air traffic control unit for special VFR flights within Class B, C, D, or E surface areas, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR when the flight visibility is less, or at a distance from clouds that is less than that prescribed for the corresponding altitude and class of airspace in the table above.

4.1 b)

Class G Airspace: Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph a) of this section, the following operations may be conducted in Class G airspace below 1,200 feet above the surface:

  1. Helicopter. A helicopter may be operated clear of clouds if operated at a speed that allows the pilot adequate opportunity to see any air traffic or obstruction in time to avoid collision.
    2) Airplane. When the visibility is less than 3 statute miles but not less than 1 statute mile during night hours, an airplane may be operated clear of clouds if operated in an airport traffic pattern within one-half mile of the runway.

4.1 c)

Except as provided in 4.2, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet.

4.1 d)

Except as provided in 4.2, no person may take-off or land an aircraft, or enter the traffic pattern area of an airport under VFR, within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designed for an airport:

  1. unless ground visibility at that airport is at least 3 statute miles; or
    2) if ground visibility is not reported at that airport, unless flight visibility during landing or takeoff, or while operating in the traffic pattern is at least 3 statute miles.

4.2

In the U.S., no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet. No person may take-off or land an aircraft (other than a helicopter) under special VFR (SVFR) unless ground visibility is at least 1 statute mile or if ground visibility is not reported, unless flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile.
The U.S. restricts the ceiling to 1,000 ft. and ground visibility of 3 miles and greater.

4.2 a)

When an appropriate ATC clearance has been received, the special weather minimums in this section apply to the operation of an aircraft in a Class B, C, D, or E surface area under VFR.

  1. No person may operate an aircraft in a Class B, C, D, or E surface area under VFR except clear of clouds;
    2) No person may operate an aircraft (other than a helicopter) in a Class B, C, D or E surface area under VFR unless flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile;
    3) No person may take-off or land an aircraft (other than a helicopter) at any airport in a Class B, C, D or E surface area under VFR:
    1. unless ground visibility at that airport is at least 1 statute mile; or
      b) if ground visibility is not reported at that airport, unless flight visibility during landing or take-off is at least 1 statute mile.

4.3

The U.S. does not prohibit VFR flight between sunset and sunrise.

4.4

In the U.S., VFR flight is not permitted within Class A airspace designated in 14 CFR Part 71 unless otherwise authorized by ATC.
In the U.S., an ATC clearance is needed for VFR flight only in Class B airspace area.
The U.S. limits VFR flights up to FL 180.

4.5

The U.S. limits VFR flights up to FL 180.

4.6

In addition, anywhere, an altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without due hazard to persons or property on the surface.

4.7

In addition, grid tracks are not used to determine cruising altitudes in polar areas. True tracks are used to determine cruising levels above FL 230 in the area north of Alaska bounded by the true North Pole to 72°00′00"N, 141°00′00"W; to 72°00′00"N, 158°00′00"W; to 68°00′00"N, 168°58′23"W; to point of beginning. The U.S. has named this area the Anchorage Arctic CTA/FIR for national reference purposes.

4.8

In U.S. Class C and D airspace/areas, an ATC clearance is not required for VFR flights.

Chapter 5

Instrument Flight Rules

5.1.2

In the U.S., minimum altitudes for IFR flights are 2,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 nautical miles from the course to be flown in mountainous terrain and 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 nautical miles from the course to be flown in non-mountainous terrain.

5.2.2

See difference under paragraph 4.7.

5.3.1

See difference under paragraph 4.7.

Further differences which exist by virtue of the fact that the Annex contains no comparable standards for the U.S. national regulations.

  1. The regulations covering the selection and use of alternate airports in respect to ceiling and visibility minima, require that:

Unless otherwise authorized by the FAA Administrator, no person may include an alternate airport in an IFR flight plan unless current weather forecasts indicate that, at the estimated time of arrival at the alternate airport, the ceiling and visibility at that airport will be at or above the alternate airport weather minima.

2) Operation under IFR in Class A, B, C, D, or E airspace malfunction reports:

  1. The pilot-in-command of each aircraft operated in Class A, B, C, D or E airspace under IFR shall report as soon as practical to ATC any malfunctions of navigational, approach, or communication equipment occurring in flight.
  2. In each report the pilot-in-command shall include:
    1. aircraft identification.
      2) equipment affected.
      3) degree to which the capability of the pilot to operate under IFR in the ATC system is impaired; and
      4) nature and extent of assistance desired from ATC.

3) When an aircraft has been cleared to maintain ``VFR conditions on top,'' the pilot is responsible to fly at an appropriate VFR altitude, comply with VFR visibility and distance from cloud criteria, and to be vigilant so as to see and avoid other aircraft.

4) Aircraft speed:

  1. Unless otherwise authorized by the FAA Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 kt (288 m.p.h.).
  2. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft within Class B, C, or D surface area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 kt (230 m.p.h.). This paragraph 4b) does not apply to operations within Class B airspace. Such operations shall comply with paragraph 4a) of this section.
  3. No person may operate an aircraft in the airspace underlying Class B airspace, or in a VFR corridor designated through Class B airspace, at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 kt (230 m.p.h.).
  4. If the minimum safe airspeed for any operation is greater than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed.

 

5) Operating rules and pilot and equipment requirements for flight in Class B airspace.

  1. Operating rules. No person may operate an aircraft within Class B airspace except in compliance with the following rules:
    1. No person may operate an aircraft within Class B airspace unless that person has received an appropriate authorization from ATC prior to operation of that aircraft in that area.
      2) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each person operating a large turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport shall operate at or above the designated floors while within the lateral limits of the Class B airspace.
      3) Any person conducting pilot training operations at an airport within Class B airspace shall comply with any procedures established by ATC for such operations in Class B airspace.
  2. Pilot requirements. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within Class B airspace or operate a civil aircraft within Class B airspace unless:
    1. The pilot-in-command holds at least a private pilot certificate; or
      2) The aircraft is operated by a student pilot who has met the requirements (14 CFR Part 61 (Section 61.95)).
  3. Communications and navigation requirements. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft within Class B airspace unless that aircraft is equipped with:
    1. For IFR operations, an operable VOR or TACAN receiver, and 
      2) For all operations, an operable two-way radio capable of communications with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that Class B airspace.
  4. Transponder requirements. No person may operate an aircraft in Class B airspace unless the aircraft is equipped with the applicable operating transponder and automatic altitude reporting equipment.

 

6) Operating rules and pilot and equipment requirements for operating in Class C airspace.

  1. General. For the purpose of this section, the primary airport is the airport designated in 14 CFR Part 71, for which the Class C airspace is designated. A satellite airport is any other airport within the Class C airspace.
  2. Deviations. An operator may deviate from any provisions of this section under the provisions of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility giving jurisdiction of the Class C airspace. ATC may authorize a deviation on a continuing basis or for an individual flight, as appropriate.
  3. Arrivals and overflights. No person may operate an aircraft in Class C airspace unless two-way radio communication is established with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace prior to entering that area and is thereafter maintained with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace while within that area.
  4. Departures. No person may operate an aircraft within Class C airspace except as follows:
    1. From the primary airport or satellite airport with an operating control tower, unless two-way radio communication is established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class C airspace.
      2) From a satellite airport without an operating control tower, unless two-way radio communication is established as soon as practical after departing and thereafter maintained with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace.
  5. Traffic patterns. No person may take off or land an aircraft at a satellite airport within Class C airspace except in compliance with FAA arrival and departure traffic patterns.
  6. Equipment requirements. Unless otherwise authorized by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace, no person may operate an aircraft within Class C airspace unless that aircraft is equipped with the applicable equipment specified in 14 CFR Part 91 (Section 91.215).

 

7) Except for persons operating gliders below the floor of Class A airspace, no person may operate an aircraft in Class B, C, D, or E airspace of the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia above 10,000 feet MSL, excluding that airspace at and below 2,500 feet AGL, unless that aircraft is equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder having at least a Mode 3/A 4096-code capability, replying to Mode 3/A interrogation with the code specified by ATC, and automatic altitude reporting equipment having a Mode C capability that automatically replies to Mode C interrogations by transmitting pressure altitude information in 100-foot increments.

8) Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions:

  1. When an ATC clearance has been obtained, no pilot-in-command may deviate from that clearance, except in an emergency, unless an amended clearance is obtained. A pilot-in-command may cancel an IFR flight plan if that pilot is operating in VFR weather conditions outside of Class A airspace. If a pilot is uncertain of the meaning of an ATC clearance, the pilot shall immediately request clarification from ATC.
    b) Except in an emergency, no person may operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction in an area in which ATC is exercised.
    c) Each pilot-in-command who, in an emergency, deviates from an ATC clearance or instruction shall notify ATC of that deviation as soon as possible.
    d) Each pilot-in-command who is given priority by ATC in an emergency shall submit a detailed report of that emergency within 48 hours to the manager of that ATC facility, if requested by ATC.
    e) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person operating an aircraft may operate that aircraft according to any clearance or instruction that has been issued to the pilot of another aircraft for radar ATC purposes.

Appendix 1

Signals

4.1.1

The flashing white signal to aircraft in flight, meaning ``land at this aerodrome and proceed to apron'' is not used in the United States.

 

In addition, the alternating red and green signal to aircraft on the ground or in flight means exercise extreme caution.

PANS ATM Doc 4444

There are several substantive differences between the U.S. procedures and those of ICAO, in addition to some minor variations in detail which are not considered significant. These differences are the result of initiatives and/or refinements which the U.S. has effected in the interest of improving the safety and efficiency of air traffic.

PAN ATM Doc 4444 15th Edition 

7110.65 S

CHAPTER 1

DEFINITIONS

Advisory Airspace

The U.S. does not define, it refers to Advisory Service.

Advisory Route

The U.S. does not define, it refers to Advisory Service.

Not defined in Doc 4444,

AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)

In the U.S., AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ) is an area of airspace over land or water in which the ready identification, location, and control of all aircraft (except for Department of Defense and law enforcement aircraft) is required in the interest of national security. 

Affirm 

U.S. has no phraseology using “AFFIRM”. U.S. uses “AFFIRMATIVE”− “Yes”. ; or “ACKNOWLEDGE; or Roger, Wilco.”

Aerodrome Traffic

The U.S. does not define.

Air Traffic Advisory Service

In the U.S., “Advisory Service” is intended for IFR and VFR aircraft.

Airborne Collision Avoidance System

The U.S. uses traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS).

Aircraft

U.S. uses “Aircraft” to mean the airframe, crew members, or both.

AIRMET

In the U.S., AIRMET stands for Airman's Meteorological Information which is in-flight weather advisories issued only to amend the area forecast concerning weather phenomena which are of operational interest to all aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having limited capability because of lack of equipment, instrumentation, or pilot qualifications. AIRMETs concern weather of less severity than that covered by SIGMETs or convective SIGMETs. AIRMETs cover moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustained winds of 30 kt or more at the surface, widespread areas of ceilings less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles, and extensive mountain obscurement.

Air-report

The U.S. does not normally use the term “air-report.” Pilot weather reports (PIREPs), position, and operational reports are used. PIREPs include reports of strong frontal activity, squall lines, thunderstorms, light to severe icing, wind shear and turbulence (including clear air turbulence) of moderate or greater intensity, volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds, and other conditions pertinent to flight safety. They may include information on ceilings, visibility, thunderstorms, icing of light degree or greater, wind shear and its effect on airspeed, or volcanic ash clouds, but do not usually include air temperature.

Air-taxiing

In the U.S., the term “hover taxi” is sometimes used to indicate the ICAO term “air-taxiing.” In the U.S., air-taxiing is the preferred method for helicopter movements on airports provided ground operations/conditions permit. Additionally, in the U.S., air taxi is used to indicate certain commercial aircraft operations. For those operations, usually a special call sign is used, or the prefix “Tango” is added to the aircraft call sign.

Air Traffic Flow Management

U.S. defines as Air Traffic Control System Command Center.

Altitude

U.S. uses “Altitude” to mean indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.

Approval Request

U. S. uses “APREQ.”

Approved separation

U.S. uses “Approved separation” to mean separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this manual.

Area control service

The U.S. does not use the term “area control service” to indicate controlled flight in controlled areas.

ATS route

In U.S. domestic airspace, the term “ATS route” is not used. Routes in the U.S. include VOR airways, jet routes, substitute routes, off-airway routes, RNAV routes and colored airways. The U.S. also uses instrument departure procedures (DPs), and standard terminal arrivals (STARs).

Not defined in Doc 4444

CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER

CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER − In the U.S., a maneuver initiated by the pilot to align the aircraft with a runway for landing when a straight-in landing from an instrument approach is not possible or is not desirable. At tower-controlled airports, this maneuver is made only after ATC authorization has been obtained and the pilot has established required visual reference to the airport.

Control zone

The U.S. uses “surface area” in place of the ICAO term “control zone.” Surface area is defined as the airspace contained by the lateral boundary of the Class B, C, D or E airspace designated for an airport that begins at the surface and extends upward.

Controlled airspace

The U.S. uses the following definition of controlled airspace found in 14 CFR Section 1.1: “Controlled airspace means an airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.”

Course, bearing, azimuth, heading, and wind direction

U.S. uses “Course, bearing, azimuth, heading, and wind direction” information and it shall always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.

Cruising level

The U.S. uses the term “cruising altitude.”

Decision altitude

Approach with vertical guidance (VNAV).

Emergency Phase

The U.S. does not utilize classification system of emergency phases

Expedite

U.S. uses “EXPEDITE” by ATC when prompt compliance is required to avoid the development of an imminent situation. Expedite climb/descent normally indicates to a pilot that the approximate best rate of climb/descent should be used without requiring an exceptional change in aircraft handling characteristics.

Flight information centre

In the U.S., the services provided by flight information centers (FICs) are conducted by air traffic control (ATC) facilities, automated flight service stations (AFSSs), and rescue coordination centers (RCCs).

Ground Effect

The U.S. does not define, but is referred to in “Hover Taxi.”

Holding procedure

In the U.S., a hold procedure is also used during ground operations to keep aircraft within a specified area or at a specified point while awaiting further clearance from air traffic control.

Hot Spot

This is a known term , but not specifically defined in 7110.65.

Kilometres

U.S. ATS units do not accept aircraft speeds in metric terms nor do they use the term “minimum clean speed.” The U.S. does use phrases such as “maintain maximum forward speed” or “maintain slowest practical speed.”

Level

The U.S. uses “altitude” or “flight level” rather than “level.”

May or need not

U.S. uses “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.

Miles

U.S. uses “Miles” to mean nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.

Minute

U.S. uses “minute plus 30 seconds”, except when time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.

Movement area

In the U.S., the “movement area” is equivalent to the ICAO “maneuvering area” which does not include parking areas.

Near Parallel Runways

In the U.S., these are not defined as non-intersecting runways aligned 15 degrees or less apart

Pilot-in-Command

Designated by operator, or in the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.

Plural

U.S. uses “Plural words to include the singular.”

Position Symbol

The U.S. definition differs in that it refers to mode of tracking, rather than position of an aircraft or vehicle

Procedural Control

The U.S. does not define this as method to provide ATC service without data from an ATS surveillance system.

Procedural Separation

The U.S. does not define as separation used when providing “Procedural Control.”

Runway Incursion

This is a well-known term in NAS, but is not defined in the 7110.65

Singular

U.S. uses “Singular words to include the plural.”

Slush

In the U.S., “slush” is not used as a weather phenomenon.

Standard instrument arrival (STAR)

The U.S. uses the acronym STAR to define a standard terminal arrival.

Standard instrument departure (SID)

The U.S. uses the term departure procedure (DP) in lieu of SID.

Stand-by

U. S. uses “STAND BY” to mean the controller or pilot must pause for a few seconds, usually to attend to other duties of a higher priority. Also means to wait as in “stand by for clearance.” The caller should reestablish contact if a delay is lengthy. “Stand by” is not an approval or denial.

Stopway

The U.S. does not define a “stopway” as a rectangular area.

Taxiway

  1. Aircraft stand taxilane
  2. Apron taxiway
  3. Rapid exit taxiway

Ref (a), the US does not define as “portion of an apron designated as a taxiway intended to provide access to aircraft stands only.”

Ref (b), the US does not define as “portion of a taxiway system located on an apron, providing taxi route across an apron.”

Ref (c), the US defines as High Speed Taxiway.

Terminal control area

In the U.S., the term “terminal control area” has been replaced by “Class B airspace.” Standard IFR services should be provided to IFR aircraft operating in Class B airspace.

Time

U.S. when uses “Time” for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.

Track

The U.S. uses the term "course" instead of “track.”

Transition altitude, transition layer, and transition level

In U.S. domestic airspace, transition altitude, layer, and level are not used. U.S. flight levels begin at FL 180 where a barometric altimeter setting of 29.92 inches of mercury is used as the constant atmospheric pressure. Below FL 180, altitudes are based on barometric pressure readings.

Uncertainty Phase

The U.S. does not utilize emergency phase classifications.

Visibility

Definitions are different.

Visual Approach

In the U.S., aircrews may execute visual approaches when the pilot has either the airport or the preceding aircraft in sight and is instructed to follow it.

Will

U.S. uses “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.

CHAPTER 4

GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

4.2

In the U.S., flight information and alerting services are provided by ATC facilities, FSSs, and RCCs.

4.3.2.1.1

Transfer of control points vary depending on numerous factors.

4.3.2.1.3

Transfer of control varies.

4.3.3.1a

The U.S. does not “release” aircraft. Handoff is used.

4.4.1

In the U.S., flight information and alerting services are provided by ATC facilities, FSSs, and RCCs.

4.13.4

Flight Progress Strips shall be retained for at least 15 days. (7110.3 3-4-4b)

4.3.2.1

Transfer of control points vary depending on numerous factors.

4.3.3.1

Transfer of control varies.

 

4.3.3.1a/ b

The U.S. does not “release” aircraft. Handoff is used.

 

4.4

In the U.S., flight information and alerting services are provided by ATC facilities, AFSSs, and RCCs.

 

4.4.13

The U.S. uses a flight plan format different from the ICAO model discussed in Appendix 2. The U.S. ATS facilities will transmit ICAO repetitive flight plans (RPLs) even though a different format is used for stored flight plans.

4.4.2.1.1

The U.S. accepts flight plans up to 24 hours prior to Estimated Off –Block Time (EOBT).

 

4.5.7.5

The flight crew shall read back to the air traffic controller safety-related parts of ATC clearances.

 

4.6.1.5

The U.S. allows speed adjustments to be assigned in 5 knot increments.

 

4.6.3.2

 

The U.S. uses different speed control phraseologies. Specifically, Doc 4444 uses “Maximum Speed” whereas the US uses “Maximum Forward Speed”. Doc 4444 uses “Minimum Clean Speed” whereas the US uses “Slowest Practical Speed.”

4.6.3.6

Only minor speed reductions of 20 knots should be used on intermediate or final approach.

 

4.6.3.7

In the US, speed control is not to be assigned inside Final Approach Fix or 5 NM from runway end.

 

4.8.2

 

U.S. Controller phraseology differs slightly and does not include a time check.

4.8.3

ATS units are not required to advise a pilot who has canceled an IFR flight plan that IMC conditions are likely to be encountered along the route of flight; however, if a pilot informs a controller of a desire to change from IFR to VFR, the controller will request that the pilot contact the appropriate AFSS.

4.9.1.1

 

U.S. Classification, terminology, and weight requirements for wake turbulence separation are different.

4.5.6.2

U.S. ATS controllers do not normally include clearance for transonic acceleration in their ATC clearances.

4.5.7.3

LEVELS

Except as provided for in Chapter 6, 6.3.2 and 6.5.1.5, use of standard departure and arrival clearances, instructions included in clearances relating to levels shall consist of the items specified in Chapter 11, 11.4.2.6.2.2.

 

4.10.4 Provision of altimeter setting information

In U.S. domestic airspace, transition altitude, layer, and level are not used. U.S. flight levels begin at FL180 where a barometric altimeter setting of 29.92 inches of mercury is used as the constant atmospheric pressure. Below FL 180, altitudes are based on barometric pressure readings. QNH and QFE altimeter settings are not provided in domestic U.S. airspace.

4.6.3.6

Only minor speed reductions of 20 knots should be used on intermediate or final approach.

4.6.3.7

Speed control after 7KM (4NM) should not be applied.

4.9.2

In the U.S., the word “heavy” is used in all communications with or about heavy jet aircraft in the terminal environment. In the en route environment, “heavy” is used in all communications with or about heavy jet aircraft with a terminal facility, when the en route center is providing approach control service, when the separation from a following aircraft may become less than five miles by approved procedure, and when issuing traffic advisories.

4.10.1.1,

4.10.1.2,

4.10.4.6

Flight levels (at or above 18,000msl, except oceanic) and in feet below 18,000 ft MSL, including around airports (vs. ICAO QFE – height above field/threshold when near airports).

4.11.2.2

4.11.3 d)

Reporting the assigned speed with each frequency change by pilots is not a requirement. Controllers are required to forward this information to the next controller.

4.11.4

Transmission of ADS-C reports

The U.S. has not yet published ATS procedures for the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Contract (ADS-C).

4.11

POSITION REPORTING

The U.S. has different criteria to make position reports.5-1-12. POSITION REPORTING

 

4.13.4

Flight Progress Strips shall be retained for at least 15 days. (7110.3 3-4-4b)

4.12.2

Contents of routine air-reports

4.12.3

Contents of special air-reports

The U.S. does not normally use the term “air-report.” Pilot weather reports (PIREPs), position, and operational reports are used. PIREPs include reports of strong frontal activity, squall lines, thunderstorms, light to severe icing, wind shear and turbulence (including clear air turbulence) of moderate or greater intensity, volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds, and other conditions pertinent to flight safety. They may include information on ceilings, visibility, thunderstorms, icing of light degree or greater, wind shear and its effect on airspeed, or volcanic ash clouds, but do not usually include air temperature.

 

4.15

DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS INITIATION PROCEDURES

The U.S. has not yet published ATS procedures for the use of Datalink.

CHAPTER 5

SEPARATION METHODS AND MINIMA

5.2.1 General

In U.S. airspace, only conflict resolution (not separation) is provided between IFR and VFR operations. Separation is provided between IFR and Special VFR (SVFR) aircraft only within the lateral boundaries of Class B, C, D, or E control zones (the U.S. term is surface areas) below 10,000 feet MSL.

5.2.1.1

 

In U.S. Class A and B airspace, separation is provided for all aircraft. In U.S. Class C airspace, separation is provided between IFR and SVFR aircraft; conflict resolution is provided between IFR and VFR operations.

5.3.1 Vertical separation application

5.3.4 Vertical separation during climb or descent

U.S. rules allow assignment of altitude to second aircraft after first aircraft has been issued climb/descent and is observed or reports leaving that altitude. 7110.65, Para 6-6-1. APPLICATION 6-6-2. EXCEPTIONS

5.4.1.2.1.2

 

U.S. Lateral separation criteria and minima values differ somewhat.

5.4.2.1.5

The U.S. uses the term “course” instead of “track.” “Reciprocal” courses are sometimes referred to as “opposite” courses. The wording of the definitions for U.S. same, crossing, or opposite/reciprocal courses differs from the ICAO worded definitions, but the intent appears to be the same.

5.4.2.2.1.1 c/ d

The U.S. uses 22 kt instead of 20 kt and 44 kt instead of 40 kt.

5.4.2.6.4.3.3

Conflict is resolved within a further 7 minutes.

When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the controller shall take action to obtain an ADS-C report.

If no report is received within 6 minutes of the time the original report was due, the controller shall take action to apply another form of separation. 7110.65, Para 8-9-3. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION

5.4.2.7.3.2 d)2).

The FAA's Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures (ATOP) automation platform is designed to ensure that separation will not decrease below required minima for same track aircraft should either the reference or maneuvering aircraft turn during the ITP. This allows the controller to issue a clearance to perform an ADS-B ITP climb/descent maneuver if required separation is maintained or increased and either the reference or maneuvering aircraft has a turn in its flight plan.

5.5.2

Whenever the other aircraft concerned are within 5 minutes flying time of the holding area.

5.6 (Separation Between Departing Aircraft)

U.S. Allows 2 minute separation standard when courses diverge within 5 minutes after departure.

5.7 (Separation of Departing Aircraft from Arriving Aircraft)

U.S. Requires departing aircraft to be established on a course diverging by at least 45 degrees from the reciprocal of the final approach course.

5.8.4

 

The U.S. includes B757 in heavy category for wake turbulence purposes. DOC 4444 does not stipulate.

CHAPTER 6

SEPARATION IN THE VICINITY OF AERODROMES

6.3.2.4

 

U.S. aircraft on a SID assigned higher altitudes than specified in SID, may climb to higher assigned altitude.

6.3.2.5 COMMUNICATION FAILURE

 

8.8.3.2 COMPLETE AIRCRAFT COMMUNICATION FAILURE

 

15.3 AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE

In the U.S., if the communications failure occurs in IFR conditions, or if VFR cannot be complied with, each pilot shall continue the flight according to the following requirements:

Route

  1. By the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
  2. If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance;
  3. In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or
  4. In the absence of an assigned route or a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance, by the route filed in the flight plan.

 

Altitude - At the highest of the following altitudes or flight levels for the route segment being flown:

  1. The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
  2. The minimum altitude as prescribed in 14 CFR Part 91 (Section 91.121(c)) for IFR operations; or
  3. The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance.

6.3.3.3

Arriving aircraft - delay of 10 minutes or more. 7110.65, Para 4-7-11 d 5

6.5.2.4

 

Aircraft on STAR descended to altitudes lower than specified in a STAR, may descend to assigned altitude.

6.5.3.1

 

The 7110.65 does not stipulate flight crew concurrence of Controller initiated Visual Approach.

6.5.3.5

U.S. requires ATC to inform following aircraft behind Heavy/B757 aircraft of manufacturer and model information.

6.5.5.2

Onward clearance time. 7110.65 PG EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME)- The time a pilot can expect to receive clearance beyond a clearance limit.

6.7.3.1.2

 

U.S. has no criteria for separate radar controllers in conducting Parallel approaches.

6.7.3.2.1 (c)

 

The U.S. has adopted procedures allowing RNAV equipped aircraft to conduct Independent Parallel Approaches.

6.7.3.2.9

U.S. has no parallel approach obstacle assessment surfaces (PAOAS) Criteria.

6.7.3.2.9

The U.S. has no criteria for a “45 degree track”.

6.7.3.2.10 (a)

The U.S. has no criteria for both controllers to be advised when visual separation is applied.

6.7.3.4.1 (d)

The U.S. has adopted procedures allowing RNAV equipped aircraft to conduct Dependent Parallel approaches.

6.7.3.4.1 (f)

The U.S. requires that adjacent missed approach procedures do not conflict.

6.7.3.5.3 (b)

The U.S. has no surveillance radar approach (SRA).

6.7.3.5.3 (c)

In the U.S., aircrews may execute visual approaches when the pilot has either the airport or the preceding aircraft in sight and is instructed to follow it. A contact approach is one wherein an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an air traffic control authorization, operating clear of clouds with at least 1 mile flight visibility and a reasonable expectation of continuing to the destination airport by visual reference in those conditions, may deviate from the instrument approach procedure and proceed to the destination airport by visual reference to the surface. This approach will only be authorized when requested by the pilot and the reported ground visibility at the destination airport is at least 1 statute mile.

CHAPTER 7

PROCEDURES FOR AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE

7.4.1.1

START-UP TIME PROCEDURES

U.S. has no start up procedures, taxi clearance.

7.4.1.2.1 (f)

 

U.S. does not require time check prior to taxi.

7.6.3.2.3.2

Light signal from

aerodrome control

In the U.S., for movements of other than aircraft traffic (i.e., vehicles, equipment, and personnel), steady green means cleared to cross, proceed, go; flashing green is not applicable; flashing white means return to starting point on airport; and alternating red and green means a general warning signal to exercise extreme caution.

7.6.3.2.3.3

Flashing runway or

taxiway lights

U.S. controllers do not flash runway or taxiway lights to instruct aircraft to “vacate the runway and observe the tower for light signal.”

7.10.2

Clearance to land

In the U.S., landing clearance to a succeeding aircraft in a landing sequence need not be withheld if the controller observes the positions of the aircraft and determines that prescribed runway separation will exist when the aircraft crosses the landing threshold. Controllers issue traffic information to the succeeding aircraft if it has not previously been reported.

7.11.4 and 7.11.6

Reduced Runway Separation Minima Between Aircraft Using the Same Runway

U.S. category 1, 2, & 3 (SRS) aircraft weights differ. Separation standards are greater, due to increased size and weight categories.

7.12.1.1.2

 

U.S. does not specify separation standards on taxiways.

7.14 
AUTHORIZATION OF SPECIAL VFR FLIGHTS

Special VFR operations may be conducted in the U.S. under the following weather minimums and requirements below 10,000 feet MSL within the airspace contained by the upward extension of the lateral boundaries of the controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport. These minimums and requirements are found in 14 CFR Section 91.157.
Special VFR operations may only be conducted:
(1) With an ATC clearance;
(2) Clear of clouds;
(3) Except for helicopters, when flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile; and
(4) Except for helicopters, between sunrise and sunset (or in Alaska, when the sun is 6 degrees or more below the horizon) unless:
(i) The person being granted the ATC clearance meets the applicable requirements for instrument flight; and
(ii) The aircraft is equipped as required in 14 CFR Sec. 91.205(d).

7.14

AUTHORIZATION OF SPECIAL VFR FLIGHTS
(continued)

No person may take off or land an aircraft (other than a helicopter) under special VFR:

  1. Unless ground visibility is at least 1 statute mile; or
  2. If ground visibility is not reported, unless flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile.

CHAPTER 8

ATS SURVEILLANCE SERVICES

8.5.5.1

Verification of Level Information

U.S. validation of mode C readouts allow up to 300 feet variance from pilot reported altitudes.

8.6.5.2

The U.S. has not implemented cold temperature corrections to the radar minimum vectoring altitude.

8.7.3.2 (b)

The U.S. only allows visual observance of runway turn-off points.

8.8.4.2

 

The U.S. does not specify that ½ applicable separation can be utilized during emergency situations.

8.9.3.6

 

U.S. specifies maximum intercept angle of 30 degrees for fixed wing aircraft vectored to final approach course.

CHAPTER 9

FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE AND ALERTING SERVICE

9.1.3.7

 

The U.S. does not have special procedures for the transmission of information to supersonic aircraft.

9.1.4.1.1

Class F airspace is not used in the U.S. Traffic advisories are provided in Class C airspace and, workload permitting, in Class D, Class E, and Class G airspace.

9.2.1.2

The U.S. does not use “operations normal” or 'QRU” messages. U.S. controllers are not normally familiar with the term “uncertainty phase.”

CHAPTER 10

COORDINATION

10.1.3.1

DIVISION OF CONTROL

Except for a VFR aircraft practicing an instrument approach, an IFR approach clearance in the U.S. automatically authorizes the aircraft to execute the missed approach procedure depicted for the instrument approach being flown. No additional coordination is normally needed between the approach and en route controllers. Once an aircraft commences a missed approach, it may be radar vectored.

10.1.4.2.2

 

U.S. does not require ETA to be forwarded at least 15 minutes prior to ETA.

CHAPTER 11

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES MESSAGES

11.1.2

Emergency messages

U.S. uses different emergency messages. 7110.10, Chapter 8. Search and Rescue (SAR) Procedures for VFR Aircraft.

11.4.2.3.6

LOGICAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT MESSAGES (LAM)

The existing U.S. ATS automation system does not process logical acknowledgment messages (LAMs).

11.4.3.4.2

Aerodrome Conditions

U.S. does not report runway condition as 'DAMP'.

CHAPTER 12

PHRASEOLOGIES

12.2.7

Conditional phrases, such as “behind landing aircraft" or “after departing aircraft", shall not be used for movements affecting the active runway(s), except when the aircraft or vehicles concerned are seen by the appropriate

controller and pilot

US ATC does not allow conditional clearances described

for example:

“SAS 941, BEHIND DC9 ON SHORT FINAL, LINE UP BEHIND.”

 

Note.- This implies the need for the aircraft receiving the conditional clearance to identify the aircraft or vehicle causing the conditional clearance.

12.3.1 m) General to require action when convenient

 

m) WHEN READY (instruction);

U.S. does not use this phraseology. 7110.65 4-5-7. ALTITUDE INFORMATION PHRASEOLOGY CLIMB/ DESCEND AT PILOT'S DISCRETION 1. The pilot is expected to commence descent upon receipt of the clearance and to descend at the suggested rates specified in the AIM, 4-4-9, Adherence to Clearance, until reaching FL 280. At that point, the pilot is authorized to continue descent to FL 240 within the context of the term “at pilot's discretion” as described in the AIM. f. When the “pilot's discretion” portion of a climb/descent clearance is being canceled by assigning a new altitude, inform the pilot that the new altitude is an “amended altitude.” EXAMPLE- “American Eighty Three, amend altitude, descend and maintain Flight Level two six zero.”

12.3.1.2 *t)

[after RA…pilot says}

CLEAR OF CONFLICT, RETURNING TO (assigned

clearance);

TCAS resolution advisories in the U.S., pilots would advise “clear of conflict, returning to . . . .”

EXAMPLE-

  1. New York Center, United 321, TCAS climb.”NOTE-
  2. When the RA has been resolved, the flight crew should advise ATC they are returning to their previously assigned clearance or subsequent amended clearance.

EXAMPLE-

2. “New York Center, United 321, clear of conflict, returning to assigned altitude.”

12.3.1.2 (n) MAINTAIN OWN SEPARATION AND VMC [FROM (level)]

[TO (level)]; and

(o) MAINTAIN OWN SEPARATION AND VMC ABOVE (or BELOW, or TO) (level);

U.S. does not use “maintain own separation and VMC 'from,' 'above,' or 'below' . . . ,” U.S. controllers say “maintain visual separation 'from' that traffic.”

Meteorological conditions are expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than specified minima.

12.3.1.2 (z) Clearance to cancel level restriction(s) of the vertical profile of a SID during climb.” (z)CLIMB TO (level) [LEVEL RESTRICTION(S) (SID designator) CANCELLED (or) LEVEL RESTRICTION(S)

(SID designator) AT (point) CANCELLED];

The U.S. does not have specific phraseology examples that cover this issue. However, phraseology contained in the 7110.65 covers how to change altitudes and altitude restriction in a SID.

 

12.3.1.2 aa) Clearance to cancel level restriction(s) of the vertical profile of a STAR during descent.

(aa) DESCEND TO (level) [LEVEL RESTRICTION(S) (STAR

designator) CANCELLED (or) LEVEL RESTRICTION(S)

(STAR designator) AT (point) CANCELLED].

The U.S. does not have specific phraseology examples that cover this issue. However, phraseology contained in the 7110.65 covers how to amend or cancel altitude restrictions.

 

12.3.1.2 (2)

TO AND MAINTAIN BLOCK (level) TO (level);

U.S. uses “MAINTAIN BLOCK (altitude) THROUGH (altitude).”

7110.65, Para 4-5-7. g. ALTITUDE INFORMATION

 

 

12.3.1.5

CHANGE OF CALL SIGN

U.S. has no phraseology or approved procedure to advise aircraft to change call signs. The U.S. has procedures for a duplicate aircraft identification watch and notification to airline operators but does not publish national procedures for on-the-spot temporary changes to aircraft call signs in accordance with ICAO guidelines.

12.3.1.6

TRAFFIC INFORMATION

The U.S. requires issuance of azimuth, distance, direction, type, and altitude.

12.3.1.7 a)

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

In the U.S., the criterion for a variable wind is: wind speed greater than 6 kt and direction varies by 60 degrees or more. If the wind is >1 kt but <6 kt, the wind direction may be replaced by "VRB" followed by the speed or reported as observed. “VRB” would be spoken as “wind variable at <speed>.”

12.3.1.7 d/e/f

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

U.S. controllers do not give wind speed, visibility, or RVR values in metric terms. RVR values are given in 100- or 200-foot increments while RW values are given in Venule increments.

12.3.1.7 j

METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

U.S. controllers do not use the term “CAVOK.” However, the ceiling/sky condition, visibility, and obstructions to vision may be omitted if the ceiling is above 5,000 feet and the visibility is more than 5 miles.

12.3.1.7 (l) & (m) METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

In the US, controllers and pilots exchange altimeter setting by reference to inches Hg. ICAO describes altimeter setting by reference to millibars, QNH or QFE. (where QNH – above mean sea level and QFE – height above aerodrome)

12.3.1.10 –

AERODROME INFORMATION, RUNWAY REPORT AT (observation time) RUNWAY (number) (type of precipitant) UP TO (depth of deposit)MILLIMETRES. BRAKING ACTION GOOD (or MEDIUM TO GOOD, or MEDIUM, or MEDIUM TO POOR, or POOR or UNRELIABLE) [and/or BRAKING COEFFICIENT

(equipment and number)];

U.S. use BRAKING ACTION terms “good,” “fair,” “poor,” “nil,” or combination of these terms. “Braking action fair to poor, reported by a heavy D-C Ten.”. 7110.65, Para 3-3-4.

12.3.1.10( i)

BRAKING ACTION REPORTED BY (aircraft type) AT (time) GOOD (or MEDIUM, or POOR);

U.S. does not issue Temperature with Braking Action. 7110.65, Para 3-3-4.

12.3.2.4

Specification of Cruise Levels, (c) Cruise climb between. (levels) or above (level)

The U.S. does not have equivalent cruise climb between levels/altitudes.

However, in ICAO regions for supersonic flight 8- 8-3a(1), U.S. has adopted ICAO phraseology.

12.4.2.4.2 a)

COMMENCE DESCENT NOW [TO MAINTAIN A (number) DEGREE GLIDE PATH]

The U.S uses only “begin descent” and does not speak to “Maintain a (number) Degree Glide Path.”

12.3.2.5

 

U.S. has no phraseology or instruction for emergency descent:

 

12.3.2.8, Separation Instructions

(b) ADVISE IF ABLE TO CROSS (significant point) AT (time or level)

U.S. has no phraseology for “ADVISE IF ABLE.” U.S. does have phraseology “Advise if unable...”

12.3.4.7, Taxi procedures, after landing (n), (o), & (p)

U.S. has no phraseology using “BACKTRACT.”

U.S. does use BACK-TAXI (7110.65) - A term used by air traffic controllers to taxi an aircraft on the runway opposite to the traffic flow. The aircraft may be instructed to back-taxi to the beginning of the runway or at some point before reaching the runway end for the purpose of departure or to exit the runway.

12.3.4.11

TAKE-OFF CLEARANCE when take-off clearance has not been complied with

c) Vacate

12.3.4.20 RUNWAY VACATING AND COMMUNICATIONS AFTER LANDING b

U.S. uses CLEAR OF THE RUNWAY

  1. Taxiing aircraft, which is approaching a runway, is clear of the runway when all parts of the U.S. uses aircraft are held short of the applicable runway holding position marking.
  2. A pilot or controller may consider an aircraft, which is exiting or crossing a runway, to be clear of the runway when all parts of the aircraft are beyond the runway edge and there are no restrictions to its continued movement beyond the applicable runway holding position marking.
  3. Pilots and controllers shall exercise good judgment to ensure that adequate separation exists between all aircraft on runways and taxiways at airports with inadequate runway edge lines or holding position markings.

12.3.4.11 (e)

HOLD POSITION, CANCEL TAKE-OFF I SAY AGAIN CANCEL TAKE-OFF (reasons);

U.S. uses different phraseology to cancel a take off.

 

3-9-10. CANCELLATION OF TAKEOFF CLEARANCE PHRASEOLOGY

If circumstances require, cancel a previously issued take-off clearance and, when appropriate, inform the aircraft of the reason.

 

PHRASEOLOGY

CANCEL TAKEOFF CLEARANCE (reason)

 

12.3.5.7

  1. EXPEDITE CLEARANCE (aircraft call sign) EXPECTEDDEPARTURE FROM (place) AT (time);
  2. EXPEDITE CLEARANCE (aircraft call sign) [ESTIMATED]

OVER (place) AT (time) REQUESTS (level or route, etc.).

U.S. has no phraseology to expedite clearance.

12.3.2.2

INDICATION OF ROUTE AND

CLEARANCE LIMIT

U.S. will issue a clearance “direct” to a point on the previously issued route. PHRASEOLOGY CLEARED DIRECT (fix). NOTE Clearances authorizing “direct” to a point on a previously issued route do not require the phrase “rest of route unchanged.” However, it must be understood where the previously cleared route is resumed. When necessary, “rest of route unchanged” may be used to clarify routing. 7110.65, Para 4-4-1. ROUTE USE & 4-2-5. ROUTE OR ALTITUDE AMENDMENTS 3.

12.3.5.6 HANDOVER

 

HANDOVER (aircraft call sign) [SQUAWKING (SSR code)]

POSITION (aircraft position) (level).

U.S. does not use radar handover. 7110.65, Para 5-4-3. METHODS PHRASEOLOGY HANDOFF/ POINT OUT/TRAFFIC (aircraft position) (aircraft ID),or (discrete beacon code point out only) (altitude, restrictions, and other appropriate information, if applicable). c. When receiving a handoff, point out, or traffic restrictions, respond to the transferring controller as follows: PHRASEOLOGY- (Aircraft ID) (restrictions, if applicable) RADAR CONTACT, or (aircraft ID or discrete beacon code) (restrictions, if

applicable) POINT OUT APPROVED, or TRAFFIC OBSERVED,

12.4.1.1

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT f) NOT IDENTIFIED [reason], [RESUME (or CONTINUE) OWN NAVIGATION]

U.S. controllers do not say “will shortly lose identification” or “identification lost.” 7110.65, Para 5-3-7

5-3-7. IDENTIFICATION STATUS

  1. Inform an aircraft of radar contact when: 1. Initial radar identification in the ATC system is established.2. Subsequent to loss of radar contact or terminating radar service, radar identification is re-established.PHRASEOLOGYRADAR CONTACT (position if required).
  2. Inform an aircraft when radar contact is lost.

PHRASEOLOGY

RADAR CONTACT LOST (alternative instructions when required).

12.4.2.1

VECTORING FOR APPROACH

(b) VECTORING FOR VISUAL APPROACH RUNWAY (number) REPORT FIELD (or RUNWAY) IN SIGHT

 

U.S. would use “airport or runway” rather than “field.” 7-4-2. VECTORS FOR VISUAL APPROACH PHRASEOLOGY- (ACID) FLY HEADING OR TURN RIGHT/LEFT HEADING (degrees) VECTOR FOR VISUAL APPROACH TO (airport name).

7110.65, Para 5-11-2, VISUAL REFERENCE REPORT:

Aircraft may be requested to report the runway, approach/runway lights, or airport in sight. Helicopters making a “point‐in‐space” approach may be requested to report when able to proceed to the landing area by visual reference to a prescribed surface route.

PHRASEOLOGY

REPORT

(runway, approach/runway lights or airport)

IN SIGHT.

REPORT WHEN ABLE TO PROCEED VISUALLY TO AIRPORT/HELIPORT.

12.4.2.5

PAR APPROACH

U.S. controllers say “this will be a P-A-R/surveillance approach to runway (number) or airport/runway (number) or airport/heliport.” U.S. controllers do not say "approach completed.” U.S. controllers say “your missed approach procedure is (missed approach procedure)” and, if needed, "execute missed approach." For PAR approaches, U.S. controllers say “begin descent” and for surveillance approaches, U.S. controllers say “descend to your minimum descent altitude.” 7110.65, Para 5-12-8. APPROACH GUIDANCE TERMINATION lights in sight and requested to or advised that he/she will proceed visually, and has been instructed to proceed visually, all PAR approach procedures shall be discontinued. d. Continue to monitor final approach and frequency. Pilots shall remain on final controller's frequency until touchdown or otherwise instructed. 5-12-9. COMMUNICATION TRANSFER PHRASEOLOGY CONTACT (terminal control function) (frequency, if required) AFTER LANDING

12.4.2.4.4

CHECKS; (a)

CHECK GEAR DOWN [AND LOCKED]

U.S. uses “CHECK WHEELS DOWN”. 7110.65, Par 2-1-24. WHEELS DOWN CHECK PHRASEOLOGY

12.4.3.12

TO REQUEST PRESSURE SETTING CHECK AND CONFIRMATION OF LEVEL; and

12.4.3.13 - TO REQUEST TERMINATION OF

PRESSURE-ALTITUDE TRANSMISSION BECAUSE OF FAULTY OPERATION

U.S., for aircraft above FL 180, U.S. controllers would say, “confirm using two niner niner two as your altimeter setting, verify altitude” or “stop altitude squawk” “stop altitude squawk; altitude differs by (number) feet.” U.S. controllers would not say “stop squawk Charlie.” 7110.6, Para 5-2-22. BEACON TERMINATION Inform an aircraft when you want it to turn off its transponder.

 

12.3.4.13 - ENTERING AN AERODROME TRAFFIC

CIRCUIT

b) JOIN [(direction of circuit)] (position in circuit) (runway

number) [SURFACE] WIND (direction and speed) (units)

[TEMPERATURE [MINUS] (number)] QNH (or QFE)

(number) [(units)] [TRAFFIC (detail)];

U.S. uses PHRASEOLOGY: ENTER LEFT/RIGHT BASE. STRAIGHT-IN. MAKE STRAIGHT-IN. STRAIGHT-IN APPROVED. RIGHT TRAFFIC. MAKE RIGHT TRAFFIC. RIGHT TRAFFIC APPROVED. CONTINUE. b. Runway in use. c. Surface wind. d. Altimeter setting. REFERENCE FAAO 7110.65, Current Settings, Para 2-7-1. e. Any supplementary information. f. Clearance to land. g. Requests for additional position reports. Use prominent geographical fixes which can be easily recognized from the air, preferably those depicted on sectional charts. This does not preclude the use of the legs of the traffic pattern as reporting points.

12.4.3.14 TO REQUEST LEVEL CONFIRM (level)

 

U.S. controllers would say “verify at (altitude)” and/or “verify assigned altitude.” 7110.65 Para, 5-2-17. 1. Issue the correct altimeter setting and confirm the pilot has accurately reported the altitude. PHRASEOLOGY- (Location) ALTIMETER (appropriate altimeter), VERIFY ALTITUDE.

12.4.2.5.8

MISSED APPROACH

  1. CONTINUE VISUALLY OR GO AROUND [missed approach

instructions];

 

US ATC does not allow conditional clearances described.

12.6.1 Alerting phraseologies

U.S. controllers would issue MEA/MVA/MOCA/MIA instead of QNH. 7110.65.

CHAPTER 13

AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE – CONTRACT (ADS-C) SERVICES

13.1 GENERAL

The provision of air traffic services to aircraft, based on information received from aircraft via ADS-C, is generally referred to as the provision of ADS-C services.

US ATC rules and requirements (7110.65) concerning ADS-C are not sufficiently matured and have no Doc 4444 Chapter 13 counterpart. 7110.65, Chapter 13, Decision Support Tools, Section 2, Ocean21 – Oceanic, addresses supportable functionality.

 

CHAPTER 14

CONTROLLER-PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC)

14.1 GENERAL

14.1.1 The CPDLC application provides a means of communication between the controller and pilot, using data link for ATC communication.

US ATC rules and requirements (7110.65T) concerning CONTROLLER-PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC) are addressed at 7110.65T, Ch 2, Para 13-2-4.

 

13-2-4. CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK

COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC)

 

CHAPTER 15

PROCEDURES RELATED TO EMERGENICES, COMMUNICATION FAILURE AND CONTINGENCIES

15.3.3

Air-Ground Communications Failure b) 1, 2

7110.65 defers to the AIM for what to expect an aircraft to do when loss of two-way communication has been encountered. The expectations in the AIM differ from what a pilot is expected to do in accordance with PANS-ATM 15.3.3 b) 1 and 2.

 

The U.S. does not specify a time that an aircraft would maintain its last assigned heading, speed, or altitude. PANS-ATM uses 20 min. in a non-radar environment and 7 min. in a radar environment.

15.3.10

If the aircraft has not reported within thirty minutes after:

  1. the estimated time of arrival furnished by the pilot;
  2. the estimated time of arrival calculated by the ACC; or
  3. the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is latest, pertinent information concerning the aircraft shall be forwarded to aircraft operators, or their designated representatives, and pilots-in-command of any aircraft concerned and normal control resumed if they so desire.

It is the responsibility of the aircraft operators, or their designated representatives, and pilots-in-command of aircraft to determine whether they will resume normal operations or take other action.

When neither communications nor radar contact can be established for 30 minutes (or prior, if appropriate), U.S. controllers will consider an aircraft overdue and will initiate overdue aircraft procedures including reporting to the ARTCC or AFSS.

15.1.3

Unlawful interference and aircraft bomb threat

U.S. has difference updated. 5-2-13, Code Monitor Note 1. & 2. “10-2-6 HIJACKED AIRCRAFT 10-2-6. HIJACKED AIRCRAFT
Hijack attempts or actual events are a matter of national security and require special handling. Policy and procedures for hijack situations are detailed in FAAO JO 7610.4, Special Operations. FAAO JO 7610.4 describes reporting requirements, air crew procedures, air traffic procedures and escort or interceptor procedures for hijack situations.
REFERENCE

FAAO JO 7610.4, Hijacked/Suspicious Aircraft Reporting and Procedures, Chapter 7.
FAAO 7110.65, Code Monitor, Para 5-2-13.

 

15.4.1

Strayed VFR flights and VFR flights encountering adverse meteorological conditions

Note.— A strayed aircraft is an aircraft which has deviated significantly from its intended track or which reports that

it is lost.

U.S. does not use the terms “strayed” or “unidentified” aircraft. 7110.65, Para 10-3-1. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT

15.7.1.1

Emergency Separation

The PANS-ATM states: “If, during an emergency situation, it is not possible to ensure that the applicable horizontal separation can be maintained, emergency separation of half the applicable vertical separation minimum may be used” Pilots must be advised that emergency separation is being applied and traffic information must be given.

 

There is no equivalent emergency separation procedure in the U.S.

15.7.3

Procedures in regard to aircraft equipped with airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS)

The U.S. uses traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS). U.S. controllers are not to issue control instructions that are contrary to the TCAS resolution advisory (RA) procedure that a crew member advises is being executed. U.S. orders speak to controller actions when advised of an aircraft responding to a resolution alert (RA).

APPENDIX 1

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AIR-REPORTING BY VOICE COMMUNICATIONS

AIREP Form of Air-report

 

U.S. uses Pilot Reports (UAs), or Urgent Pilot Reports (UUAs).

APPENDIX 2

FLIGHT PLAN

A2-5 Wake

ICAO aircraft wake turbulence categories (heavy, medium, light) and FAA weight classes (heavy, large, small) differ. Also, for landing aircraft, wake turbulence separation is defined differently. The U.S. makes special provisions for any aircraft landing behind a B-757 (4 miles for a large aircraft behind or 5 miles for a small aircraft behind).

A2-7 (Item 15)

U.S. ATS units do not accept cruising speeds nor filed altitudes/flight levels in metric terms. The U.S. accepts filed Mach Number expressed as M followed by 3 figures.

2.2 (Item 18)

The U.S. accepts the non-standard indicator IRMK/in filed flight plans.

APPENDIX 3

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES MESSAGES

1.1.1

See Part XI, ATS Messages, 1.3.

1.3 Composition of the standard types of message.

The composition of each standard type of message, expressed as a standardized sequence of fields of data, shall be as prescribed in the reference table on page A3-33. Each message shall contain all the fields prescribed.

1.6.2

See Part XII, Phraseologies, 2.8.

1.8.1 (Field

Type 3), (Field

Type 15), and

(Field Type 18).

See Appendix 2, Flight Plan, 2.2 (Item 15) and 2.2 (Item 18).

2.1, 2.4.5, 2.5

See Part XI, ATS Messages 1.3.

APPENDIX 4

AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORT

Appendix 4

U.S. has their accident/incident report in FAA Notice 8020.134.

APPENDIX 5

CONTROLLER-PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC) MESSAGE SET

Appendix 5

U.S. has no CPDLC message set.

APPENDIX 6

ATS INTERFACILITY DATA COMMUNICATIONS (AIDC) MESSAGES

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

7110.65; 8-2-3. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

INTERFACILITY DATA COMMUNICATIONS

(AIDC)

Where interfacility data communications capability has been implemented, its use for ATC coordination should be accomplished in accordance with regional Interface Control Documents, and supported by letters of agreement between the facilities concerned.

ANNEX 3 - METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE FOR INTERNATIONAL AIR NAVIGATION

PART I (Core SARPs)

Chapter 2

General Provisions

2.1.5

The United States has its own standards on the qualifications and training of meteorological personnel providing service for international air navigation.
The National Weather Service (NWS) has a goal to revise directives to be in compliance with WMO practices.

Chapter 3

World Area Forecast System and Meteorological Offices

3.4.2 g)

United States MWO's do not supply information received concerning the accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere to associated ACC/FIC.

 

Chapter 4

Meteorological Observations and Reports

4.3.2 a)

The United States does not issue local routine reports or local special reports. This difference is applicable to subsequent paragraphs that relate to the provision of local routine and special reports in Annex 3.

 

4.5.1 d)

This field is also used to denote a correction to the METAR/SPECI by “COR". This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

4.6.2.1

The United States reports visibility in statute miles. This is also applicable to Table A3-5, Ranges and resolution for numerical elements included in METAR and SPECI. This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

4.6.3.3

RVR values in the METAR/SPECI code forms are reported in feet (FT). This is also applicable to Table A3-5, Ranges and resolution for numerical elements included in METAR and SPECI. This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

4.6.3.4

U.S. practice is to report only the touchdown zone in the METAR. This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

4.6.4.4

The following weather elements are augmented manually at designated automated stations observation sites: FC, TS, GR, GS, and VA. At selected airports, additional present weather elements may be provided. With the exception of volcanic ash, present weather is reported when prevailing visibility is less than 7 statute miles or considered operationally significant. Volcanic ash is always reported when observed.

4.6.5.2

The U.S. does not observe clouds that are representative of the runway threshold(s) in use for local routine reports or local special reports.

4.6.7

The United States provides atmospheric pressure in inches of mercury. This is also applicable to Table A3-5, Ranges and resolution for numerical elements included in METAR and SPECI.

4.7

Practice is to use AUTO in the METAR/SPECI during operational hours of the aerodrome.

Chapter 5

Aircraft observations and reports

5.5

Urgent Pilot Reports (UUA) are used in lieu of Special Aircraft observations, to include Hail (GR, GS), Low Level Wind Shear (within 2000ft of surface), severe icing, severe extreme turbulence, tornado, funnel cloud or water spout (FC), and volcanic eruption and/or volcanic ash. In addition, Route Pilot Reports and UAA identify the location of the weather phenomenon by NAVAIDS.

Chapter 6

Forecasts

6.3.1

Landing forecasts are provided by the TAF.

6.3.3

The United States does not provide trend forecasts as part of the METAR or SPECI. This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI. This difference is also applicable to App 4 Sec 2 that defines `Criteria Related to Trend Forecasts'.

6.55 & 7.2
Part II, Appx 4
Part III, 
Appx 6: 2.1
Part III, 
Appx 8: 4.1.2

The United States provides an Area Forecast (FA) in place of a GAMET. AIRMETs are issued every 6 hours on a scheduled basis. The FA and AIRMET are valid from the surface to FL450. Specifically, the FA are issued three times a day in the United States. They are valid for a 12-hour period beginning 1 hour after issuance and have an 18-hour outlook. 
This is also applicable to 7.2.3 and App 5: 5.1.

Chapter 7

SIGMET and AIRMET Information, Aerodrome Warnings and Wind Shear Warnings

7.4.1

The United States does not provide wind shear warnings. The United States believes wind shear alerts are timelier to flight crews in landing and takeoff than wind shear warnings and thus provide a greater level of safety. In addition, the information is duplicative in nature in that wind shear warnings could be delayed while wind shear alerts are provided via automated systems that allow for immediate data link to flight crews through ATS systems.

This difference is also applicable to App 6: 6.2.

Chapter 9

Service for operators and flight crew members

9.2.3 & 9.2.4

United States meteorological offices have no means to communicate directly to flight crews if there is a divergence in the forecast from what is provided in the flight document folder.

9.3.3

United States meteorological offices have no means to provide updates to flight document folders or to contact the operator.

PART II

APPENDICES and ATTACHMENTS

APPENDIX 3

Technical specifications related to meteorological observations and reports

2.2

The United States does not use the term CAVOK in meteorological reports. This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

2.3

Practices require SPECI for wind shift when wind direction changes by 45 degrees or more in less than 15 minutes and the wind speed is 10 knots or more throughout the wind shift. 
Practices do not require SPECI for increases of mean surface wind speed. Practices require SPECI for squall, where squall is defined as a strong wind characterized by a sudden onset in which the wind speed increases at least 16 knots and is sustained at least 22 knots or more for at least one minute. Practices do not require SPECI for wind direction changes based on local criteria. SPECI are not prepared for the equivalents in feet of 150, 350, or 600 meters. United States military stations may not report a SPECI based on RVR.
Practices do not require SPECI for the onset, cessation or change in intensity of: freezing fog; moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers thereof); low drifting dust, sand or snow; blowing dust, sand or snow (including snowstorm); dust storm; or sandstorm. Practice provides a SPECI when a layer of clouds or obscurations aloft is present below 1000 ft and no layer aloft was reported below 1000 ft in the preceding report. A SPECI is also reported when the ceiling decreases or increases at these markers: 3000, 1500, 1000, 500 ft or lowest published instrument approach procedures.

2.3 e)

The U.S. does not issue local special report for wind speed changes of 2.5 m/s (5 kt) or more when noise abatement procedures are used. The U.S. does not issue local routine reports or local special reports.

2.3.3 c)

The U.S. does not issue SPECI for the equivalents in feet of 50, 175, 300, 550 or 600 meters. RVR is measured in increments of 100 feet up to 1,000 feet, increments of 200 feet from 1,000 feet to 3,000 feet, and increments of 500 feet above 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet. SPECI is made when the highest value from the designated RVR runway decreases to less than or if below, increases to equal or exceed 2,400 feet during the preceding 10 minutes.

3.1.4

Practice to disseminate SPECI for improving conditions as soon as possible after the observation.

4.1.1.2

The United States does not provide wind representatives for specific runways but does provide a wind representative for the airport.

4.1.3.1 b)

The United States provides a 2-minute average wind observation for the METAR/SPECI.

4.1.5

The wind direction may be considered variable if, during the 2-min evaluation period, the wind speed is 6 KT or less. Also, the wind direction shall be considered variable if, during the 2-min evaluation period, it varies by 60 deg or more when the wind speed is greater than 6 KT.
Practices define wind gusts as rapid fluctuations in wind speed with a variation of 10 knots or more between peaks and lulls. Wind speed data for the most recent 10 minutes is examined and a gust, the maximum instantaneous wind speed during that 10-minute period, is reported if the definition above is met during that period.

4.1.5.2c)1)

The U.S. does not issue local special report for wind speed changes of 2.5 m/s (5 kt) or more when noise abatement procedures are used. The U.S. does not issue local routine reports or local special reports.

4.2.4.4

The United States does not report the lowest visibility in lieu of prevailing visibility. The United States always reports prevailing visibility and does not report lowest visibility if the lowest visibility is different from prevailing visibility

4.3.4b)

The U.S. does not report in METAR or SPECI marked discontinuity values when RVR passes through values of 800, 550, 300 and 175 meters. The U.S. does not include in METAR or SPECI marked discontinuity in RVR values.

4.3.6

The United States reports RVR in increments of 100 feet up to 1,000 feet, increments of 200 feet from 1,000 feet to 3,000 feet, and increments of 500 feet above 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet. The United States reports RVR for a single designated runway in the METAR/SPECI. RVR tendency is not reported.

4.4.2.7

The practice with respect to the proximity indicator VC is between 5 to 10 statute miles from point of observation.

4.4.2.9

The U.S. does not use “//” to denote the present weather is missing at an automated observing site. The U.S. uses “PWINO” in the remarks section of the METAR and SPECI to denote the present weather is unavailable. Per FMH-1, the U.S. only uses slashes (solidi) for missing precipitation totals in the METAR.

4.5.3

Practice does not provide adjustments for runway thresholds more than 50 feet lower than aerodrome elevation.

4.5.4

The United States reports only up to 3 layers at automated sites and up to 6 layers at manual sites. Cloud layer amounts are a summation of layers at or below a given level, utilizing cumulative cloud amount. In addition, at automated sites, which are unstaffed, cloud layers above 12,000 ft are not reported. At staffed automated sites, clouds above 12,000 ft may be augmented. CAVOK and NSC are not used.
In addition, the United States does not use “///" when cloud type can not be observed; “NCD" when no clouds are detected; or “//////" for CB or TCU when not detected by automated observing systems. 
In the United States the symbol “///", when used in the cloud section of the METAR, refers to a mountain station where the layer is below the station level. This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

4.5.4.5d)

The U.S. does not use “///" to denote missing vertical visibility. The U.S. uses “CHINO", in the remarks section of the METAR, to denote that the Cloud Height Indicator system on the automated observation is unavailable. Per FMH-1, the U.S. only uses slashes (solidi) for missing precipitation totals in the METAR.

4.8

The United States has a Remarks Section that provides similar information. Wind shear is not included in the METAR/SPECI code form in the U.S remarks.
Practice is to not use RE and to use beginning and ending times in the remarks section for only recent precipitation and thunderstorms. Sea-surface temperature, the state of the sea and state of the runway are not provided in the METAR/SPECI code form in the U.S. Remarks.
This difference is also applicable to Table A3-2, METAR and SPECI.

 

APPENDIX 4

Technical specifications related to aircraft observations and reports

3.1.43

The United States MWOs do not issue special air reports.

APPENDIX 5

Technical specifications related to forecasts

1.2

Forecast visibility increments used consist of 1/4 mile from 0 (zero) to 1 mile, 1/2 mile from 1 to 2 miles, and 1 mile above 2 miles. Note: miles are statute miles.
Practice defines light winds as less than or equal to 6 knots for using VRB in TAF. Practices require forecast of non-convective low-level wind shear within 2,000 feet of the ground in the Optional Group.
The United States does not use CAVOK and NSC in the TAF. US practices do not include TCU in the TAF.

1.3

Change groups and amendment criteria below 1/2 statute mile (800 meters) are not used. The 100-foot (30 meter) change group and amendment criterion is not used. Practice requires TAF to be amended for a 30 degree change with an accompanying wind of 12 knots or greater; for a 10 knot wind increase only when the original was 12 knots or greater; and for a 10 knot wind gust, regardless of mean wind speed. The United States does not use the change indicator “BECMG”. Practice does not amend TAFs for moderate or heavy precipitation.

1.4

The United States does not use “PROB 40" in the TAF. “PROB 30" will not be used in the first nine (9) hours of every TAF's valid period, including amendments. This difference is also applicable to Table A5-1, Template for TAF.

Note also that Military TAFs do not use the “PROB" groups.

4.3

U.S. practices do require reporting of ISOL, OCNL or FREQ in accordance with the guidance on the use of the terms given in App 6. The United States reports “isolated" (ISOL) when the phenomena affect an area less than approximately 3,000 square miles or are widely separated in time, and widespread (WDSPR) to mean more than 50 percent of the area.

APPENDIX 6

Technical specifications related to SIGMET and AIRMET information, aerodrome warnings and wind shear warnings and alerts

1.1.3

SIGMET messages in the CONUS use VORs in place of lat/long and do not reference FIRs. SIGMETs are issued by alphanumeric series, e.g., Kilo 1, 2, 3 etc. In the conterminous U.S., convective SIGMETs are issued in lieu of SIGMETS for convection. They are issued as hourly bulletins for the East, Central, and Western United States and thus they do not indicate the FIR. Connective SIGMETs have an outlook section. This difference is also applicable to Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages.

1.1.4

Convective SIGMETs for the conterminous U.S. are issued with the non-standard WMO Header designator “WST" and use a lower criteria. Practices are to issue a SIGMET for mountain wave only when accompanied by severe turbulence. In addition, the U.S. does not issue a SIGMET for radioactive clouds. This difference is also applicable to Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages.

2.1.2, 
2.1.3

AIRMETs in the conterminous U.S. are issued as bulletins for the East, West, and Central U.S. in conjunction with area forecast turbulence, icing, and ceiling and visibility, and thus do not comply with template for FIR or series numbering format. This difference is also applicable to Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages.

2.1.4

AIRMET in the conterminous U.S. on a routine schedule for icing, turbulence, sustained surface winds, ceiling/visibility and convection. Practices do not include use of ISOL, OCNL or FRQ. This difference is also applicable to Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages. The U.S. does not include cloud amount or type in AIRMET.

4.2.1

U.S. practices do require reporting of ISOL, OCNL or FREQ in accordance with the guidance on the use of the terms given in App 6. The United States reports “isolated" (ISOL) when the phenomena affect an area less than approximately 3,000 square miles or are widely separated in time, and widespread (WDSPR) to mean more than 50 percent of the area.

4.2.9

The U.S. criteria for heavy sandstorm and dust storm is visibility less than or equal to 1/4 SM (400 m). The U.S. criteria for moderate sandstorm and dust storm is visibility greater than 1/4 SM and less than or equal to 1/2 SM (800 m).

5.1, 
5.1.3

The United States does provide for tsunamis in the aerodrome warning. The U.S. issues airport warning messages similar to the ICAO format (Table A6-2, Template for aerodrome warnings) only at selected airports based on a bilateral agreement between the airport authority and the NWS Forecast Office.

Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages, (Location)

The U.S. uses VORs instead of latitude and longitude to describe the area within a SIGMET and AIRMET over the CONUS and most of Alaska. 
The U.S. does not use the “entire FIR” when describing a SIGMET or AIRMET.

Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages, (Forecast position)

The U.S. does not include a specific forecast position for the end of the SIGMET and AIRMET validity time, other than TC and VA. Other than SIGMETs for TC and VA, U.S. SIGMETs and AIRMETs provide a forecast of the hazard for the entire validity period of the SIGMET and AIRMET.

Table A6-1, Template for SIGMET and AIRMET messages, (Level)

The U.S. does not use flight level (FL) when describing the altitudes in SIGMETs and AIRMETs except for those above FL180.

ANNEX 4 - AERONAUTICAL CHARTS

Chapter 1

Definitions

Air taxiway

The U.S. does not depict defined surfaces for air-taxiing of helicopters.

Final approach and take-off area (FATO)

The U.S. does not depict final approach and take-off areas (FATOs).

Prohibited area Restricted area

The U.S. will employ the terms “prohibited area” and “restricted area” substantially in accordance with the definitions established and, additionally, will use the following terms: “Alert area.” Airspace which may contain a high volume of pilot training activities or an unusual type of aerial activity, neither of which is hazardous to aircraft.

 

“Controlled firing area.” Airspace wherein activities are conducted under conditions so controlled as to eliminate the hazards to nonparticipating aircraft and to ensure the safety of persons and property on the ground.

 

“Warning area.” Airspace which may contain hazards to nonparticipating aircraft in international airspace.

 

“Maneuvering area.” This term is not used by the U.S.

 

“Military operations area (MOA).” An MOA is an airspace assignment of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established outside Class A airspace to separate/segregate certain military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted.

 

“Movement area.” Movement area is defined by the U.S. as the runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport which are utilized for taxiing, take-off, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramp and parking areas.

Touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF)

The U.S. does not use this term.

Chapter 1.1

Definitions

Aerodrome reference point

Airport Reference Point is the approximate geometric center of all usable runway surfaces.

Area Minimum Altitude

Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude (OROCA) used.

Air Transit Route

Term “Helicopter Route" used.

Arrival Routes

Arrival routes are also identified on Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR).

Danger Area

The term “danger area” will not be used in reference to areas within the U.S. or in any of its possessions or territories.

Flight Level

Flight level is related to a reference datum of 29.92 inches of mercury.

Glide Path

Glideslope is used instead of glide path.

Helicopter Stand

Helipad is used vice helicopter stand.

Minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA)

MOCA also assures acceptable navigational signal coverage within 22 NM of a VOR.

Minimum sector altitude

Minimum Sector Altitude is centered on the navigation facility upon which the procedure is predicated.

Missed approach point

Missed approach point based on acquiring the required visual reference.

Movement Area

Movement area also includes areas used by helicopters in taxiing. It does not include loading ramps or parking areas.

Obstacle

Obstacles may include terrain and objects of natural growth.

Obstacle clearance altitude (OCA) or Obstacle clearance height (OCH)

Decision Altitude and Decision Height used vice Obstacle Clearance Altitude and Obstacle Clearance Height.

Terminal arrival altitude (TAA)

Terminal Arrival Areas defined by the extension of the IAF legs and the intermediate segment course.

Touchdown zone

Touchdown zone is the first 3000 feet of the runway beginning at the threshold.

Visual approach procedure

Visual approach procedure is conducted on an IFR flight plan which authorizes the pilot to proceed visually and clear of clouds to the airport.

Chapter 1.2

Applicability

1.2.2

Charts vary in their conformance to ICAO Standards.

1.2.2.1

Charts vary in their conformance to ICAO Recommended Practices.

Chapter 2

General Specifications

2.1.7

Charts are True North oriented except as indicated.

2.1.8

Sheet size of charts varies dependent on chart type.

2.2.1

The marginal note layouts, in some cases, differ from those set forth in Appendices 1, 5, and 6.

2.3.1

Marginal note layouts vary by chart type

2.4

Symbols do not universally conform to Appendix 2.

2.4.1

Symbols do not universally conform to Appendix 2.

2.5.4

Linear dimensions are expressed in feet.

2.5.7

Conversion scales are not universally used.

2.6.2

Some charts have no linear scale.

2.9.2

Abbreviations used are from FAA Order JO JO 7340.2, not ICAO Doc 8400.

2.11

Color schemes differ by chart series.

2.12.2

Hypsometric tints differ by chart series.

2.14.1

Airspace depiction differs by chart.

2.15.4

Each aerodrome has its own magnetic variation assigned. IACC specifications require individually assigned magnetic variation values for each airport.

2.18.3.1

Julian Calendar is also used. Local times are used on select charts.

Chapter 3

Aerodrome Obstacle Chart - ICAO Type A (Operating Limitations)

3.1

This data is available digitally and is depicted on other individual flight products to which it is pertinent.

Chapter 4

Aerodrome Obstacle Chart - ICAO Type B

4.1

This data is available digitally and is depicted on other individual flight products to which it is pertinent.

Chapter 5

Aerodrome Obstacle Chart - ICAO Type C

5.1

This data is available digitally and is depicted on other individual flight products to which it is pertinent.

Chapter 6

Precision Approach Terrain Chart - ICAO

6.1

This data is available digitally and is depicted on other individual flight products to which it is pertinent.

Chapter 7

En Route Chart - ICAO

7.1

Simplified versions are not created.

7.6.2

Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude (OROCA) is shown.

7.7

Isogonic date not charted. Isogonic data always reflects the most recent 5 year epoch date

7.9.2

Danger Areas do not exist in the U.S. Warning Areas exist and are charted.

7.9.3.1.1

Coordinates are shown in degrees, minutes and hundredths of minutes. DME antenna elevation is not shown. Vertical limits of airspace are shown in tabulated data form. RNP values are not shown on routes. Coordinates of significant points are not shown. Bearings are shown to the nearest degree and distances to the nearest mile.

Chapter 8

Area Chart - ICAO

8.1

Area charts produced only where the amount of detail required results in congestion of information on an IFR Enroute Low Altitude chart.

8.3.1

Departure and Arrival routes are not shown.

8.6.2

Obstacles are not shown.

8.7

Magnetic Variation is not shown unless an isogonic line runs through the area.

8.8.1

Bearings and tracks are not provided as True values. IACC specifications do not accommodate nor require True values.

8.8.2

Bearings and tracks are not provided as true values.

8.9.1

Only airports shown are those with hard surface runways of 3000 feet or longer and/or with an Instrument Approach Procedure.

8.9.2

Danger Areas do not exist in the U.S. Warning Areas exist and are charted.

8.9.3

Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude (OROCA) is shown.

8.9.4.1.1

Coordinates are shown in degrees, minutes and hundredths of minutes. DME antenna elevation is not shown. Vertical limits of airspace are shown in tabulated data form. Terminal routings are not shown. Coordinates of significant points are not shown. Bearings are shown to the nearest degree and distances to the nearest mile. Minimum vectoring altitudes are not shown.

Chapter 9

Standard Departure Chart - Instrument (SID) - ICAO

9.2

Charts are provided only when a procedure has been established.

9.3.2

Charts are not generally drawn to scale.

9.3.3

Scale bar is not shown.

9.4.2

Parallels and meridians are not shown.

9.4.3

Graduation marks are not shown.

9.5

Procedure route is identified in accordance with FAA Order 8260.46

9.6.1

Culture and topography are not shown.

9.6.2

Contour relief is not shown. Obstacles are listed textually.

9.7

Magnetic variation is not shown.

9.8.1

Bearings and tracks are not provided as True values. IACC specifications do not accommodate nor require True values.

9.8.2

Bearings and tracks are not provided as True values.

9.9.2

Danger Areas do not exist in the U.S. Warning Areas exist and are charted.

9.9.3.1

Minimum Sector Altitude is not shown.

9.9.3.2

Area minimum altitudes are not shown.

9.9.4.1.1

Coordinates for NAVAIDs and Significant Points are shown in degrees, minutes and hundredths of minutes. Bearings are shown to the nearest degree and distances to the nearest mile. DME antenna elevation is not shown. Obstacles are depicted textually with position and height, and without regard for penetration of OIS. Minimum vectoring altitudes are not shown.

Chapter 10

Standard Arrival Chart - Instrument (STAR) - ICAO

10.2

Charts are provided only when a procedure has been established.

10.3.2

Charts are not generally drawn to scale.

10.3.3

Scale bar is not shown.

10.4.2

Parallels and meridians are not shown.

10.4.3

Graduation marks are not shown.

10.5

Procedure route is identified in accordance with FAA Order JO 7100.9

10.6.1

Culture and topography are not shown.

10.6.2

Contour relief is not shown. Obstacles are listed textually.

10.7

Magnetic variation is not shown.

10.8.1
10.8.2

Bearings and tracks are not provided as True values.

10.9.1.1

Airports are shown by symbol vice pattern.

10.9.2

Danger areas are not shown. Vertical limits are not shown.

10.9.3.1

Minimum Sector Altitude is not shown.

10.9.3.2

Area minimum altitudes are not shown.

10.9.4.1.1

Bearings are shown to the nearest degree and distances to the nearest mile. Coordinates for NAVAIDs and Significant Points are shown in degrees, minutes and hundredths of minutes. DME antenna elevation is not shown. Minimum vectoring altitudes are not shown.

Chapter 11

Instrument Approach Chart - ICAO

11.3.3

Scale is not shown.

11.3.3.1

Distance circle is not shown.

11.3.3.2

Distance between components and between last component and runway shown.

11.4

Sheet size is 8.25 inches by 5.375 inches

11.5.2

Graduation marks are not shown.

11.7.1

Culture information is not shown. Shaded hydrographic features are shown, but not labeled.

11.7.2

Terrain charting criteria does not include approach gradient steeper than optimal due to terrain.

11.7.3

Terrain is not charted if Std 11.7.2 is not met.

11.8.1

Magnetic variation is shown only in areas of compass instability and on charts North of 67 degrees of latitude.

11.10.1.1

Only airports specifically requested for charting are shown.

11.10.1.2

Only airports specifically requested for charting are shown.

11.10.2.2

Obstacles that are the determining factor for an OCA/OCH are not necessarily shown.

11.10.2.7

Absence of obstacle free zones are not shown.

11.10.3

Danger Areas do not exist in the U.S. Warning Areas exist and are charted.

11.10.4.3

Geographic final approach fix coordinates are not shown.

11.10.5

Minimum Safe Altitudes vice Minimum Sector Altitudes. Terminal Arrival Areas vice Terminal Arrival Altitude.

11.10.6.1

Arrowed dotted line is used for MA track. Arrowed dashed line used for Visual track. Times required for the procedure are not shown.

11.10.6.2

Distance to airport from final approach NAVAID is not shown.

11.10.6.3

Missed approach segment is shown by arrowed, dotted line. Arrowed, dashed line is used for visual segments. Times required for the procedure are not shown. Distance between components is shown vice a distance scale.

11.10.6.4

Parentheses are not shown.

11.10.6.5

Ground profile and shaded altitude blocks are not shown.

11.10.7.1

Procedure landing minima are shown vice aerodrome operating minima.

11.10.7.2

Decision Altitude/Height (DA/H) shown vice OCA/H.

11.10.8.2

Altitude/height table is not shown.

11.10.8.3

Altitude/height table is not shown.

11.10.8.4

Rate of descent table is not shown on individual plates, but a combined climb/descent table is available digitally or with printed procedure publication.

11.10.8.5

Descent gradient not shown, threshold crossing height shown in feet, vertical descent angle shown to hundredths of a degree.

11.10.8.6

Threshold crossing height shown in feet. Descent angle shown to the nearest hundredth of a degree.

11.10.8.8

Cautionary note is dependent on multiple criteria.

Chapter 12

Visual Approach Chart - ICAO

12.2

Chart provided only when visual approach procedure has been established.

12.3.3

Charts are shown at scale of 1:250,000, IAPs at 1:500,000 or smaller.

12.4

Sheet size is 8.25 inches by 5.375 inches.

12.5.2

Graduation marks are not shown

12.8

Magnetic variation is shown only in areas of compass instability and on charts North of 67 degrees of latitude.

12.9.3

Grid meridian is not shown.

12.10.2.3

Height of obstacle above Mean Sea Level is shown.

12.10.2.3.1

Datum height not shown. Parentheses are not shown.

12.10.3

Danger areas do not exist in the U.S. Warning areas exist and are charted. Vertical limits are not shown.

12.10.4

Control zones and Traffic zones are not shown.

12.10.5.3

VASI, MEHT, and angle of displacement are not shown.

Chapter 13

Aerodrome/Heliport Chart - ICAO

13.1

Helicopter movement is supported only with the location of helipads.

13.3.2

Latitude and longitude graticules are shown vice linear scale.

13.6.1

Latitude and longitude graticules are shown vice geographical coordinates. Airport elevations and runway end elevations are shown. Runway length and width are shown in feet. Clearways are not shown. Taxiways and identification only are shown. Standard taxi routes are not shown. Boundaries of air traffic service are not shown. RVR observation sites are not shown. Approach and runway lighting are not shown. VASI systems are not shown. VOR checkpoint and frequency are not shown.

13.6.2 
Elevated 
helidecks, etc.

Helicopter pads only are shown. Touchdown and liftoff areas are not shown. Final approach and takeoff areas are not shown. Safety areas are not shown. Clearways are not shown. Visual aids are not shown. Declared distances are not shown.

Chapter 14

Aerodrome Ground Movement Chart - ICAO

14.1

Chart is not produced.

Chapter 15

 

15.1

Chart is not produced.

Chapter 16

World Aeronautical Chart – ICAO 1:1 000 000

16.3.1

Linear scales are shown in the following order: nautical miles, statute miles, kilometers.

16.4.3

Charts are folded in eleven vertical panels and one horizontal fold.

16.5.1

Standard parallels are for each 8 degrees and are shown 1 degree and 20 minutes in from the Northern and Southern edges of the chart. Charts are not produced above 80 degrees latitude.

16.5.2

Distance between parallels is 1 degree. Above 56 degrees North, latitude graduation marks are shown only on every even degree of longitude. Distance between longitude meridians is 1 degree. Above 64 degrees North, meridian graduation marks are shown every 5 minutes.

16.5.3.1

Lengths of interval marks are as follow: 1 minute - .045 inches; 5 minutes - .065 inches; 10 minutes - .10 inches on both sides.

16.6

Chart numbering is indicated on Title Panel chart index.

16.7.2.2

Tunnels, if possible, are shown wherever they exist.

16.7.3.2

Roads are not shown within outlined populated areas.

16.7.9.2

Coordinates shown to the nearest minute.

16.7.10.1

Notes will read `Relief data incomplete' or `Limits of reliable relief information.'

16.7.12.1

Wooded areas are not shown.

16.7.13

Date of topographic information is not shown.

16.8.2

Date of isogonic information is shown in the chart legend.

16.9.2.2

Other than hard surface runways are shown by symbol.

16.9.3.1

Obstacles greater than 500 feet are shown.

16.9.4

Danger Areas do not exist in the U.S. Alert Areas, Military Operating Areas and Warning Areas are also shown.

16.9.7.1

Only aeronautical ground lights that operate continuously are shown.

16.9.7.2

Only marine lights that operate year round, with a range of at least 10 NM, and are omnidirectional are shown.

Chapter 17

Aeronautical Chart – ICAO 1:500 000

17.3.1

Linear scales are shown in the following order: nautical miles, statute miles, kilometers.

17.4.3

Charts are folded in eleven vertical panels and one horizontal fold.

17.4.4

Relationship of chart to WAC series is not shown.

17.5.4.1

The 10 minute interval mark is .10 inches on both sides of the graticule line.

17.6.1.1

Relationship of chart to WAC series is not shown.

17.7.2.2

Tunnels, if possible, are shown wherever they exist. Prominent tunnels are shown pictorially.

17.7.3.1

Roads are shown for radar and visual value and for distinct configurations that provide visual checkpoint value.

17.7.9.2

Coordinates are shown to the nearest minute.

17.7.10.1

Notes will read `Relief data incomplete' or `Limits of reliable relief information.'

17.7.12.1

Wooded areas are not shown.

17.7.13

Date of topographic information is not shown.

17.8.2

Date of isogonic information is shown in the chart legend.

17.9.2.2

Other than hard surface runways are shown by symbol.

17.9.3.1

Obstacles greater than 200 feet are shown, except in built up areas where only those greater than 300 feet are shown.

17.9.4

Danger areas do not exist in the U.S. Alert Areas, Military Operations Areas, and Warning Areas are also shown.

17.9.7.1

Only aeronautical ground lights that operate continuously are shown.

17.9.7.2

Only marine lights that operate year round, with a range of at least 10 NM, and are omnidirectional are shown.

Chapter 18

Aeronautical Navigation Chart — ICAO Small Scale

18.1

Chart is not produced.

Chapter 19

Plotting Chart - ICAO

19.1

Chart is not produced.

Chapter 20

Electronic Aeronautical Chart Display — ICAO

20.1

Charts provided digitally to operators. Digital charts mimic paper products described above and may not be modified.

Chapter 21

ATC Surveillance Minimum Altitude Chart — ICAO

21.1

Minimum Vectoring Altitude charts are available in electronic format only.

Appendix 6

Aeronautical Data Quality Requirements

Table 5. Bearing used for the formation of an en route and of a terminal fix

Whole degree resolution in charting of bearing used for formation of an en route and terminal fix.

Table 5. Bearing used for the formation of an instrument approach fix

Whole degree resolution in charting of bearing used for formation of an instrument approach procedure fix.

Table 6. (Length/ distance/
dimension
Distance used for the formation of an en route fix

Whole NM resolution in charting of distance used for formation of an en route fix.

Table 6. (Length/ distance/
dimension
Distance used for formation of an terminal and instrument approach procedure fix

Whole NM resolution in charting of distance used for formation of an Arrival or Departure fix.

ANNEX 5 - UNITS OF MEASUREMENT TO BE USED IN AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS

Chapter 3

Standard application of units of measurement

3.2.2 
Table 3-3 
Table 3-4

Table 3-4 Ref 1.12, runway length and Ref 1.13 runway visual range, unit of measure is in feet.
Table 3-4 Ref 1.16, visibility unit of measure is statute miles (SM).
Table 3-4 Ref 3.2, altimeter setting, unit of measure is reported as inches of mercury.
Table 3-4, Ref 3.3, atmospheric pressure, unit of measure is in inches of mercury.

Attachment B

Guidance on the application of System of Units (SI)

5.4.2

Specifications differ from Attachment B, Style and usage, Para 5.4 Numbers. Comma is not acceptable as a decimal marker. Comma is used to separate digits in groups of three.

ANNEX 6 - OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT

Part I

Chapter 1

Definitions

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

For CAT I, the United States requires a decision height of not less than 200 feet and either visibility of not less than one-half mile ra runway visual range of 2400 (RVR) 1800 feet with operative touchdown zone and runway center line lights. CAT II provide approaches to minima of less than 200 feet decision height/2400 feet runway visual range to as low as 100 feet decision height/1200 feet runway visual range. CAT IIIB the criteria are the same as Appendix 6, however, the runway visual range is expressed in feet and less than 700 feet (200m) but no less than 150 feet (50m).

Chapter 2

Applicability

Chapter 2 Reference 2.1.1

The U.S. does not give operational credit to EFVS on a head down display.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.1.2

In the U.S., while straight-in instrument approach procedures using EFVS may be conducted in visibility conditions that are less than that specified for an approach using “natural vision,” the U.S. regulations do not provide lower minima. The minima for CAT I ILS, APV, and non-precision approaches using EFVS remains the same whether the approach is conducted using natural vision or conducted using EFVS. If natural vision is used to operate below DA/MDA, then U.S. regulations require that the flight visibility observed by the pilot from the cockpit be less than what is prescribed in the instrument approach procedure. If EFVS is used, then the enhanced flight visibility observed by using the EFVS cannot be less than that prescribed by the instrument approach procedure. EFVS simply provides another means of operating visually in the visual segment between DA/MDA down to 100 ft. above touchdown zone elevation.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.1.2

U.S. regulations only permit operational credit for EFVS on a HUD or an equivalent display. An equivalent display is a display that provides EFVS sensor imagery and aircraft flight symbology on some type of “head up” presentation, such as a head mounted, etc. The U.S. does not give operational credit to EFVS on a head down display. U.S. regulations currently do not require a repeater display for the non-flying pilot.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.1

U.S. regulations do not require training for Part 91 operators (except for Part 91 Subpart K operators), nor do they address recency of experience for those operators. Training is required, however, for Parts 121, 125, 129, 135, and 91 Subpart K operators.

Chapter 3

General

Chapter 3 Reference

3.2.4

The guidance discusses how the maximum diversion time should not exceed the time limited system. The United States agrees with this guidance, however, the Annex language allows for diversions in excess of the time limited system.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.2.9

The U.S. does not mandate a safety management system.

Chapter 3 Reference

3.3.1.2.1 a)

That operator will need to have a specific approval to be further than 60 minutes to an en-route alternate aerodrome (calculated at in ISA conditions…). Delete “at” in the sentence.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.3.5

The U.S. currently does not have an SMS requirement.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.3.6

The U.S. Flight Quality Assurance Program is a voluntary program.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.3.7

The U.S. Flight Quality Assurance Program is a voluntary program.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.3.9

The U.S. currently does not have an SMS requirement.

Chapter 4

Flight Operations

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.2.3

U.S. regulations exempt a single pilot in a 9-or-less seating configuration operation from having a maintenance manual. Rather, U.S. regulations (CFR 135.411) require a single pilot to comply with the maintenance requirements in CFR 91 and 43 in lieu of a maintenance manual or program.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.10.1

The U.S. does not require single engine aeroplanes, commuter and on-demand operators to maintain fuel and oil records.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.10.2

For multiengine aeroplanes, commuter and on-demand operators are required to maintain fuel and oil records as part of the load manifest for 30 days rather than 3 months. For single engine aeroplanes, commuter and on-demand operators are not required to maintain fuel and oil records.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.11.5

The U.S. does not have a requirement to main cosmic radiation dose records.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.2

For multiengine, aeroplanes, commuter and on-demand operators are required to maintain fuel and oil records as part of the load manifest for 30 days rather than 3 months. For single engine aeroplanes, commuter and on-demand operators are not required to maintain fuel and oil records.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.4.1.2

The FAA treats takeoff alternates differently. Take off alternate: for airplanes with 3 or more engines SP/59/4.1 states that the take-off alternate aerodrome must be located within the following flight time distance from the aerodrome of departure: two hours of flight time at an all-engine operating cruising speed, determined from the aircraft operating manual, calculated in ISA and still-air conditions using the actual take-off mass. FAR 121.617 states 2 hours at normal cruising speed with one engine inoperative.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.4.3

The FAA treats “separate runways” differently.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.4.3.1

  1. 2) states that for a flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules, at least one destination alternate aerodrome must be selected and specified in the operational and ATS flight plans, unless:…separate runways are usable at the estimated time of use of the destination aerodromes with at least one runway have an operational instrument approach procedure; Note 1.- Separate runways are two or more runways at the same aerodrome configured such if one runway is closed, operations to the other runway(s) can be conducted.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.4.3.2

The FAA does not allow for dispatch to an airport if airport ETA is forecast below minimums, even if two alternates are listed.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.4.4

The FAA does not currently require a Safety Risk Assessment.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.5.2

Requires destination airport to be at or above landing minima, which conflicts with 4.3.4.3.2 U.S. regulations have no such conflict.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.6.3

The ICAO document uses “contingency fuel” and contingency fuel is defined in the proposed text, but not in the definition section. The FAA believes the term “contingency fuel” should be defined in the definition section.

 

d) 3) SP 59.4.1 states that destination alternate fuel is defined as “3) where a flight is operated without a destination alternate aerodrome, the amount of fuel required to enable the aeroplane to fly for 15 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1,500 ft) above destination aerodrome elevation in standard conditions.” FAR 121.645 require fuel for 10% of the time from origin to destination which may or may not be the same as holding for 15 minutes at 1500 feet; the FAA does not require 15 minutes of holding fuel if there is no listed alternate.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.6.3.1

The United States does not require fuel to execute the approach and a missed approach at the destination airport. The United States requires an addition 10% reserve for Flag and Supplemental operations. For commuter and on-demand operations 45 minutes fuel is required after flying to the alternate rather than ICAO Standard of 30 minutes at 1,500 feet.

Chapter Reference 4.3.6.3.2

The fuel reserve requirements for commuter and on-demand operations are expressed in terms of flight time and do not include a specific altitude requirement.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.6.3

The ICAO document uses “contingency fuel” and contingency fuel is defined in the proposed text, but not in the definition section. The FAA believes the term “contingency fuel” should be defined in the definition section.

 

d) 3) SP 59.4.1 states that destination alternate fuel is defined as “3) where a flight is operated without a destination alternate aerodrome, the amount of fuel required to enable the aeroplane to fly for 15 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1,500 ft) above destination aerodrome elevation in standard conditions.” FAR 121.645 require fuel for 10% of the time from origin to destination which may or may not be the same as holding for 15 minutes at 1500 feet; the FAA does not require 15 minutes of holding fuel if there is no listed alternate.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.6.4

Except for ETOPS operations, the U.S. does not require operators to compute fuel requirements for loss of pressurization.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.6.6

The FAA does not currently require a Safety Risk Assessment.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.7.1

An operator must establish policies and procedures, approved by the State of the Operator, to ensure that in-flight fuel checks and fuel management are performed.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.7.2

The pilot-in-command must continually ensure that the amount of usable fuel remaining on board is not less than the fuel required to proceed to an aerodrome where a safe landing can be made with the planned final reserve fuel remaining upon landing.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.7.2.1

The pilot-in-command must request delay information from ATC when unanticipated circumstances may result in landing at the destination aerodrome with less than the final reserve fuel plus any fuel required proceeding to an alternate aerodrome or the fuel required to operate to an isolated aerodrome.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.7.2.2

The pilot-in-command must advise ATC of a minimum fuel state by declaring MINIMUM FUEL when, having committed to land at a specific aerodrome, the pilot calculates that any change to the existing clearance to that aerodrome may result in landing with less than planned final reserve fuel.

 

Note 1.—The declaration of MINIMUM FUEL informs ATC that all planned aerodrome options have been reduced to a specific aerodrome of intended landing and any change to the existing clearance may result in landing with less than planned final reserve fuel. This is not an emergency situation but an indication that an emergency situation is possible should any additional delay occur.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.3.7.2.3

The pilot-in-command must declare a situation of fuel emergency by broadcasting MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL, when the calculated usable fuel predicted to be available upon landing at the nearest aerodrome where a safe landing can be made is less than the planned final reserve fuel.

 

Note 1.—The planned final reserve fuel refers to the value calculated in 4.3.6.3 e) 1) or 2) and is the minimum amount of fuel required upon landing at any aerodrome.

 

Note 2.—The words, “MAYDAY FUEL” describe the nature of the distress conditions as required in Annex 10, Volume II, 5.3.2.1, b) 3.

 

Note 3.—Guidance on procedures for in-flight fuel management are contained in the Fuel Planning Manual (Doc xxxx)

 

The proposed section 4.7.2.3 does not require that airplanes with more than two turbine engines be certified to extended diversion time operations (EDTO) requirements, as is required for airplanes with two turbine engines. In the United States, amendment number 121-329 (72 FR 1808) to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 extended most requirements previously applicable only to 14 CFR part 121 two-engine airplanes to 14 CFR part 121 passenger-carrying three- and four-engine airplane operations for airplanes manufactured on or after February 17, 2015 (reference 14 CFR 121.162).

 

Omission of these EDTO requirements for airplanes with more than two turbine engines from the ICAO standard will result in a significant difference from FAA regulations.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.8.2

The U.S. requires descent within four minutes to 14,000 ft not 13,000 ft, in the event of loss of pressurization. For commuter and on-demand operations, the descent altitude is 15,000 ft.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.7.2.2

Under the proposed standard, the maximum diversion time be set by the State of the Operator. The U.S. has set time limits. The problem with having a bunch of different time limits is that some will be very conservative, some will be very liberal. The safety margins will be different.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.7.2.3.1

The ICAO document allows for diversion times that exceed the time limits of the most time-limited system if a specific safety risk assessment is made. 14 CFR 121.633 goes the other direction. 121.633 take the most-time limited system and subtract 15 minutes. The U.S. philosophy differs significantly from the ICAO proposal.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.7.3.2

  1. requires when approving the appropriate maximum diversion time for an operator, the State of the Operator must ensure that“for all aeroplanes: the most limiting EDTO significant system time limitation, if any, indicated in the Aeroplane Flight Manual (directly or by reference) and relevant to that particular operation is not exceeded.”However, section 4.7.2.3.1 states“Notwithstanding the provisions in 4.7.2.3 a); the State of the Operator may, based on the results of a specific safety risk assessment conducted by the operator which demonstrates how an equivalent level of safety will be maintained, approve operations beyond the time limits of the most time limited system.”A note at the end of this section states that guidance for the specific safety risk assessment is contained in Attachment D of the document.
    This provision would allow operations beyond the certified limits by effectively allowing an operational exemption from the requirement to plan routes to stay within the time-limited systems capabilities defined in the airplane flight manual. This provision could result in a much degraded level of safety.
    14 CFR 121.633(a) states“For [Extended Operations (ETOPS)] up to and including 180 minutes, no person may list an airport as an ETOPS Alternate Airport in a dispatch or flight release if the time needed to fly to that airport (at the one-engine inoperative cruise speed under standard conditions in still air) would exceed the approved time for the airplane's most limiting ETOPS Significant System (including the airplane's most limiting fire suppression system time for those cargo and baggage compartments required by regulation to have fire-suppression systems) minus 15 minutes."For ETOPS beyond 180 minutes, 14 CFR 121.633(b) has additional requirements.
    There is no provision within 14 CFR part 121 for planning a route that would exceed the airplane's most limiting system's time capability. The ICAO proposal will result in a significant difference from FAA regulations. Regarding the criteria that the standard would require to be included in the specific safety risk assessment and the guidance provided in Attachment D, we have the following comments:
    1. Such an assessment may be beyond the technical capabilities of an operator to perform because of the need for detailed analysis of reliability data that only the manufacturer has the expertise and knowledge to conduct.
    2. The guidance provided in Attachment D is not specific enough to ensure that an adequate safety risk assessment would be conducted.

Chapter 4 Reference

4.7.3.2

(continued)

c. Paragraph 3.1.2.4 c) of Attachment D (page B-19) says the reliability of each time limited system refers to quantifiable standards of design, testing and monitoring that ensure the reliability of each particular EDTO significant time-limited system. The FAA position is that the relevant safety criteria must be that one would not need to use the time-limited system during the period of the flight where the airplane would be beyond the system's time capability. For example, a Class C cargo compartment fire suppression system is the most common ETDO significant time-limited system. Having the need to suppress a fire beyond the time capability of the fire suppression system would be a potentially catastrophic event. Any proposal to operate beyond the time capability of the cargo fire suppression system would need to include an analysis or process to ensure that the cargo fire suppression system would never be needed during that time. For example, such a proposal would include an operational requirement that no materials that could burn are permitted in any compartment for which the cargo fire suppression system does not have sufficient capability for the route being flown. Therefore, the reliability of the system is not relevant under such circumstances.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.9.2

The U.S. allows turbo-jets that are certificated for single pilot operations.

Chapter 5

Aeroplane performance operating limitations

Chapter 5 Reference 5.2.8.1

The United States does not have specific regulations that require the loss of Runway length be considered due to alignment of the airplane prior to takeoff. However, the United States does within its aircraft certification regulations require aircraft performance be determined by using the point on the runway where takeoff is started when computing takeoff distance. This same criteria is used when computing runway available for accelerate/stop distance. Accounting for runway loss due to alignment is done within each air carrier’s approved operations manual.

Chapter 5 Reference 5.4.1

The U.s. does not require turbine engine reliability to have a power loss rate of less than 1 per 100,000 engine hours, a radio altimeter, two attitude indicators, airborne weather radar, a certified navigation system to identify aerodromes as forced landing areas, or an engine fire warning system.

Chapter 5 Reference 5.4.2

The U.S. does not require an automatic trend monitoring system on aeroplanes certificated after 1 January 2005.

Chapter 6

Aeroplane instruments, equipment and flight documents

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.2

The U.S. does not require an ELT unless operated over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.3

The U.S. does not require an ELT unless operated over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.4

The U.S. does not require an ELT unless operated over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.5

The U.S. does not require an ELT unless operated over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.19.2

The U.S. does not require pressure altitude information with a resolution of 25 feet or better.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.19.3

The U.S. does not require pressure altitude information with a resolution of 25 feet or better.

6.2.2.2

Chapter 6 Rec.

The United States does not specifically require a universal precaution kit.

6.2.2.2

Chapter 6 Rec. Note

The United States does not specifically require the following items to be carried in a first-aid kit: antiemetic, antacid, burn dressing, tweezers, or thermometers.

6.2.2.2

Chapter 6 Rec. Note

The United States does not specifically require the following items to be carried in an emergency medical kit: adrenocortical steroid, antiemetic, diuretic, emergency tracheal catheter, medication for postpartum bleeding, oral beta blocker, thermometer, umbilical cord clamp, urinary catheter, venous catheter.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.1.2

The United States does not classify FDRs as “type 1” or “type II,” rather the United States requires that specific data parameters must be recorded on certain aeroplanes considering the original type certification dates of the aeroplane.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.5.1

The United States does not require flight data recorders that record the referenced parameters for all aircraft meeting this weight criterion. For turbine engine powered aeroplanes having a seating capacity of 10-19 seats that were registered in the U.S. prior to 11 October 1991 are exempt from this requirement.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.1

The U.S. does not require a time piece.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.2

The United States does not require aeroplanes on VFR flights, when operated as controlled flights, to be equipped in accordance with the requirements for aeroplanes operated under instrument flight rules.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.1

Seaplanes are not required to have equipment for making the sound signals prescribed in the International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea. Seaplanes are not required to be equipped with sea anchor.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.5.3.1

The United States defines extended over water operations for aircraft other than helicopters as an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest shoreline.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.12

The United States does not require equipment to measure cosmic radiation.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.15.6

The U.S. does not require ground prox systems for piston powered airplanes.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.7

The U.S. does not require an ELT for scheduled air carrier operations conducted by scheduled operations, unless the scheduled operation is operated over water or remote areas. The U.S. only requires one ELT on flights over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.8

The U.S. does not require an ELT for scheduled air carrier operations conducted by scheduled operations, unless the scheduled operation is operated over water or remote areas. The U.S. only requires one ELT on flights over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.9

The U.S. does not require an ELT for scheduled air carrier operations conducted by scheduled operations, unless the scheduled operation is operated over water or remote areas. The U.S. only requires one ELT on flights over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.10

The U.S. does not require an ELT for scheduled air carrier operations conducted by scheduled operations, unless the scheduled operation is operated over water or remote areas. The U.S. only requires one ELT on flights over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.17.11

The U.S. does not require an ELT for scheduled air carrier operations conducted by scheduled operations, unless the scheduled operation is operated over water or remote areas. The U.S. only requires one ELT on flights over water or remote areas.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.18.3

The United States does not equire all piston engine airplanes to have TCAS.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.19.2

The U.S. does not require pressure altitude information with a resolution of 25 feet or better.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.19.3

The U.S. does not require pressure altitude information with a resolution of 25 feet or better.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.20

The United States does not require crewmembers on flight deck duty to communicate through boom or throat microphones below the transition level/altitude.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.22

The U.S. requires an autopilot for IFR passenger operations, not for VFR or cargo operations. A) The U.S. does not require a boom microphone. B) The U.S. requires charts be available and used.

Chapter 7

Aeroplane communication and navigation equipment

Chapter 7 Reference 7.2.7

The U.S. will publish guidance for compliance with this regulation.

Chapter 8

Aeroplane Maintenance

Chapter 8 Reference 8.1.3

The person signing the maintenance release must have a CFR 65 certificate.

Chapter 8 Reference 8.4.2

The United States requires that records of work be retained until the work is repeated, superseded by other work or for one year after the work is performed, but does not require the records be retained after the unit has been permanently withdrawn from service.

Chapter 8 Reference 8.7.1.1

Left Intentionally Blank

Chapter 8 Reference 8.7.3.4

The U.S. currently does not have an SMS requirement.

Chapter 8 Reference 8.7.3.5

The U.S. currently does not have an SMS requirement.

Chapter 9

Aeroplane flight crew

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.2.1

The U.S. does not have currency requirements for cruise relief pilots.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.2.2

The U.S. does not have currency requirements for cruise relief pilots.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.3.2

The United States requires air carrier pilots “before beginning a flight become familiar with all available information concerning the flight.” It does not require the pilot to demonstrate this knowledge.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.3.5

The U.S. does not restrict operators from using a pilot as a pilot-in-command on a route where the pilot has not, within the preceding 12 months, made at least one trip between the terminal points of that route as a pilot member of the flight crew, or as an observer on the flight deck except for special areas and airports.
A list of U.S. Special airports may be found at the following link:
http://fsims.faa.gov/PICDetail.aspx?docId=AD20682A64001B6686257B71005E5B74

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.3.6

The U.S. does not have an area/route 12 month currency requirement for pilots in command, except for special areas and airports.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.4.1

For PICs, the U.S. requires 1 proficiency checks per 12 months and either proficiency check or an approved simulator training course, for SICs, the U.S. requires 1 proficiency check each 24 months and another proficiency check or an approved simulator training course every 12 months.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.5.2

The U.S. does not require specific experience requirements for single pilot operations at night or during IFR operations.

Chapter 9 Reference

9.5

A specific requirement that a spare set of suitable correcting spectacles be kept readily available when exercising the privilege of the license is not established.

Chapter 13

Security

Chapter 13 Reference 13.6.1

The United States is currently developing regulations.

Attachment J

Head-up displays (HUD) and enhanced vision system (EVS)

Attachment J, Introduction – terminology for EVS

The U.S. uses the term Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) to mean a system that qualifies for operational credit. The term EFVS means a system that does not qualify for operational credit.

Attachment J, Introduction – EVS and lower minima

In the U.S., while straight-in instrument approach procedures using EFVS may be conducted in visibility conditions that are less than that specified for an approach using “natural vision,” the U.S. regulations do not provide lower minima. The minima for CAT I ILS, APV, and non-precision approaches using EFVS remains the same whether the approach is conducted using natural vision or conducted using EFVS. If natural vision is used to operate below DA/MDA, then U.S. regulations require that the flight visibility observed by the pilot from the cockpit be less than what is prescribed in the instrument approach procedure. If EFVS is used, then the enhanced flight visibility observed by using the EFVS cannot be less than that prescribed by the instrument approach procedure. EFVS simply provides another means of operating visually in the visual segment between DA/MDA down to 100 ft. above touchdown zone elevation.

Amendment 35

b) not be of a type listed in Annex A, Group II of the Montreal Protocol on Substance that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 8th Edition, 2009.

PART II

Section I

General

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Total vertical error (TVE)-- The Untied States does not have a corresponding defined term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Altimetry system error (ASE)-- The United States does not have a corresponding defined term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Target Level of Safety (TLS) -- The United States does not have a corresponding defined term.

Section II

General Aviation Operations

Chapter 2 Reference 2.1.1.5

The pilot-in-command is not required to have available on board the aeroplane information concerning search and rescue services.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3.2

Intentionally left blank.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3.4.2

The United States does not require a destination alternate aerodrome when the weather at the aerodrome of intended landing is forecast to have a ceiling of at least 2,000 ft (600 m) and a visibility of at least 3 miles (4.8 km). In addition, standard alternate aerodrome minima are prescribed 600 ft (185 m) ceiling and 2 miles (3.2 km) visibility for precision approaches, and 800 ft (243 m) ceiling and 2 miles (3.2 km) visibility for non-precision approaches.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3.4.3

In addition to the Standard prescribed in Annex 6, Part II, 4.6.4, the U.S. prohibits a pilot from taking of a US registered large or turbine-powered multi-engine general aviation aeroplane if there is frost, snow, or ice adhering to critical systems, components, and surfaces of the aircraft.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3.7.1

The United States has no provisions concerning aircraft refueling with passengers on board.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3.7.2

The United States has no provisions concerning aircraft refueling with passengers on board.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.16

FAA regulations meet the amendment set forth by ICAO. 
Does meet. No person may operate a U.S. civil registered, multiengine, turbine-powered airplane or rotorcraft having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seats of 10 or more that has been manufactured after October 11, 1991, unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that utilize a digital method of recording and storing data and a method of readily retrieving that data.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.16.2.1.1

Does meet. FAA regulations meet the amendment set forth by ICAO.

Chapter 2 Reference

2.4.2.3

b) not be a type listed in Annex A, Group II of the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 8thEdition, 2009.

 

Note: The United States only requires that the type of extinguishing agent used for hand fire extinguishers “be appropriate to the kinds of fire likely to occur where that agent is to be used.” The United States only require the use of a built-in fire extinguisher for each lavatory disposal receptacle for Transport Category Airplanes.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.2.4

The United States requires all airplanes manufactured after December 12, 1986 to be equipped with a shoulder harness for crew member seats, in addition to the seat belt. For small civil airplanes manufactured after July 18, 1978, a shoulder harness and seat belt are required for the front seats only, which include the flight crew.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.2.5.1

The United States does not require break-in point markings.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.2.5.2

The United States does not require break-in point markings.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.3.2

The United States does not require airplanes on VFR flights, when operated as controlled flights, to be equipped in accordance to the requirements for aircraft operated under instrument flight rules.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.4.1

The United States does not require all seaplanes on all flights to be equipped with one life jacket or equivalent individual floatation device for each person on board; equipment for making the sound signals prescribed in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea; and anchor or a sea anchor (drogue).

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.5

Airplanes operated over land areas designated as areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult are not required to be equipped with signaling devices or life-saving equipment. The United States does not designate areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult, and therefore does not require such additional equipment.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.8

Airplanes operated under visual flight rules at night are not required to be equipped with c) to f) a) a turn and slip indicator; b) an altitude indicator (artificial horizon); c) a heading indicator (directional gyroscope); d) a means of indicating whether the supply of power to the gyroscopic instruments is adequate; 3) a sensitive pressure altimeter; f) a means of indicating the outside air temperature; g) a timepiece with a sweep second hand; h) an airspeed indicating system with a means of preventing malfunctioning due to condensation or icing; i) a rate-of-climb and descent indicator; j) a landing light; k) illumination for flight instruments and equipment; l) lights in passenger compartments; and m) a flashlight (electric torch) for each crew member station.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.11.2

Ground proximity warning systems are not required on general aviation aircraft, including turbine-engine airplanes with a take-off mass greater than 5700 kg or capable of carrying more than nine passengers.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.11.3

Ground proximity warning systems are not required on general aviation aircraft, including turbine-engine airplanes with a take-off mass greater than 5700 kg or capable of carrying more than nine passengers.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.11.4

Ground proximity warning systems are not required on general aviation aircraft, including turbine-engine airplanes with a take-off mass greater than 5700 kg or capable of carrying more than nine passengers.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.1

Except when operating under controlled flight, airplanes operated at night are not required to have radio communications equipment capable of conducting two-way communications. United States requirements for radio communications equipment are based upon the type of airspace in which the operation occurs, and not on the time of the day.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.2

When more than one radio communications equipment unit is required, the United States has no provision that each unit be independent of any other.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.1.4

Except when operating under controlled flight, airplanes on extended flights over water or on flights over underdeveloped land are not required to have radio communications equipment capable of conducting two-way communications.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.2.1

The United States has no provisions concerning requirement aircraft navigation instruments enabling a flight to proceed in accordance with a flight plan, prescribed RNP types, or the air traffic services provided. The United States does not specify a minimum distance between landmark references used by flight operating under visual flight rules.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.2.6

Though the FAA does not have RVSM operational reporting requirements, it does have a quality assurance requirement in 14 CFR appendix G Sections 2,3, and 4. In addition, RVSM operational deviation may be noted by FAA ATC and reported the FAA Office of Aviation Safety for disposition as deem appropriate.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.5.2.8

Airplanes are not required to have navigation equipment to ensure that in the event of the failure of one item of equipment at any stage of the flight, the remaining equipment will enable the aeroplane to proceed in accordance with Annex 6, Part II, 2.2.1. to 7.2.3.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.6.2.2.

The FAA established Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations section 43.10, which speaks to the disposition of parts, removed from type-certificated products. After April 15, 2002, each person who removes a life-limited part from a type certificated product must ensure that the part is controlled using: a record keeping system; tag or record attached to part; non-permanent marking; permanent marking; or segregation.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.7.2.2

Only pilot operating aircraft with TCAS under 14 CFR parts 91 (subpart K), 121, and 135 are required to having on the use of TCAS.

Section III

Large and Turbojet Aeroplanes

Chapter 3 Reference 3.6.3.1.4

The United States limits this requirement to multiengine, turbine-power or rotor craft with a seating configuration of ten or more seats.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.6.3.3.1

The United States does not base requirements for flight data recorders on aircraft mass, but on passenger and engine configuration.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.6.3.10

The United States does not have a specific regulation that requires operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder to ensure continued serviceability of the recorders. However, the United States does require this maintenance function be carried out as part of the instructions for continued airworthiness.

PART III

Section I

General

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Take-off decision point (TDP)-- The United States does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Defined point before landing (DPBL)-- The United States does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

For CAT 1,the U.S. requires a decision height of not less than 200 feet and either visibility of not less than one-half mile or a runway visual range of 24000 feet (RVR) 1800 feet with operative touchdown zone and runway center line lights. CAT II provide approaches to minima of less than 200 feet decision height/2400 feet runway visual range to as low as 100 feet decision height/1200 feet runway visual range. CAT III B the criteria are the same as Appendix 6, however, the runway visual range is expressed in feet and less than 700 feet (200m) but not less than 150 feet (50 m).

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Hostile environment -- The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Non-hostile environment – The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Operations in performance Class 3 – The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Integrated survival suit – The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Elevated heliport – The United States does not define this term in its rules. However, the United States does contain definitions in the listed documents.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Congested hostile environment – The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

En-route phase – The United States does not define this term in its rules. However, the United States does contain definition in the listed documents.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Defined point after take-off (DPATO)-- The United States does not define this term in its rules.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Operations in performance Class 2—The United States does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Approach and landing phase – helicopters -- For CAT 1,the U.S. requires a decision height of not less than 200 feet and either visibility of not less than one-half mile or a runway visual range of 24000 feet (RVR) 1800 feet with operative touchdown zone and runway center line lights. CAT II provide approaches to minima of less than 200 feet decision height/2400 feet runway visual range to as low as 100 feet decision height/1200 feet runway visual range. CAT III B the criteria are the same as Appendix 6, however, the runway visual range is expressed in feet and less than 700 feet (200m) but not less than 150 feet (50 m).

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Take-off and initial climb phase – The United States does not define this term in its rules. However, the United States does contain definitions in the listed documents.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Alternate heliport – The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Non-congested hostile environment – The U.S. does not define this term.

Chapter 1 Reference Definition

Operations in performance Class 1 – The U.S. does not define this term.

Section II

International Commercial Air Transport

Chapter 1 Reference 1.1.5

The pilot-in-command is not required to have available on board the helicopter essential information concerning search and rescue services.

Chapter 1 Reference 1.3.6

The U.S. currently does not have an SMS requirement.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.3.1

Intentionally left blank.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.4.2

Intentionally left blank

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.9.1

Helicopter operators are not required to maintain fuel and oil records showing that the requirements of 2.3.6 have been met.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.9.2

Helicopter operators are not required to keep fuel and oil records for three months, though there is a requirement that load manifests be retained for 30 days.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.2.12

Intentionally left blank

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.2

The pilot-in-command is not required to ensure that all persons on board are aware of the location and general manner of use of the principal emergency equipment carried for collective use.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.2

The United States requires that flight preparation forms must be retained for 30 days, not three months.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.3.2

The United States does not require that the operations manual describe the contents and use of the operational flight plan, but does require establishing procedures for locating each flight.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.4.4

Intentionally left blank

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.6.2.

Intentionally left blank

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.6.3

The fuel requirements for commuter and on demand operations are expressed in terms of flight time and do not include a specific altitude requirement.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.6.3.1

The United States does not require IFR helicopter operations to maintain a specific altitude above a destination.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.6.3.2

Fuel reserves for IFR helicopter operations is 30 minutes at normal cruise speed beyond the alternate heliport.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.6.3.3

The U.S. has no provisions addressing when a suitable alternate is unavailable. If the destination weather so requires, an alternate must be specified and 30 minute fuel reserved must be carried.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.6.4

The operations manual does not include procedures for loss of pressurization and other contingencies.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.7

The United States does not prohibit refueling with passengers on board while the engine is operating.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.8.1

The United States does not require oxygen at all times for passengers experiencing cabin pressure altitudes above 13,000 ft (620hPa). Oxygen for all passengers is not required until 15,000 ft (4,572m).

Chapter 2 Reference 2.3.8.2

The United States does not require oxygen at all times for passengers experiencing cabin pressure altitudes above 13,000 ft (620hPa). Oxygen for all passengers is not required until 15,000 ft (4,572m).

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4

The pilot-in-command is not specifically required, prior to commencing a flight, to be satisfied that any load carried is safely secured.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.4.1.3

The United States does not utilize a 1,000 ft minimum for non-precision approaches

Chapter 2 Reference 2.6.2.2

The United States allows for meteorological conditions at the estimated time of arrival and for one hour after the estimated time of arrival, not two hours.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.6.3.2

The United States allows the continuation of an approach regardless of the reported weather.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.8.3.1

The United States does not require that a specific altitude above the alternate be maintained.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.8.3.2

The United States does not require that a specific altitude above the alternate be maintained.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.8.4

The U.S. does not require that the procedures for loss of pressurization, where applicable, or failure of one power-unit while en route, be part of the required fuel and oil computations.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.9.1

Oxygen supply requirement applies to crew members at altitudes between 12,500 ft (3,810 m) and 14,000 ft (4,267m) longer than 30 minutes and anytime above 14,000ft. For passenger, the requirement applies above 15,000 ft (4,572m).

Chapter 2 Reference 2.9.2

The U.S. does not require that a flight to be operated with pressurized helicopter carry a sufficient quantity of stored breathing oxygen to supply all the crew members and a proportion of the passengers, as is appropriate to the circumstances of the flight being undertaken, in the event of loss of pressurization, for any period that the atmospheric pressure in any compartment occupied by them would be less than 700hPa.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.10

The U.S. requirement for use of breathing oxygen by flight crew members applies only to altitudes above 14000 ft (4,267m).

Chapter 2 Reference 2.11

During an emergency, the pilot-in-command is not required to ensure that all persons on board the aircraft are instructed in emergency procedures.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.13

The U.S. does not govern this information in a rule. The AIM and AC61-23A covers this information.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.14

The pilot-in-command is not specifically required to discontinue a flight beyond the nearest suitable aerodrome when flight crew member's capacity to perform functions is significantly reduced by impairment of faculties from causes such as fatigue, sickness, and lack of oxygen.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.18.1

The U.S. has no provisions regarding aircraft refueling while passengers are on board or are embarking or disembarking.

Chapter 2 Reference 2.18.2

The U.S. has no provisions for ensuring two-way communications when refueling while passengers are on board or are embarking or disembarking.

Chapter 3 Reference 3.1.1

US does not specify or restrict helicopter operations based on performance, class or category. (See definition of performance class in Annex 6, Part III, Section 1).

Chapter 3 Reference 3.1.3

US does not specify or restrict helicopter operations based on performance, class or category. (See definition of performance class in Annex 6, Part III, Section 1).

Chapter 3 Reference 3.2.1

The United States does not specify or restrict helicopter operations based on performance class or category (see definition of Performance Class in Annex 6, Part III, Section 1)

Chapter 3 Reference 3.2.7

US does not require the helicopter weight limitations found I n3.2.7 a), c), and d).

Chapter 4 Reference 4.1.2

US does not require carriage of a copy of the air operator's certificate.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.1.3.2

The US does not require helicopters to be equipped with ground-air signal codes for search and rescue purposes.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.1.3.3

The U.S. requires only helicopters manufactured after September 16, 1992 to be equipped with a safety belt and shoulder harness for each occupant's seat.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.1.4.1

The United States does not require break-in points.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.1.4.2

The United States does not require break-in points.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.2

  1. first aid equipment is not required on helicopters b) Us has no provisions that fire extinguishers, when discharge, will not cause dangerous contamination of the air within the helicopter c) (3) US has no provisions for a safety harness device to prevent interference with flight controls should a pilot become incapacitated.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.2.1

Landing lights that are at least trainable in the vertical plane are not required for night operations.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.4.1

The US does not require marking of break-in points.

4.2.2

Chapter 4 Rec.

Normal and transport category rotorcraft are not specifically required to be equipped with medical supplies.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.2.4.2

The U.S. does not require marking of break-in points.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3

FAA regulations meet the amendment set forth by ICAO.
Does meet. No person may operate a U.S. civil registered, multiengine, turbine-powered airplane or rotorcraft having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seats of 10 or more that has been manufactured after October 11, 1991, unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that utilize a digital method of recording and storing data and a method of readily retrieving that data.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.2.3

Life-saving rafts are not required on helicopters operating on flights over water.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.2.4

Life-saving rafts are not required on helicopters operating on flights over water.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.2.5

Life-saving rafts are not required on helicopters operating on flights over water.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.2.6

Life-saving rafts are not required on helicopters operating on flights over water

Chapter 4 Reference 4.3.6

The US requires cockpit voice recorders in all multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft with a passenger seating configuration of twenty or more seats, and in all multi-engine, turbine-powered rotorcraft with a passenger seating configuration of six or more and for which two pilots are required by certification of operating rules.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.4

Helicopters operated over land areas designated as areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult are not required to be equipped with signaling devices or life-saving equipment. The U.S. does not designate areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult and therefore does not require such additional equipment.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.4.2

Helicopters flown over water in passenger operations are not required to be certified for ditching but only to be equipped with flotation devices.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.5.2.1

B) and C) Life saving rafts and pyrotechnic devices are only required for extended over-water operations. That is in respect to helicopters in operations over water with a horizontal distance of more than 50 NM from the nearest shore line and more than 50 NM form an off-shore heliport structure.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.5.2.3

The U.S. does not specify or restrict helicopter operations based on performance, class, or category.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.5.2.4

The U.S. does not specify or restrict helicopter operations based on performance class or category. (See definition of Performance Class in Annex 6, Part III, Section 1).

Chapter 4 Reference 4.5.2.6

The U.S. does not require that at least 50 per cent of the life rafts should be deployable by remote control.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.5.2.7

The U.S. does not require that rafts which are not deployable by remote control be equipped with some means of mechanically assisted deployment.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.5.2.8

The U.S. does not require helicopters, for which the individual certificate of airworthiness was first issued before January 1, 1991 to comply with the provisions of 4.5.2.6 and 4.5.2.7 no later than December 31, 1992.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.6

The U.S. does not require helicopters to carry a specific document attesting noise certification. However, the helicopter's type certificate is the de facto document that the helicopter complied with the noise certification requirements at the time it received FAA type certification.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.6

Helicopters operated over land areas designated as areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult are not required to be equipped with signaling devices or life-saving equipment. The U.S. does not designate areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult and therefore does not require additional equipment.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.9.1

The U.S. requires transponders only in certain airspace.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.9.2

The U.S. requires transponders only in certain airspace.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.10

Airborne weather radar for all passenger carrying helicopters is not required. The U.S. only requires helicopters with a seating configuration of ten seats or more to be equipped with airborne thunderstorm detection equipment.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.11

The U.S. does not require helicopters to carry a specific document attesting noise certification. However, the helicopter's type certificate is the de facto document that the helicopter complied with the noise certification requirements at the time it received FAA type certification.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.13

The U.S. requires transponders only in certain airspace.

Chapter 4 Reference 4.14

The U.S. does not require crew members flight deck duty to communicate through boom or throat microphone.

Chapter 5 Reference 5.1.1

Except when operating under controlled flight, helicopters are not required to have radio communications for night operators.

Chapter 5 Reference 5.1.2

The U.S. does not require that the radio communications equipment specified in 5.1.1 be independent of the other or others to the extent that failure in my any one will not result in failure of any other.

Chapter 5 Reference 5.1.4

Except when operating under controlled flight, helicopters on extended flights over water or on flights over underdeveloped land are not required to have radio communications equipment.

Chapter 5 Reference 5.2.1

The U.S. has no provision that visual landmarks used in VFR be located at least every 60 NM (110km).

Chapter 5 Reference 5.2.1

The United does not require a helicopter to be provided with navigation equipment in accordance with RNP types for navigation with the United States. However, the United States does provide information and operations specifications for IFR operating requirements when U.S. operators and aircraft conduct operations in the European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (RNP-5 and 10).

Chapter 5 Reference 5.2.3

The U.S. does not require redundant navigation equipment.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.1.1

All United States helicopters used in commercial air transport are certified as commuter or on demand operations. Maintenance on United States commuter and on demand helicopters may be performed by either an approved maintenance organization, a certified mechanic, or by persons under the supervisions of a certified mechanic.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.2.2

The U.S. requires that records of work must be retained until the work is repeated, superseded by other work, or for one year after the work is performed.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.3.1

The U.S. does not require an operator's maintenance training program to include training in knowledge and skills related to human performance.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.4.2

The U.S. requires that records of work be retained until the work is repeated, superseded by other work for one year after the work is performed, but does not require the records be retained after the until has been permanently withdrawn from service.

Chapter 6 Reference 6.8.2

The U.S. requires that records of work must be retained until the work is repeated, superseded by other work, or for one year after the work is performed.

Chapter 7 Reference 7.4.2.2

Helicopter pilots are not required to demonstrate to the operator an adequate knowledge of the specific areas described in 7.4.3.2

Chapter 7 Reference 7.5

The U.S. practice is to require a spare set of correcting lenses only when a flight crew member's defective visual acuity necessitates a limitation on the pilot's medical certificate.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.1

The load manifest (the U.S. equivalent to the journey logbook) does not contain items for time of departure and arrival, nature of flight, incidents, or signature of person in charge.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.2

Entries in the load manifest (the U.S. equivalent of the journey logbook) are not required to be made in ink or indelible pencil.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.4.3

The U.S. requires that load manifest (the U.S. equivalent of the journey logbook) be held for 30 days, not six months.

Chapter 9 Reference 9.5

The U.S. does not require that an operator keep a list of the emergency and survival equipment carried on board any of their helicopters engaged in international air navigation.

Chapter 11 Reference 11.1

A checklist containing procedures to be followed in searching for a suspected bomb is not required to be aboard the aircraft. The U.S. requires that crew members be trained in dealing with explosives that may be on board an aircraft, but this does not necessarily include training on how to search for an explosive.

Chapter 11 Reference 11.2.1

The U.S. does not require an operator to establish and maintain a training program that enables crew members to act in the most appropriate manner to minimize the consequences of acts of unlawful interference.

Chapter 11 Reference 11.2.2

The U.S. does not require an operator to establish and maintain a training program that enables crew members to act in the most appropriate manner to minimize the consequences of acts of unlawful interference.

Chapter 11 Reference 11.3

The pilot-in-command is not required to submit, without delay, a report of an act of unlawful interference to the designated local authority.

Section III

International General Aviation

 

Intentionally left blank

Section IV

 

Chapter 4 Reference

4.1.3.2

b) not be of type listed in Annex A, Group II of the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 8thEdition, 2009

 

Note: The United States only requires that the type of extinguishing agent used for hand fire extinguishers “be appropriate to the kinds of fire likely to occur where that agent is to be used” and for use in a lavatory disposal receptacle “be capable of extinguishing flames emanating from any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected.”

Chapter 4 Reference

4.2.2.1

b) not be of type listed in Annex A, Group II of the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 8thEdition, 2009

 

Note: The United States only requires that the type of extinguishing agent used for hand fire extinguishers “be appropriate to the kinds of fire likely to occur where that agent is to be used” and for use in a lavatory disposal receptacle “be capable of extinguishing flames emanating from any burning of fluids or other combustible materials in the area protected.”

ANNEX 7 - AIRCRAFT NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKS

3.3.1 and 4.2.1

The marks on wing surfaces are not required.

3.2.5 and 
Section 8

Identification plates are not required on unmanned, free balloons.

4.2.2

The minimum height of marks on small (12,500 lb or less), fixed-wing aircraft is 3 inches when none of the following exceeds 180 knots true airspeed: (1) design cruising speed; (2) maximum operating limit speed; (3) maximum structural cruising speed; and (4) if none of the foregoing speeds have been determined for the aircraft, the speed shown to be the maximum cruising speed of the aircraft.

Section 6

A centralized registry of unmanned free balloons is not maintained. Operators are required to furnish the nearest ATC facility with a prelaunch notice containing information on the date, time, and location of release, and the type of balloon. This information is not maintained for any specified period of time.

Section 8

United States Identification plate does not have nationality or registration mark.
ICAO ID plate information required by Annex 7.8 does not include nationality or registration mark.

Also for non Part 121 and commuter aircraft, location must be either adjacent to and aft of the rear-most entrance door or on the fuselage near the tail surfaces.

ANNEX 8 - AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT

PART II Procedures for Certification and Continued Airworthiness

Chapter 1

Type Certification

1.2.5

ICAO requires that the design of an aircraft under ICAO Annex 8, Parts IIIB, IVB, and V use alternative fire extinguishing agents to halon in the lavatories, engines, and auxiliary power units. The United States does not have a similar requirement.

PART III Aeroplanes

Part IIIA

 

Chapter 4

Design and Construction

4.1.6 (b), 4.1.6 (g), 4.1.6 (h), 4.1.6 (i)

The United States does not have similar requirements. The FAA has begun work in an effort to amend the U.S. regulations with the purpose of eventually meeting the intent of these provisions.

Chapter 8

Instruments and Equipment

8.4.1

ICAO requires that airplanes operating on the movement area of an airport shall have airplane lights of such intensity, color, fields of coverage and other characteristics to furnish personnel on the ground with as much time as possible for interpretation and for subsequent maneuver necessary to avoid a collision. The FAA has no such requirement.

8.4.2 (b)

This provision addresses the lights' affect on outside observers in reference to “harmful dazzle.” The U.S. regulations do not address the affect of aircraft lights on outside observers. However, visibility to other pilots and the lights' affect on the flight crew is addressed.

Chapter 9

Operating Limitations and Information

9.3.5

The United States does not have similar requirements. The FAA has begun work in an effort to amend the U.S. regulations with the purpose of eventually meeting the intent of these provisions.

Chapter 11

Security

11.2, 11.3, 11.4

With the exception of the door required by 11.3, the United States does not have similar requirements. The FAA has begun work in an effort to amend the U.S. regulations with the purpose of eventually meeting the intent of these provisions.

Part IIIB

Large Aeroplane Certification

Chapter 3

Structure

3.8.2

The corresponding FAA requirement does not specify the use of failsafe principles; however, the FAA does advise the use of failsafe principles.

Chapter 4

Design and Construction

4.1.6

On November 28, 2008, the FAA adopted new regulations that meet the intent of these provisions. However, Part IIIB applies to airplanes with a date of application of March 2, 2004 or later, but the U.S. requirements apply to airplanes with a date of application of November 28, 2008 or later.

D.2 (g)

Paragraph D.2.g.1 of the ICAO standard requires a fire suppression system for each cargo compartment accessible to a crewmember in a passenger-carrying airplane. U.S. requirements permit manual fire fighting in an accessible cargo compartment by a crewmember or members for an all-passenger-carrying airplane or a passenger-cargo combination carrying airplane.

 

Additionally, the FAA does not have specific requirements to consider the effects of explosions or incendiary devices.

D.2 (h)

The United States does have provisions to protect against possible instances of cabin depressurization. However, the FAA does not have specific requirements to consider the effects of explosions or incendiary devices.

F.4.1

ICAO requires that airplanes operating on the movement area of an airport shall have airplane lights of such intensity, color, fields of coverage and other characteristics to furnish personnel on the ground with as much time as possible for interpretation and for subsequent maneuver necessary to avoid a collision. The U.S. has no such requirement.

Chapter 7

Operating Limitations and Information

7.3.5

The United States does not have similar requirements. The FAA has begun work in an effort to amend the U.S. regulations with the purpose of eventually meeting the intent of these provisions.

Chapter 10

Security

10.3.1, 10.3.2

The FAA has a door requirement, but no requirements addressing bulkheads, floors, etc. On January 5, 2007, the FAA published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that, when adopted, will meet the intent of these provisions.

PART IV Helicopters

Part IIIB

Large Aeroplane Certification

Chapter 2

Design and Production

4.2

The United States does not have a specific requirement for physical separation of systems. However, physical separation is considered in the means of compliance to various regulations such as 25.1309, 25.901(c) and 25.903(d).

Part IVA

 

Chapter 2

Flight

2.2.3.1,

2.2.3.1.1 - 2.2.3.1.4

These provisions address take-off performance data for all classes of helicopters and require that this performance data include the take-off distance required. However, the United States has adopted the requirements only for Category A helicopters.

Chapter 6

Rotor and Power Transmissions Systems and Powerplant Installation

6.7

This provision requires that there be a means for restarting a helicopter's engine at altitudes up to a declared maximum altitude. In some cases the FAA does not require demonstration of engine restart capability. Since there is a different level of certitude for transport and normal category helicopters in the United States, the engine restart capability is only required for Category A and B helicopters (14 CFR Part 29) and Category A normal helicopters (14 CFR Part 27).

Chapter 7

Instruments and Equipment

7.4.2

This provision addresses the need to switch off or reduce the intensity of the flashing lights. The United States has minimum acceptable intensities that are prescribed for navigation lights and anti-collision lights. No reduction below these levels is possible.

7.4.2 (b)

 

This provision addresses the lights' affect on outside observers in reference to “harmful dazzle.” The U.S. regulations do not address the affect of aircraft lights on outside observers. However, visibility to other pilots and the lights' affect on the flight crew is addressed.

8.4.2 (b)

 

This provision addresses the lights' affect on outside observers in reference to “harmful dazzle.” The U.S. regulations do not address the affect of aircraft lights on outside observers. However, visibility to other pilots and the lights' affect on the flight crew is addressed.

Part IVB

 

Chapter 6

Systems and Equipment

6.5

 

U.S. regulations do not address electromagnetic interference from external sources. High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are addressed by Special Conditions but only for flight critical systems, not flight essential systems.

PART V Small Aeroplanes

Chapter 8

Crashworthiness and Cabin Safety

8.5 (e)

The FAA provides requirements for emergency lighting systems in 14CFR 23.812. These requirements do not address the impact of the fuel spillage on emergency lighting systems. Only commuter category airplanes are required to install emergency lighting systems.

PART VII Propellers

Chapter 2

Design and Construction

2.2 Failure Analysis

The FAA is currently taking rulemaking action to include a Failure Analysis requirement in 14 CFR Part 35.

Chapter 3

Test and Inspections

3.2 Operational and endurance tests

There is no difference for FAA requirements for a. and b. The FAA is currently taking rulemaking action to include a bird and lightning strike requirement in 14 CFR Part 35.

ANNEX 9 - FACILITATION

*The list of differences include Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The status of implementation of Annex 9 in Guam with respect to public health quarantine is not covered in the list of differences.

Chapter 2

Entry and Departure of Aircraft

2.3

Written crew baggage declaration is required in certain circumstances, and a special Embarkation/Disembarkation Card is required for most alien crew members.

2.4

A General Declaration for all inbound and for outbound flights with commercial cargo are required. However, the General Declaration outbound flights with commercial cargo shall not be required if the declaratory statement is made on the air cargo manifest. No declaration is required for outbound flights without commercial cargo if Customs clearance is obtained by telephone.

Remarks

19 CFR 122

2.4.1

Each crew member must be listed showing surname, given name, and middle initial.

2.4.4

The signing or stamping of the General Declaration protects the carrier by serving as proof of clearance.

2.5

The crew list is required by statute.

2.7

There is a statutory requirement for the Cargo Manifest.

2.8

In order to combat illicit drug smuggling, the U.S. requires the additional following information: the shipper's and the consignee's name and address, the type of air waybills, weight, and number of house air waybills. The manifest submitted in electronic form may become legally acceptable in the future. However, until the compliance rate for the automated manifest is acceptable, the U.S. must be able to require the written form of the manifest.

Remarks

19 CFR 122.48

2.9

Nature of goods information is required.

2.10

Stores list required in all cases but may be recorded on General Declaration in lieu of a separate list.

2.17

A cargo manifest is required except for merchandise, baggage and stores arriving from and departing for a foreign country on the same through flight. “All articles on board which must be licensed by the Secretary of State shall be listed on the cargo manifest.” “Company mail shall be listed on the cargo manifest.”

2.18

Traveling general declaration and manifest, crew purchases and stores list as well as a permit to proceed are required under various conditions when aircraft arrive in the U.S. from a foreign area with cargo shown on the manifest to be traveling to other airports in the U.S. or to foreign areas.

2.21

There is a statutory requirement that such changes can only be made prior to or at the time of formal entry of the aircraft.

2.25

The U.S. does not support the use of insecticides in aircraft with passengers present. Pesticides registered for such use should not be inhaled. In effect, the passenger safety issue has precluded the use of such insecticides in the presence of passengers since 1979.

2.35

Advance notice is required of the number of citizens and aliens on board (non-scheduled flights only).

2.40

A copy of the contract for remuneration or hire is required to be a part of the application in the case of non-common carrier operations.

2.41

Single inspection is accorded certain aircraft not by size of aircraft but rather by type of operation. Loads (cargo) of an agricultural nature require inspection by a plant or animal quarantine inspector.

2.41c

Fees are charged for services provided in connection with the arrival of private aircraft (nonscheduled aircraft).

Chapter 3

Entry and Departure of Persons and Their Baggage

3.3

Medical reports are required in some cases.

Remarks

8 CFR 212.7 and INA 234

3.4

Documents such as visas with certain security devices serve as identity documents.

3.4.1

The U.S. has not standardized the personal identification data included in all national passports to conform with the recommendation in Doc 9303.

3.5.6

U.S. passport fees exceed the cost of the operation.

3.5.7

U.S. allows separate passports for minor dependents under the age of 16 entering the U.S. with a parent or legal guardian.

3.7

The U.S. has a pilot program that allows nationals of certain countries which meet certain criteria to seek admission to the U.S. without a visa for up to 90 days as a visitor for pleasure or business.

Remarks

22 CFR 41.112(d) INA 212(d)(4), INA 238, 8 CFR 214.2(c) INA 217

 

The law permits visa waivers for aliens from contiguous countries and adjacent islands or in emergency cases. Visas are also waived for admissible aliens arriving on a carrier which is signatory to an agreement assuring immediate transit of its passengers provided they have a travel document or documents establishing identity, nationality, and ability to enter some country other than the U.S.

3.8

The U.S. charges a fee for visas.

3.8.3

Duration of stay is determined at port of entry.

Remarks

INA 217

3.8.4

A visitor to the U.S. cannot enter without documentation.

Remarks

INA 212(a) (26)

3.8.5

Under U.S. law, the duration of stay is determined by the Immigration Authorities at the port of entry and thus cannot be shown on the visa at the time of issuance.

3.10

Embarkation/Disembarkation Card does not conform to Appendix 4 in some particulars.

3.10.1

The operator is responsible for passengers' presentation of completed embarkation/disembarkation cards.

Remarks

8 CFR 299.3

3.10.2

Embarkation/Disembarkation cards may be purchased from the U.S. Government, Superintendent of Documents.

Remarks

8 CFR 299.3

3.14.2

The U.S. fully supports the electronic Advance Passenger Information (API) systems. However, the WCO/IATA Guideline is too restrictive and does not conform to the advancements in the PAXLIST EDIFACT international standard.

3.15

U.S. Federal Inspection Services' officials see individuals more than once.

3.16

Written baggage declarations by crew members are required in some instances.

3.17.1

The U.S. uses a multiple channel system rather than the dual channel clearance system.

3.23, 3.23.1

Statute requires a valid visa and passport of all foreign crew members.

3.24, 3.24.1, 3.25, 3.25.1, 3.25.2, 3.25.3

Crew members, except those eligible under Visa Waiver Pilot Program guidelines, are required to have valid passports and valid visas to enter the U.S.

Remarks

INA 212(a) (26), INA 252 and 253, 8 CFR 214.1(a), 8 CFR 252.1(c)

3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29

Passports and visas are required for crew and non-U.S. nationals to enter the U.S.

3.33

Does not apply to landing card.

3.35

Law requires that the alien shall be returned to the place whence he/she came. Interpretation of this provision requires that he/she be returned to the place where he/she began his/her journey and not only to the point where he/she boarded the last-used carrier.

3.35.1

Law requires that certain aliens be deported from the U.S. at the expense of the transportation line which brought them to the U.S.

3.36

Statute provides for a fine if a passenger is not in possession of proper documents.

3.39.3

NOTE: The U.S. considers security for individuals in airline custody to be the carrier's responsibility.

3.40.2

Annex 9 recommends that fines and penalties be mitigated if an alien with a document deficiency is eventually admitted to the country of destination.

3.43

Operator can be held responsible for some detention costs.

Chapter 4

Entry and Departure of Cargo and Other Articles

4.20

The Goods Declaration as defined by the Kyoto Convention serves as the fundamental Customs document rather than the commercial invoice.

4.40

Aircraft equipment and parts, certified for use in civil aircraft, may be entered duty-free by any nation entitled to most-favored nation tariff treatment. Security equipment and parts, unless certified for use in the aircraft, are not included.

4.41

Customs currently penalizes the exporting carrier for late filing of Shipper's Export Declarations (SEDs) and inaccuracies on bills of lading with respect to the SEDs.

4.42

Regulations require entry of such items, most of which are dutiable by law.

4.44

Certain items in this category are dutiable by law.

4.48

Carriers are required to submit new documentation to explain the circumstances under which cargo manifest is not unladen. No penalty is imposed if the carrier properly reports this condition.

4.50

The procedures for adding, deleting, or correcting manifest items require filing a separate document.

4.55

The U.S. requires a transportation in-bond entry or a special manifest bonded movement for this type of movement.

Chapter 5

Traffic Passing Through the Territory of a Contracting State

5.1

Such traffic must be inspected at airports where passengers are required to disembark from the aircraft and no suitable sterile area is available.

5.2

Passports and visas are waived for admissible aliens arriving on a carrier which is signatory to an agreement assuring immediate transit of its passengers provided they have a travel document or documents establishing identity, nationality, and ability to enter some country other than the U.S.

5.3

Such traffic must be inspected at airports where no suitable sterile area is available.

5.4

Passports and visas are waived for admissible aliens arriving on a carrier which is signatory to an agreement assuring immediate transit of its passengers provided they have a travel document or documents establishing identity, nationality, and ability to enter some country other than the U.S.

5.4.1

Passengers will not be required to obtain and present visas if they will be departing from the U.S. within 8 hours of arrival or on the first flight thereafter departing for their destination.

5.8

Examination of transit traffic is required by law. Transit passengers without visas are allowed one stopover between the port of arrival and their foreign destination.

5.9

Passports and visas are required generally for transit passengers who are remaining in the U.S. beyond 8 hours or beyond the first available flight to their foreign destinations.

Chapter 6

International Airports - Facilities and Services for Traffic

6.3.1

Procedures involving scheduling committees raise a number of anti-trust problems under U.S. law.

6.33

Sterile physical facilities shall be provided, and in-transit passengers within those areas shall be subject to immigration inspection at any time.

Remarks

OI 214.2(c)

6.34

The U.S. inspects crew and passengers in transit.

6.36

The U.S. inspects crew and passengers in transit.

6.56

Operators of aircraft are statutorily required to pay overtime charges for federal inspections conducted outside normal scheduled hours of operation. This requirement places aircraft operators in a less favorable position than operators of highway vehicles and ferries who are statutorily exempt from such charges.

Chapter 8

Other Facilitation Provisions

8.1

Separate bonds are required.

8.3.2

Visas are issued by the Department of State and are not issued at ports of entry.

ANNEX 10 - AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS

ANNEX 10 - VOLUME 1 - RADIO NAVIGATION AIDS

PART I

Chapter 3

Specifications for Radio Navigation Aids

3.1.2.1.1

Remote control and monitoring is implemented at all ILS installations for CAT II and III. Most, but not all, CAT I installations are monitored. A-CAT II and III; C- CAT I

3.1.4.1,
3.1.4.2

The United States does not require such equipage for aircraft. Interference from FM broadcast signals will not adversely affect aircraft navigation and communications systems in the United States airspace

3.3.4.2

The US minimum VOR signal strength is -120 dBW/m2. The ICAO requirement is - 107 dBW/m2.

3.3.8.1,
3.3.8.2

The United States does not require such equipage for aircraft. Interference from FM broadcast signals will not adversely affect aircraft navigation and communications systems in the United States airspace.

3.5.4.1.5.1

The US minimum DME signal strength is -91.5 dBW/m2 above 18,000 ft and -86.0 dBW/m2 below 18,000 ft. The ICAO requirement is -83 dBW/m2.

3.7.3.4.4.3

Current satellite contract calls for -150dBW under the conditions specified in 3.7.3.4.4.3. Difference is greater signal power than called for in Annex 10.

Volume I,
Attachment C, 
Par. 2.6.2.1, 
Para 2.6.2.1.2

The US frequency protections for ILS localizers are 3 dB more stringent than the ICAO protections (i.e. 23 dB vs. 20 dB for co-channel, -4 dB vs. -7 dB for interim 1st adjacent channels, -31 dB vs. -34 dB for final 1st adjacent channels, -43 dB vs. -46 dB for 2nd adjacent channels, and -47 dB vs. -50 dB for 3rd adjacent channels).

Volume I,
Attachment C,
Par. 3.4.6.1 a), b), c);
Para 3.4.6.2 a), b), c)

The US frequency protections for co-channel, 1st and 2nd adjacent channels for VOR are 3 dB more stringent than the ICAO protections (i.e. 23 dB vs. 20 dB for co-channel, -4 dB vs. -7 dB for interim 1st adjacent channels, -31 dB vs. -34 dB for final 1st adjacent channels, -43 dB vs. -46 dB for 2nd adjacent channels).

Volume I,
Attachment C,
Par. 3.4.6.1 d);
Par 3.4.6.2 d)

The US does not provide any VOR frequency protection for 3rd adjacent channels. The ICAO protection provides -50 dB for 3rd adjacent channels.

Volume I,
Attachment C,
Par.7.1.8.1, Table C-4;
Par 7.18.2 a)

The US frequency protections for co-channel and 1st adjacent channels for DME are 3 dB more stringent than the ICAO protections (i.e. 11 dB vs. 8 dB for co-channel, -39 dB vs. -42 dB for 1st adjacent channels). The US frequency protection for 2nd adjacent channels for DME is 28 dB more stringent than the ICAO protection (i.e. - 47 dB vs. - 75 dB).

Volume I, Appendix B-112, 3.6.7.2.3.5

A solution has been implemented in the US which does not require protection level bounding for rare anomalous ionospheric storms under extreme conditions. The solution requires denial of the approach service when anomalous ionosphere conditions could cause potentially large residual errors and allows operations when estimated residual errors would be below a threshold. The resulting errors under the threshold were found to be acceptable using specific safety assessments and criteria for this equipment.

ANNEX 10 - VOLUME II - COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES INCLUDING THOSE WITH PANS STATUS

Chapter 3

General Procedures for the International Aeronautical Telecommunication Service

3.2.2,
3.2.3

US regulations do not have any specific procedures for closing down international aeronautical stations. All international aeronautical stations in the U.S. operate continuously (24 hours a day and seven days a week)

Chapter 5

Aeronautical Mobile Service - Voice Communications

5.1.5

US regulations do not require pilots to wait 10 seconds before making a second call. US regulations only require “a few seconds" instead of “10 seconds."

5.2.2.7.1.2

US regulations do not specifically require pilots to send a message twice preceded with the phrase “TRANSMITTING BLIND".

US regulations provides general procedures which allow pilots to make blind transmissions in case of emergency.

5.2.2.7.1.3.2

US regulations do not specifically require pilots to make a blind transmission preceded by “TRANSMITTING BLIND DUE TO RECEIVER FAILURE" with respect to the continuation of the flight of the aircraft.

US regulations provide general procedures which allow pilots to make appropriate blind transmissions.

5.2.2.7.2.1,
5.2.2.7.2.2,
5.2.2.7.2.3

US regulations do not specifically require aeronautical stations to get assistance from other aircraft in case of communications failure.

US regulations require aeronautical stations to use “all appropriate means" available to re-establish communications with aircraft.

5.2.2.7.2.4

US regulations do not provide this specific standard.

US regulations require aeronautical stations to use “all appropriate means" available to re-establish communications with aircraft.

5.2.2.7.3.1

US regulations do not specifically require pilots to make a blind transmission preceded by “TRANSMITTING BLIND DUE TO RECEIVER FAILURE".

US regulations provide general procedures which allow pilots to make appropriate blind transmissions.

ANNEX 10 - VOLUME III - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

PART I - DIGITAL DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Chapter 1

Definitions

ATN Directory Services

The FAA has not implemented the DIR as part of the AMHS Extended Service. The Basic Service AMHS has been implemented. ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

ATN Security Services

The ATN Security Service can be implemented as part of the AMHS Extended Service. ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

Authentication

This is a part of ATN Security Services of the ATN DIR/AMHS Extended Service that has not been implemented. ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

Security Management

This is a part of ATN Security Services capability of the ATN DIR/AMHS Extended Service that has not been implemented. ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

Chapter 3

Aeronautical Telecommunication Network

3.2.1

The Ground-to-Ground ATN service based on OSI has been implemented (AMHS) but not Air-to-Ground. The CPDLC has been postponed by the FAA. AOC is not Air Traffic related service. ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

3.2.2

ATN Ground-to-Ground service does not support sections a) 4) APC, c), e), f) and g). ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

3.3.1

FAA ATN service does not support a) ATS to aircraft and c) AOC. The CPDLC has been postponed by the FAA. AOC is not Air Traffic related service. ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

3.4.1.4

The FAA ATN only supports AMHS (ground service). ATN standard is only recorded in the NCP until the FAA Order can be amended.

ANNEX 10 - VOLUME IV - SURVEILLANCE AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS

Chapter 3

Surveillance Systems

3.1.1.7.13

SPI required to be transmitted for 18 +/- 1 second. US regulations are more stringent than ICAO.

3.1.2.6.5.2

In the request to downlink, Annex 10 assigns bits 0 to 7, many of them are reserved. The FAA Order 6365.1A implements this requirement assigning bits 0 and 1 and the bits 2 through 15 are not assigned.

3.1.2.10.4.3.3

Annex 10 requires “If antenna selection is based on signal level, it shall be carried out at all signal levels between MTL and -21 dBm." The RTCA MOPS for Mode S transponders, DO-181c, does not specify the range of signal levels over which the antenna selection must correctly be accomplished. FAA Order 6365.1A paragraph 5.5.1 addresses the issue of antenna selection. However, the TSO standard conferred upon manufacturers does not require implementation.

3.1.2.11.3

The US National Standard for the Mode S Beacon System, FAA Order 6365.1A, paragraph 6.3 requires – When the interrogator transmitter is not transmitting an interrogation, its output does not exceed -5 dBm effective radiated power at any frequency. This requirement exceeds the ICAO SARPs frequency of interest 960 to 1215 MHz.

Chapter 4

Airborne Collision Avoidance System

4.1

US documentation contains the following definition for TA: Information given to the pilot pertaining to the position of another aircraft in the immediate vicinity. The information contains no suggested maneuver. The ICAO SARPs considers this a potential threat. The TAs are issued to show all nearby traffic. TCAS does not determine by a test or analysis that some of these aircraft may be a potential threat. Information given to the pilot pertaining to the position of another aircraft in the immediate vicinity. The information contains no suggested maneuver.

4.2.3.3

The TSO-C118 (RTCA DO-197) implements this requirement. However, requirement of limiting Mode S power to the level of Mode A/C (paragraph 4.2.3.4) is not implemented.

4.3.1.1.1

Specifies a nominal cycle of 1 second

4.3.2.1.2

The US specifies a false track probability of less than 1.2% for Mode A/C and less than 0.1% for Mode S.

4.3.8.4.2.2.1.3

US documentation contains an additional requirement After an RA has been terminated: by TCAS, it is still required to be reported by the Mode S transponder for 18±1 seconds.

4.3.8.4.2.3.2.3

The US uses “don't descend" vs. “do not pass below" and “Don't climb" vs. "do not pass above"

4.3.8.4.2.3.2.5

Limited to TCAS with horizontal on-board resolution equipment

4.3.8.4.2.3.2.7

Limited to TCAS with horizontal on-board resolution equipment

4.3.8.4.2.3.4.5

The US specifies a different bit coding scheme. The US has implemented the AID code. The bit pattern documented in the RTCA document is in the bit order as received from the control head. The Annex 10 SARPs show the bit order of the RF transmission.

4.3.9.3.1

The US specifies 10 ft or less.

ACAS

The US uses the term Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). The difference of terminology does not impact interoperability of the systems.

ANNEX 10 - VOLUME V - AERONAUTICAL RADIO FREQUENCY SPECTRUM UTILIZATION

Chapter 2

Distress frequencies

2.1.1

After June 21, 1995, the US does not allow any new installations of 121.5 MHz emergency locator transmitters (ELT) in aircraft. However, the US does not have a mandatory requirement of both 121.5 MHz and 406 MHz ELT's in all aircraft.

Chapter 4

Utilization of frequencies above 30 MHz

4.1.2.2

The minimum frequency separation of 8.33 KHz has not been adopted in the US. The U.S. continues to use the channel separation of 25 KHz

4.1.2.3

Mandatory carriage of 8.33 KHz equipment has not been established in the US. The U.S. continues to use the channel separation of 25 KHz

4.1.2.4

FAA has not issued a mandatory carriage of VDL Mode 3 and VDL Mode 4.

4.1.2.4.1

FAA has not issued a mandatory carriage of VDL Mode 3.

4.1.3.1.6

The US does not require aircraft flying within the US airspace to meet one of the characteristics dealing with the FM interference immunity performance. The U.S. Aviation Rulemaking Committee made a decision not to adopt the FM interference immunity performance standards in the U.S. The U.S. continues to use its own FM immunity standards to avoid FM interference in aircraft.

4.1.4.1

The US does not provide the 20 dB desired-to-undesired signal protection for VHF frequency assignments. The US provides 14 dB.

4.1.4.2

The US does not require aircraft flying within the US airspace to meet one of the characteristics dealing with the FM interference immunity performance. The U.S. Aviation Rulemaking Committee made a decision not to adopt the FM interference immunity performance standards in the U.S. The U.S. continues to use its own FM immunity standards to avoid FM interference in aircraft.

4.1.6.2
List A

Assignable frequencies in 25 KHz steps in the US are 121.550 - 123.075 MHz instead of 121.550 – 123.050 MHz, and 123.125 – 136.975 MHz instead of 123.150 – 136.975 MHz.

4.2.3

The US does not follow the VOR assignment priority as defined in Section 4.2.3. Due to severe frequency congestion in the U.S., the ICAO frequency assignment priority order would result in inefficient use of the radio spectrum.

ANNEX 11 - AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

Chapter 1

Definitions

Accepting Unit

The term “receiving facility" is used.

 

Advisory Airspace

Advisory service is provided in terminal radar service areas and the outer area associated with class C airspace areas as well as Class E airspace.

 

Advisory Route

Advisory service is provided in terminal radar service areas and the outer area associated with class C airspace areas as well as Class E airspace.

 

ACAS– 
Airborne 
Collision Avoidance System

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) – An airborne collision avoidance system based on radar beacon signals which operates independent of ground-based equipment. 14 CFR 1.1 further defines and breaks down TCAS into TCAS 1 – provides traffic advisories 2 – provides traffic advisories and resolution advisories in the vertical plane and 3 – provides traffic advisories and resolution advisories in the vertical and horizontal planes.

 

AIRMET

FAA Pilot Controller Glossary defines (in part) AIRMET as “In-flight weather advisories issued only to amend the area forecast concerning weather phenomena which are of operational interest to all aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having limited capability because of lack of equipment instrumentation or pilot qualifications...." The ICAO definition of AIRMET narrows the purpose of the advisory to “low-level aircraft operations", where the FAA has a more broad definition to encompass “all aircraft and ... aircraft having limited capability..." Also, ICAO uses the term “forecast ... for the flight information region" where the FAA uses “area forecast". Difference in character (terminology) for area forecast. FAA uses AIRMETS for broader purpose.

 

Air traffic control unit

The U.S. uses the term “air traffic control facility". (i.e. En Route, Terminal, or Flight Service)

 

Air traffic services reporting office

FAA Pilot Control Glossary defines (in part) Flight Service Stations (FSS) as "air traffic facilities which provide pilot briefing, en route communications and VFR search and rescue services, assist lost aircraft in emergency situations, relay ATC clearances, originate notices to airmen, broadcast aviation weather and NAS information, receive and process IFR flight plans...." FSS's are available to receive any reports concerning air traffic services as well as accept and file flight plans.

 

Air traffic services unit

The U.S. uses “Air Route Traffic Control Center".

 

Airway

A Class E airspace area established in the form of a corridor, the centerline of which is defined by radio navigational aids.

Alert Phase

Alert – a notification to a position that there is an aircraft-to-aircraft or aircraft-to-airspace conflict as detected by automated problem detection.

Altitude

Height above ground level (AGL), mean sea level (MSL) or indicate altitude.

Apron Management Service

Ground control or ramp control provide the same service. There is no formal definition in the Pilot Controller Glossary.

Area Control Centre

The U.S. uses the terms “Traffic Control Center", “Radar Approach Control Facility", and “Tower" to define a facility that provides air traffic control service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace and principally during the en route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities and controller workload permit, certain advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft.

Area Control Service

Air Traffic Control - A service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic.

Controlled flight

The US uses the term “IFR Clearance".

Control Zone

The US uses the term “Surface Area". Surface area is airspace contained by the lateral boundary of the Class B, C, D, or E airspace designated for an airport that begins at the surface and extends upward.

Cruising Level

Cruising Altitude – an altitude or flight level maintained during en route level flight. This is a constant altitude and should not be confused with a cruise clearance.

Downstream Clearance

Same as air traffic control clearance. Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit.

Flight Information Centre

In the US, flight information service and alerting service are often provided by flight service stations.

Level

The term “altitude" is used.

Maneuvering Area

Any locality either on land, water, or structures, including airports/heliports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.

Meteorological office

No PCG definition. However FSSs perform this duty.

Movement Area

The runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport/heliport which are utilized for taxiing/hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. At those airports/heliports with a tower, specific approval for entry onto the movement area must be obtained from ATC.

Pilot-in-command

The person who has final authority for the operation and safety of the flight has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight and hold the appropriate category, class and type rating for the flight.

Traffic avoidance advice

US uses the term “Safety Alert"

Traffic information

US uses the term “Traffic Advisory"

Waypoint

A predetermined geographical position used for route/instrument approach definition, progress reports, published VFR routes, visual reporting points or points for transitioning and/or circumnavigating controlled and/or special use airspace, that is defined relative to a VORTAC station or in terms of latitude/longitude coordinates.

Chapter 2

General

2.3.2

Annex 11, paragraph 2.3.2 directs the flight information service to accomplish objective d) of para 2.2, “to provide advice and information for the safe and efficient conduct of flight." Details on procedures to accomplish this objective are contained in FAA Order JO 7210.3, Part 4, Flight Service Stations. Specific procedures for accomplishing this objective are contained in FAA Order JO 7110.10, Flight Services. Also, the FAA Pilot Controller Glossary defines a Flight Service Station (FSS) as an air traffic facility which provides pilot briefings, flight plan processing, en route flight advisories, search and rescue services, and assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations. FSSs also relay ATC clearances, process Notices to Airmen, and broadcast aviation weather and aeronautical information. In Alaska, FSSs provide Airport Advisory Services.

2.5.2.2.1

FAA uses the generic term “controlled airspace" and “surface areas"

2.5.2.2.1.1

FAA also provides this service in Class E.

2.5.2.2.2

Annex 11, paragraph 2.3.2 directs the flight information service to accomplish objective d) of para 2.2, “to provide advice and information for the safe and efficient conduct of flight." Details on procedures to accomplish this objective are contained in FAA JO Order 7210.3, Part 4, Flight Service Stations. Specific procedures for accomplishing this objective are contained in FAA Order JO 7110.10, Flight Services. Also, the FAA Pilot Controller Glossary defines a Flight Service Station (FSS) as an air traffic facility which provides pilot briefings, flight plan processing, en route flight advisories, search and rescue services, and assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations. FSSs also relay ATC clearances, process Notices to Airmen, and broadcast aviation weather and aeronautical information. In Alaska, FSSs provide Airport Advisory Services.

2.6

The Class F airspace is not used in the designation of U.S. airspace.

2.6.1

The U.S. has chosen not to use Class F airspace.

2.10.3.2.2

 

Class E-5 700/1200-foot airspace areas are used for transitioning aircraft to/from the terminal or en route environment.

 

2.10.3.3

 

En Route Domestic Airspace Areas consist of Class E airspace that extends upward from a specified altitude to provide controlled airspace in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR en route ATC services but the Federal airway structure is inadequate. En Route Domestic Airspace Areas may be designated to serve en route operations when there is a requirement to provide ATC service but the desired routing does not qualify for airway designation. Offshore/Control Airspace Areas are locations designated in international airspace (between the U.S. 12-mile territorial limit and the CTA/FIR boundary, and within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage) wherein domestic ATC procedures may be used for separation purposes.

 

2.10.5.1

 

A Class D airspace area shall be of sufficient size to: 1. Allow for safe and efficient handling of operations. 2. Contain IFR arrival operations while between the surface and 1,000 feet above the surface, and IFR departure operations while between the surface and 1,000 feet above the surface, and IFR departure operations while between the surface and the base of adjacent controlled airspace.

 

2.10.5.2

A Class D airspace area shall be of sufficient size to: 1. Allow for safe and efficient handling of operations. 2. Contain IFR arrival operations while between the surface and 1,000 feet above the surface, and IFR departure operations while between the surface and the base of adjacent controlled airspace. Size and shape may vary to provide for 1 and 2. The emphasis is that a Class D area shall be sized to contain the intended operations.

2.10.5.3

Refer to Surface Areas

2.25.5

No time is issued prior to taxi for take-off. Time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.

2.27.5

Process is described in the FAA Safety Management System Manual and the FAA Order 1100.161.

Chapter 3

Air Traffic Control Service

3.2

Air Route Traffic Control Facilities (ARTCC) are used instead of Area Control Service, and Terminal Control Facilities instead of Approach Control Service.

3.6.2.4

The U.S does not specify notification of 2-way communication. The accepting unit shall not alter the clearance of an aircraft that has not yet reached the transfer of control point without the prior approval of the transferring unit.

3.7.3.1

Air crews are not required to read back clearances, only to acknowledge receipt of clearances.

3.7.3.1.1

Air crews are not required to read back clearances, only to acknowledge receipt of clearances.

3.7.4.3

4-3-8. COORDINATION WITH RECEIVING FACILITY Coordinate with the receiving facility before the departure of an aircraft if the departure point is less than 15 minutes flying time from the transferring facility's boundary unless an automatic transfer of of data between automated systems will occur, in which case the flying time requirement may be reduced to 5 minutes or replaced with a mileage from the boundary parameter when mutually agreeable to both facilities.

3.7.4.4

4-4-5. CLASS G AIRSPACE Include routes through Class G airspace only when requested by the pilot. NOTE-1. Flight plans filed for random RNAV routes through Class G airspace are considered a request by the pilot. 2. Flight plans containing MTR segments in/through Class G airspace are considered a request by the pilot. Air Traffic Control Clearance means an authorization by air traffic control within controlled airspace.

Chapter 4

Flight Information Service

4.2.2

No Class F airspace. Collision Hazard information is provided between known traffic to aircraft in Class G airspace.

Chapter 6

Air Traffic Services Requirements for Communications

6.1.1.4

6.2.2.3.8

The US uses a 45 day retention period.

6.2.3.6

The US has a 45 day or longer retention period, with some exceptions. US en route facilities using system analysis recording tapes as their radar retention media shall retain radar data for 15 days. Facilities using a teletype emulator or console printout must be retained for 30 days unless they are related to an accident or incident. A facility using a console typewriter printout take-up device may retain the printout on the spool for 15 days after the last date on the spool. If a request is received to retain data information following an accident or incident, the printout of the relative data will suffice and the tape/disc may then be returned to service through the normal established rotational program.

6.3.1.3

The US has a 45 day or longer retention period except that those facilities utilizing an analog voice recorder system shall retain voice recordings for 15 days.

6.4.1.2

The US retains surveillance data recordings for 45 days or longer when they are pertinent to an accident or incident investigation, except that en route facilities using system analysis recording tapes as their radar retention media (regardless of the type of voice recorder system being used) shall retain voice recordings for 15 days and those facilities using an analog voice recorder system shall retain voice recordings for 15 days. FAA's Air Traffic Control System Command Center shall retain voice recordings for 15 days.

Chapter 7

Air Traffic Services Requirements for Information

7.1.5

The term “communication station" is not used but the flight information is passed.

7.6

Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are the mechanism that would be implemented in such cases.

Appendix 2

Principles Governing the Establishment and Identification of Significant Points

3.1

In US, per FAA Order 8260.19D, there are some points not to be named. Fixes used for navigation not to be named include Visual Descent Points (VDPs), radar fixes used on ASR and/or PAR procedures, RNAV missed approach point at threshold, and an ATD fix located between the MAP and the landing area marking the visual segment descent point on COPTER RNAV PinS approach annotated “PROCEED VISUALLY." 
Additionally, there are some non-pronounceable points allowed. Order 8260.19 states “Except as noted below, each name must consist of a 5-letter pronounceable word. These non-pronounceable exceptions include; Stepdown fixes between FAF and MAP, Missed Approach Points (MAP), Computer Navigation Fixes (CNFs), and VFR Waypoints.

Appendix 4

ATS Airspace Classifications

 

Speed restrictions of 250 knots do not apply to aircraft operating beyond 12 NM from the coast line within the U.S. Flight Information Region, in offshore Class E airspace below 10,000 feet MSL.

 

Paragraph (a) of § 91.117 of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) provides that “Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 knots.” Within domestic airspace, a pilot operating at or above 10,000 MSL on an assigned speed adjustment greater than 250 knots is expected to comply with § 91.117(a) when cleared below 10,000 feet MSL without notifying Air Traffic Control (ATC).

 

The Federal Aviation Administration has proceeded from an operational perspective that the speed restrictions of § 91.117(a) do not apply to U.S.-registered aircraft, via § 91.703(a)(3), when operating outside the United States (and not within another country's territorial airspace).

ANNEX 12 - SEARCH AND RESCUE

There are no reportable differences between U.S. regulations and the Standards and Recommended Practices contained in this Annex.

ANNEX 13 - AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

Chapter 5

Investigation

5.12

The full exchange of information is vital to effective accident investigation and prevention. The U.S. supports, in principle, measures that are intended to facilitate the development and sharing of information. The laws of the U.S. require the determination and public reporting of the facts, circumstances, and probable cause of every civil aviation accident. This requirement does not confine the public disclosure of such information to an accident investigation. However, the laws of the U.S. do provide some protection against public dissemination of certain information of a medical or private nature.
Also, U.S. law prohibits the disclosure of cockpit voice recordings to the public and limits the disclosure of cockpit voice recording transcript to that specific information which is deemed pertinent and relevant by the investigative authority. However, U.S. Courts can order the disclosure of the foregoing information for other than accident investigation purposes. The standard for determining access to this information does not consider the adverse domestic or international effects on investigations that might result from such access.

5.25 h)

Investigative procedures observed by the U.S. allow full participation in all progress and investigation planning meetings; however, deliberations related to analysis, findings, probable causes, and safety recommendations are restricted to the investigative authority and its staff. However, participation in these areas is extended through timely written submissions, as specified in paragraph 5.25 i).

5.26 b)

The U.S. supports, in principle, the privacy of the State conducting the investigation regarding the progress and the findings of that investigation. However, the laws of the U.S. facilitate the public disclosure of information held by U.S. government agencies and U.S. commercial business. The standard for determining public access to information requested from a U.S. government agency or a commercial business does not consider or require the expressed consent of the State conducting the investigation.

Chapter 6

Reporting

6.13

The U.S. supports the principle of not circulating, publishing, or providing access to a draft report or any part thereof unless such a report or document has already been published or released by the State which conducted the investigation. However, the laws of the U.S. facilitate the public disclosure of information held by government agencies and commercial business. The U.S. government may not be able to restrict public access to a draft report or any part thereof on behalf of the State conducting the investigation. The standard for determining public access to information requested from a U.S. government agency or a commercial business does not consider or require the expressed consent of the State conducting an investigation.

ANNEX 14 - AERODROMES

VOLUME 1 - AERODROME DESIGN AND OPERATIONS

Chapter 1

General

1.2.1

Airports in the U.S. are for the most part owned and operated by local governments and quasi-government organizations formed to operate transportation facilities. The Federal Government provides air traffic control, operates and maintains NAVAIDs, provides financial assistance for airport development, certificates major airports, and issues standards and guidance for airport planning, design, and operational safety.
There is general conformance with the Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 14, Volume I. At airports with scheduled passenger service using aircraft having more than nine seats, compliance with standards is enforced through regulation and certification. At other airports, compliance is achieved through the agreements with individual airports under which Federal development funds were granted; or, through voluntary actions.

1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4

In the U.S., the Airport Reference Code is a two-component indicator relating the standards used in the airport's design to a combination of dimensional and operating characteristics of the largest aircraft expected to use the airport. The first element, Aircraft Approach Category, corresponds to the ICAO PANS-OPS approach speed groupings. The second, Airplane Design Group, corresponds to the wingspan groupings of code element 2 of the Annex 14, Aerodrome Reference Code. See below:

TBL GEN 1.7-1
Airport Reference Code (ARC)

Aircraft Approach Category

Approximate Annex 14 Code Number

A

1

B

2

C

3

D

4

E

-

Airplane Design Group

Corresponding Annex 14 Code Letter

I

A

II

B

III

C

IV

D

V

E

VI

F
(proposed)

EXAMPLE: AIRPORT DESIGNED FOR B747-400 ARC D-V.

Chapter 2

Aerodrome Data

2.2.1

The airport reference point is recomputed when the ultimate planned development of the airport is changed.

2.9.6
2.9.7

Minimum friction values have not been established to indicate that runways are ``slippery when wet.'' However, U.S. guidance recommends that pavements be maintained to the same levels indicated in the ICAO Airport Services Manual.

2.11.3

If inoperative fire fighting apparatus cannot be replaced immediately, a NOTAM must be issued. If the apparatus is not restored to service within 48 hours, operations shall be limited to those compatible with the lower index corresponding to operative apparatus.

2.12 e)

Where the original VASI is still installed, the threshold crossing height is reported as the center of the on-course signal, not the top of the red signal from the downwind bar.

Chapter 3

Physical Characteristics

3.1.2*

The crosswind component is based on the ARC: 10.5 kt for AI and BI; 13 kt for AII and BII; 16 kt for AIII, BIII and CI through DIII; 20 kts for AIV through DVI.

3.1.9*

Runway widths (in meters) used in design are shown in the table below:

Width of Runway in Meters

Aircraft
Approach

Category

Airplane Design Group

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

A

181

231

--

--

45

60

B

181

231

--

--

45

60

C

30

30

302

45

45

60

D

30

30

302

45

45

60

1The width of a precision (lower than 3/4 statute mile approach visibility minimums) runway is 23 meters for a runway which is to accommodate only small (less than 5,700 kg) airplanes and 30 meters for runways accommodating larger airplanes.

2For airplanes with a maximum certificated take-off mass greater than 68,000 kg, the standard runway width is 45 meters.

3.1.12*

Longitudinal runway slopes of up to 1.5 percent are permitted for aircraft approach categories C and D except for the first and last quarter of the runway where the maximum slope is 0.8 percent.

3.1.18*

Minimum and maximum transverse runway slopes are based on aircraft approach categories as follows:
For categories A and B: 1.0 - 2.0 percent
C and D: 1.0 - 1.5 percent

3.2.2

The U.S. does not require that the minimum combined runway and shoulder widths equal 60 meters. The widths of shoulders are determined independently.

3.2.3*

The transverse slope on the innermost portion of the shoulder can be as high as 5 percent.

3.3.3
3.3.4*
3.3.5*

A strip width of 120 meters is used for code 3 and 4 runways for precision, nonprecision, and non-instrumented operations. For code 1 and 2 precision runways, the width is 120 meters. For non-precision/visual runways, widths vary from 37.5 meters up to 120 meters.

3.3.9*

Airports used exclusively by small aircraft (U.S. Airplane Design Group I) may be graded to distances as little as 18 meters from the runway centerline.

3.3.14*

The maximum transverse slope of the graded portion of the strip can be 3 percent for aircraft approach categories C and D and 5 percent for aircraft approach categories A and B.

3.3.15*

The U.S. does not have standards for the maximum transverse grade on portions of the runway strip falling beyond the area that is normally graded.

3.3.17*

Runways designed for use by smaller aircraft under non-instrument conditions may be graded to distances as little as 18 meters from the runway centerline (U.S. Airplane Design Groups I and II).

3.4.2*

For certain code 1 runways, the runway end safety areas may be only 72 meters.

3.7.1*
3.7.2*

The U.S. does not provide Standards or Recommended Practices for radio altimeter operating areas.

3.8.3*

The U.S. specifies a 6 meter clearance for Design Group VI airplanes.

3.8.4*

The taxiway width for Design Group VI airplanes is 30 meters.

3.8.5*

The U.S. also permits designing taxiway turns and intersections using the judgmental oversteering method.

3.8.7*

Minimum separations between runway and taxiway centerlines, and minimum separations between taxiways and taxilanes and between taxiway/taxilanes and fixed/moveable objects are shown in the tables that follow. Generally, U.S. separations are larger for non-instrumented runways, and smaller for instrumented runways, than the Annex. Values are also provided for aircraft with wingspans up to 80 meters.

Minimum Separations Between Runway Centerline and Parallel Taxiway/Taxilane Centerline

Operation

Aircraft Approach Category

Airplane Design Group

I1

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

Visual runways and runways with not lower than 3/4-statute mile (1,200 meters) approach visibility minimums

A and B

150 feet 45 meters

225 feet 67.5 meters

240 feet
72 meters

300 feet
90 meters

400 feet 120 meters

--

--

Runways with lower than 3/4-statute mile (1,200 meters) approach visibility minimums

A and B

200 feet
60 meters

250 feet
75 meters

300 feet
90 meters

350 feet
105 meters

400 feet
120 meters

--

--

Visual runways and runways with not lower than 3/4-statute mile (1,200 meters) approach visibility minimums

C and D

--

300 feet
90 meters

300 feet
90 meters

400 feet
120 meters

400 feet
120 meters

4002 feet 120meters

600 feet
180 meters

Runways with lower than 3/4-statute mile (1,200 meters) approach visibility minimums

C and D

--

400 feet 120 meters

400 feet
120 meters

400 feet
120 meters

400 feet
120 meters

4002 feet 120meters

600 feet
180 meters

1These dimensional standards pertain to facilities for small airplanes exclusively.

2Corrections are made for altitude: 120 meters separation for airports at or below 410 meters; 135 meters for altitudes between 410 meters and 2,000 meters; and, 150 meters for altitudes above 2,000 meters.

Minimum Taxiway and Taxilane Separations:

Airplane Design Group

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

Taxiway centerline to
parallel taxiway/
taxilane centerline
Fixed or movable object


69 feet
21 meters
44.5 feet
13.5 meters


105 feet 
32 meters
65.5 feet
20 meters


152 feet
46.5 meters
93 feet
28.5 meters


215 feet
65.5 meters
129.5 feet
39.5 meters


267 feet
81 meters
160 feet
48 meters


324 feet
99 meters
193 feet
59 meters

Taxilane centerline to
parallel taxilane
centerline
Fixed or movable object


64 feet
19.5 meters
39.5 feet
12 meters


97 feet
29.5 meters
57.5 feet
17.5 meters


140 feet
42.5 meters
81 feet
24.5 meters


198 feet
60 meters
112.5 feet
34 meters


245 feet
74.5 meters
138 feet
42 meters


298 feet
91 meters
167 feet
51 meters

3.8.10*

Line-of-sight standards for taxiways are not provided in U.S. practice, but there is a requirement that the sight distance along a runway from an intersecting taxiway must be sufficient to allow a taxiing aircraft to safely enter or cross the runway.

3.8.11*

Transverse slopes of taxiways are based on aircraft approach categories. For categories C and D, slopes are 1.0-1.5 percent; for A and B, 1.0-2.0 percent.

3.11.5

The runway centerline to taxi-holding position separation for code 1 is 38 meters for non-precision operations and 53 meters for precision. Code 3 and 4 precision operations require a separation of 75 meters, except for “wide bodies,” which require 85 meters.

Dimensions and Slopes for Protective Areas and Surfaces

 

Precision Approach

Non-precision Instrument Approach

Visual Runway

 

All runways

All runwaysa

Runways other than utilityb

Utility 
runwaysd

Runways other than utility

Utility 
runways

Width of inner edge

305 meters

305 meters

152 meters

152 meters

152 meters

76 metersc

Divergency
(each side)

15 percent

15 percent

15 percent

15 percent

10 percent

10 percent

Final width

4,877 meters

1,219 meters

1,067 metersc

610 meters

475 metersc

381 metersc

Length

15,240 meters

3,048 metersc

3,048 metersc

1,524 metersc

1,524 metersc

1,524 metersc

Slope: inner
3,049 meters

2 percent

2.94 percentc

2.94 percentc

5 percentc

5 percentc

5 percentc

Slope: beyond
3,048 meters

2.5 percentc

 

 

 

 

 

aWith visibility minimum as low as 1.2 km;bwith visibility minimum greater than 1.2 km; ccriteria less demanding than Annex 14 Table 4-1 dimensions and slopes. dUtility runways are intended to serve propeller-driven aircraft having a maximum take-off mass of 5,570 kg.

Chapter 4

Obstacle Restriction and Removal

4.1

Obstacle limitation surfaces similar to those described in 4.1-4.20 are found in 14 CFR Part 77.

4.1.21

A balked landing surface is not used.

4.1.25

The U.S. does not establish take-off climb obstacle limitation areas and surface, per se, but does specify protective surfaces for each end of the runway based on the type of approach procedures available or planned. The dimensions and slopes for these surfaces and areas are listed in the table above.

4.2

The dimensions and slopes of U.S. approach areas and surfaces are set forth in the above table. Aviation regulations do not prohibit construction of fixed objects above the surfaces described in these sections.

4.2.1

Primary surface is also used as a civil airport imaginary surface. Primary surface is a surface longitudinally centered on a runway.

U.S. uses the width of the primary surface of a runway as prescribed in 14 CFR Part 77.25 for the most precise approach existing or planned for either end of that runway.

4.2.8

The slope and dimensions of the approach surface applied to each end of a runway are determined by the most precise approach existing or planned for that runway end.

4.2.9

Approach surfaces are applied to each end of each runway based upon the type of approach available or planned for that runway end.

4.2.10,
4.2.11

Any proposed construction of or alteration to an existing structure is normally considered to be physically shielded by one or more existing permanent structure(s), natural terrain, or topographic feature(s) of equal or greater height if the structure under consideration is located within the lateral dimensions of any runway approach surface but would not exceed an overall height above the established airport elevation greater than that of the outer extremity of the approach surface, and located within, but would not penetrate, the shadow plane(s) of the shielding structure(s).

4.2.12

The basic principle in applying shielding guidelines is whether the location and height of the structures are such that aircraft, when operating with due regard for the shielding structure, would not collide with that structure.

4.2.16

The size of each imaginary surface is based on the category of each runway according to the type of approach available or planned for that runway. The slope and dimensions of the approach surface applied to each end of a runway are determined by the most precise approach existing or planned for that runway end.

4.2.17

Approach surfaces are applied to each end of each runway based upon the type of approach available or planned for that runway end.

Chapter 5

Visual Aids for Navigation

5.2.1.7*

The U.S. does not require unpaved taxiways to be marked.

5.2.2.2*

The U.S. does not require a runway designator marking for unpaved runways.

5.2.2.4

Zeros are not used to precede single-digit runway markings. An optional configuration of the numeral 1 is available to designate a runway 1 and to prevent confusion with the runway centerline.

5.2.4.2* 5.2.4.3*

Threshold markings are not required, but sometimes provided, for non-instrument runways that do not serve international operations.

5.2.4.5

The current U.S. standard for threshold designation is eight stripes, except that more than eight stripes may be used on runways wider than 45 meters. After 1 January 2008, the U.S. standard will comply with Annex 14.

5.2.4.6

The width and spacing of threshold stripes will comply with Annex 14 after 1 January 2008.

5.2.4.10

When a threshold is temporarily displaced, there is no requirement that runway or taxiway edge markings, prior to the displaced threshold, be obscured. These markings are removed only if the area is unsuitable for the movement of aircraft.

5.2.5.2
5.2.5.3*

Aiming point markings are required on precision instrument runways and code 3 and 4 runways used by jet aircraft.

5.2.5.4

The aiming point marking commences 306 meters from the threshold at all runways.

5.2.6.3

The U.S. pattern for touchdown zone markings, when installed on both runway ends, is only applicable to runways longer than 4,990 feet. On shorter runways, the three pair of markings closest to the runway midpoint are eliminated.

5.2.6.4

The U.S. standard places the aiming point marking 306 meters from the threshold where it replaces one of the pair of three stripe threshold markings. The 306 meters location is used regardless of runway length.

5.2.6.5*

Touchdown zone markings are not required at a non-precision approach runway, though they may be provided.

5.2.7.4*

Runway side stripe markings on a non-instrument runway may have an over-all width of 0.3 meter.

5.2.8.3

Taxiway centerline markings are never installed longitudinally on a runway even if the runway is part of a standard taxi route.

5.2.9.5*

The term ``ILS'' is used instead of CAT I, CAT II, CAT III.

5.2.11.4 5.2.11.5* 5.2.11.6*

Check-point markings are provided, but the circle is 3 meters in diameter, and the directional line may be of varying width and length. The color is the yellow used for taxiway markings.

5.2.12

Standards for aircraft stand markings are not provided.

5.2.13.1*

Apron safety lines are not required although many airports have installed them.

5.2.14.1

The U.S. does not have standards for holding position markings on roadways that cross runways. Local traffic control practices are used.

5.3.1.1 5.3.1.2*

The U.S. does not have regulations to prevent the establishment of non-aviation ground lights that might interfere with airport operations.

5.3.1.3
5.3.1.4

New approach lighting installations will meet the frangibility requirements. Some existing non-frangible systems may not be replaced before 1 January 2005.

5.3.2.1* 5.3.2.2* 5.3.2.3*

There is no requirement for an airport to have emergency runway lighting available if it does not have a secondary power source. Some airports do have these systems, and there is an FAA specification for these lights.

5.3.3.1
5.3.3.3

Only airports served by aircraft having more than 30 seats are required to have a beacon, though they are available at many others.

5.3.3.6

Although the present U.S. standard for beacons calls for 24-30 flashes per minute, some older beacons may have flash rates as low as 12 flashes per minute.

5.3.3.8

Coded identification beacons are not required and are not commonly installed. Typically, airport beacons conforming to 5.3.3.6 are installed at locations served by aircraft having more than 30 seats.

5.3.4.1

While the U.S. has installed an approach light system conforming to the specifications in 5.3.4.10 through 5.3.4.19, it also provides for a lower cost system consisting of medium intensity approach lighting and sequenced flashing lights (MALSF) at some locations.

5.3.4.2

In addition to the system described in 5.3.4.1, a system consisting of omnidirectional strobe lights (ODALS) located at 90 meters intervals extending out to 450 meters from the runway threshold is used at some locations.

5.3.4.10 
through 
5.3.4.19

The U.S. standard for a precision approach category I lighting system is a medium intensity approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights (MALSR). This system consists of 3 meters barrettes at 60 meters intervals out to 420 meters from the threshold and sequenced flashing lights at 60 meters intervals from 480 meters to 900 meters. A crossbar 20 meters in length is provided 300 meters from the threshold. The total length of this system is dependent upon the ILS glide path angle. For angles 2.75° and higher, the length is 720 meters.

5.3.4.16
5.3.4.31

The capacitor discharge lights can be switched on or off when the steady-burning lights of the approach lighting system are operating. However, they cannot be operated when the other lights are not in operation.

5.3.4.20

The U.S. standard for a precision approach category II and III lighting system has a total length dependent upon the ILS glide path angle. For angles 2.75° and higher, the length is 720 meters.

5.3.5.1
5.3.5.3
5.3.5.4

Visual approach slope indicator systems are not required for all runways used by turbojets except runways involved with land and hold short operations that do not have an electronic glideslope system.

5.3.5.2

In addition to PAPI and APAPI systems, VASI and AVASI type systems remain in service at U.S. airports with commercial service. Smaller general aviation airports may have various other approach slope indicators including tri-color and pulsating visual approach slope indicators.

5.3.5.27

The U.S. standard for PAPI allows for the distance between the edge of the runway and the first light unit to be reduced to 9 meters for code 1 runways used by nonjet aircraft.

5.3.5.42

The PAPI obstacle protection surface used is as follows: The surface begins 90 meters in front of the PAPI system (toward the threshold) and proceeds outward into the approach zone at an angle 1 degree less than the aiming angle of the third light unit from the runway. The surface flares 10 degrees on either side of the extended runway centerline and extends 4 statute miles from its point of origin.

5.3.8.4

The U.S. permits the use of omnidirectional runway threshold identification lights.

5.3.13.2

The U.S. does not require the lateral spacing of touchdown zone lights to be equal to that of touchdown zone marking when runways are less that 45 meters wide.
The lateral distance between the markings is 22 meters when installed on runways with a width of 45 meters or greater. The distance is proportionately smaller for narrower runways. The lateral distance between touchdown zone lights is nominally 22 meters but may be reduced to 20 meters to avoid construction problems.

5.3.14

The U.S. has no provision for stopway lights.

5.3.15.1
5.3.15.2*

Taxiway centerline lights are required only below 183 meters RVR on designated taxi routes. However, they are generally recommended whenever a taxiing problem exists.

5.3.15.3
8.2.3

Taxiway centerline lights are not provided on runways forming part of a standard taxi route even for low visibility operations. Under these conditions, the taxi path is coincident with the runway centerline, and the runway lights are illuminated.

5.3.15.5

Taxiway centerline lights on exit taxiways presently are green. However, the new U.S. standard which is scheduled to be published by 1 January 98 will comply with the alternating green/yellow standard of Annex 14.

5.3.15.7*

The U.S. permits an offset of up to 60 cm.

5.3.16.2
8.2.3

Taxiway edge lights are not provided on runways forming part of a standard taxi route.

5.3.17.1
5.3.17.2*
5.3.17.3
5.3.17.4*
5.3.17.5*

Stop bars are required only for runway visual range conditions less than a value of 183 meters at taxiway/runway intersections where the taxiway is lighted during low visibility operations. Once installed, controlled stop bars are operated at RVR conditions less than a value of 350 meters.

5.3.17.6

Elevated stop bar lights are normally installed longitudinally in line with taxiway edge lights. Where edge lights are not installed, the stop bar lights are installed not more than 3 meters from the taxiway edge.

5.3.17.9

The beamspread of elevated stop bar lights differs from the inpavement lights. The inner isocandela curve for the elevated lights is ± 7 horizontal and ± 4 vertical.

5.3.17.12

The U.S. standard for stop bars, which are switchable in groups, does not require the taxiway centerline lights beyond the stop bars to be extinguished when the stop bars are illuminated. The taxiway centerline lights which extend beyond selectively switchable stop bars are grouped into two segments of approximately 45 meters each. A sensor at the end of the first segment re-illuminates the stop bar and extinguishes the first segment of centerline lights. A sensor at the end of the second segment extinguishes that segment of centerline lights.

5.3.18.1*

Taxiway intersection lights are also used at other hold locations on taxiways such as low visibility holding points.

5.3.18.2

Taxiway intersection lights are collocated with the taxiway intersection marking. The marking is located at the following distances from the centerline of the intersecting taxiway:

Airplane Design Group

Distance

I
II
III
IV
V

VI

13.5 meters
20 meters
28.5 meters
39 meters
48.5 meters
59 meters

5.3.19.1
5.3.19.2*

Runway guard lights are required only for runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350 meters.

5.3.19.4
5.3.19.5

Runway guard lights are placed at the same distance from the runway centerline as the aircraft holding distance, or within a few feet of this location.

5.3.19.12

The new U.S. standard for in-pavement runway guard lights complies with Annex 14. However, there may be some existing systems that do not flash alternately.

5.3.20.4*

The U.S. does not set aviation standards for flood lighting aprons.

5.3.21

The U.S. does not provide standards for visual docking guidance systems. U.S. manufacturers of these devices generally adhere to ICAO SARPS.

5.3.23.1

The U.S. does not have a requirement for providing roadholding position lights during RVR conditions less than a value of 350 meters.

5.4.1.2

Signs are often installed a few centimeters taller than specified in Annex 14, Volume 1, Table 5-4.

5.4.1.5

Sign inscriptions are slightly larger, and margins around the sign slightly smaller, than indicated in Annex 14, Volume 1, Appendix 4.

5.4.1.6

The sign luminance requirements are not as high as specified in Appendix 4. The U.S. does not specify a nighttime color requirement in terms of chromaticity.

5.4.2.2
5.4.2.4
5.4.2.9
5.4.2.14
5.4.2.16

All signs used to denote precision approach holding positions have the legend ``ILS.''

5.4.2.6

U.S. practice uses the NO ENTRY sign to prohibit entry by aircraft only.

5.4.2.8
5.4.2.10

The second mandatory instruction sign is usually not installed unless added guidance is necessary.

5.4.2.15

Signs for holding aircraft and vehicles from entering areas where they would infringe on obstacle limitation surfaces or interfere with NAVAIDs are inscribed with the designator of the approach, followed by the letters ``APCH''; for example, ``15-APCH.''

5.4.3.13
5.4.3.15

U.S. practice is to install signs about 3 to 5 meters closer to the taxiway/runway (See Annex 14, Table 5-4).

5.4.3.16

The U.S. does not have standards for the location of runway exit signs.

5.4.3.24

A yellow border is used on all location signs, regardless of whether they are stand-alone or collocated with other signs.

5.4.3.26

U.S. practice is to use Pattern A on runway vacated signs, except that Pattern B is used to indicate that an ILS critical area has been cleared.

5.4.3.30*

The U.S. does not have standards for signs used to indicate a series of taxi-holding positions on the same taxiway.

5.4.4.4*

The inscription, ``VOR Check Course,'' is placed on the sign in addition to the VOR and DME data.

5.4.5.1*

The U.S. does not have requirements for airport identification signs, though they are usually installed.

5.4.6.1*

Standards are not provided for signs used to identify aircraft stands.

5.4.7.2

The distance from the edge of road to the road-holding position sign conforms to local highway practice.

5.5.2.2*
5.5.7.1*

Boundary markers may be used to denote the edges of an unpaved runway.

5.5.3

There is no provision for stopway edge markers.

Chapter 6

Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles

6.1

Recommended practices for marking and lighting obstacles are found in FAA Advisory Circular 70/7460-1J, Obstruction Marking and Lighting.

6.1.3

Any temporary or permanent structure, including all appurtenances, that exceeds an overall height of 200 feet (61m) above ground level or exceeds any obstruction standard contained in 14 CFR Part 77, should normally be marked and/or lighted.

6.2.1

This chapter provides recommended guidelines to make certain structures conspicuous to pilots during daylight hours. One way of achieving this conspicuity is by painting and/or marking these structures.
Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in the case of wind turbines, number of structures and overall layout of design.

6.2.3*

The maximum dimension of the rectangles in a checkered pattern is 6 meters on a side.

6.2.7

Markers should be displayed in conspicuous positions on or adjacent to the structure so as to retain the general definition of the structure. They should be recognizable in clear air from a distance of at least 4,000 feet (1219m) and in all directions from which aircraft are likely to approach. Markers should be distinctively shaped, i.e., spherical or cylindrical, so they are not mistaken for items that are used to convey other information. They should be replaced when faded or otherwise deteriorated.

6.2.11

Flag markers should be displayed around, on top, or along the highest edge of the obstruction. When flags are used to mark extensive or closely grouped obstructions, they should be displayed approximately 50 feet (15m) apart. The flag stakes should be of such strength and height that they will support the flags above all surrounding ground, structures, and/or objects of natural growth.

6.2.12

Each side of the flag marker should be at least 2 feet (0.6m) in length.
Standard does not specifically address mobile objects.

6.2.14

Color patterns. Flags should be colored as follows: solid, orange and white, and checkerboard. Standard does not specifically address mobile objects.

6.3.1

Obstruction lighting may be displayed on structures as follows: aviation red obstruction lights; medium intensity flashing white obstruction lights, high intensity flashing white obstruction lights, dual lighting, obstruction lights during construction, obstruction lights in urban areas, and temporary construction equipment lighting.

6.3.11

The height of the structure AGL determines the number of light levels.
Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in the case of wind turbines, number of structures and overall layout of design.

6.3.13

When a structure lighted by a high intensity flashing light system is topped with an antenna or similar appurtenance exceeding 40 feet (12m) in height, a medium intensity flashing white light (L-865) should be placed within 40 feet (12m) from the tip of the appurtenance. This light should operate 24 hours a day and flash simultaneously with the rest of the lighting system.

6.3.14

The number of light units recommended depends on the diameter of the structure at the top.

6.3.16

Lights should be installed on the highest point at each end. At intermediate levels, lights should be displayed for each 150 feet (46m) or fraction thereof. The vertical position of these lights should be equidistant between the top lights and the ground level as the shape and type of obstruction will permit. One such light should be displayed at each outside corner on each level with the remaining lights evenly spaced between the corner lights.

6.3.17

Lights should be installed on the highest point at each end. At intermediate levels, lights should be displayed for each 150 feet (46m) or fraction thereof. The vertical position of these lights should be equidistant between the top lights and the ground level as the shape and type of obstruction will permit. One such light should be displayed at each outside corner on each level with the remaining lights evenly spaced between the corner lights.

6.3.18

Lights should be installed on the highest point at each end. At intermediate levels, lights should be displayed for each 150 feet (46m) or fraction thereof. The vertical position of these lights should be equidistant between the top lights and the ground level as the shape and type of obstruction will permit. One such light should be displayed at each outside corner on each level with the remaining lights evenly spaced between the corner lights.

6.3.19,
6.3.20

One or more light units is needed to obtain the desired horizontal coverage. The number of light units recommended per level (except for the supporting structures of catenary wires and buildings) depends upon the average outside diameter of the specific structure, and the horizontal beam width of the light fixture. The light units should be installed in a manner to ensure an unobstructed view of the system by a pilot approaching from any direction. The number of lights recommended is the minimum.
The U.S. does not utilize Type A or Type B obstacle lights. Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in the case of wind turbines, number of structures and overall layout of design.

6.3.21*
6.3.22*

The effective intensity, for daylight-luminance background, of Type A high-intensity obstacle lights is 270,000 cd ± 25 percent.
The effective intensity, for daylight-luminance background, of Type B high-intensity obstacle lights is 140,000 cd ± 25 percent.

6.3.22

The height of the structure AGL determines the number of light levels. The light levels may be adjusted slightly, but not to exceed 10 feet (3m) when necessary to accommodate guy wires and personnel who replace or repair light fixtures. If an adjacent object shields any light, horizontal placement of the lights should be adjusted or additional lights should be mounted on that object to retain or contribute to the definition of the obstruction.
Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in the case of wind turbines, number of structures and overall layout of design.

6.3.23,
6.3.24,
6.3.27,
6.3.29

Red obstruction lights are used to increase conspicuity during nighttime. The red obstruction lighting system is composed of flashing omnidirectional beacons (L-864) and/or steady burning (L-810) lights. When one or more levels is comprised of flashing beacon lighting, the lights should flash simultaneously.
The U.S. does not utilize Type A, B, C, or D obstacle lights. Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in

6.3.28

When objects within a group of obstructions are approximately the same overall height above the surface and are located a maximum of 150 feet (46m) apart, the group of obstructions may be considered an extensive obstruction. Install light units on the same horizontal plane at the highest portion or edge of prominent obstructions. Light units should be placed to ensure that the light is visible to a pilot approaching from any direction.

6.3.30,
6.3.31,
6.3.32

The medium intensity flashing white light system is normally composed of flashing omni- directional lights. Medium intensity flashing white obstruction lights may be used during daytime and twilight with automatically selected reduced intensity for nighttime operation.
The U.S. does not utilize Type A, B, or C obstacle lights. Medium intensity flashing white (L-865) obstruction lights may provide conspicuity both day and night. Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in the case of structures and overall layout of design.

6.3.35

Use high intensity flashing white obstruction lights during daytime with automatically selected reduced intensities for twilight and nighttime operations. When high intensity white lights are operated 24 hours a day, other methods of marking and lighting may be omitted.
The U.S. does not utilize Type A obstacle lights. Lighting with high intensity (L-856) flashing white obstruction lights provides the highest degree of conspicuity both day and night. Recommendations on marking structures can vary depending on terrain features, weather patterns, geographic location, and in the case of wind turbines, number of structures and overall layout of design.

Chapter 7

Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas

7.1.2*

A ``closed'' marking is not used with partially closed runways. See 5.2.4.10, above.

7.1.4

Crosses with shapes similar to figure 7.1, illustration b) are used to indicate closed runways and taxiways.
The cross for denoting a closed runway is yellow.

7.1.5

In the U.S. when a runway is permanently closed, only the threshold marking, runway designation marking, and touchdown zone marking need be obliterated. Permanently closed taxiways need not have the markings obliterated.

7.1.7

The U.S. does not require unserviceability lights across the entrance to a closed runway or taxiway when it is intersected by a night-use runway or taxiway.

7.4.4

Flashing yellow lights are used as unserviceability lights. The intensity is such as to be adequate to delineate a hazardous area.

Chapter 8

Equipment and Installations

8.1.5*
8.1.6*
8.1.7
8.1.8

A secondary power supply for non-precision instrument and non-instrument approach runways is not required, nor is it required for all precision approach runways.
The U.S. does not provide secondary power specifically for take-off operations below 550 meters RVR.

8.2.1

There is no requirement in the U.S. to interleave lights as described in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.

8.2.3

See 5.3.15.3 and 5.3.16.2

8.7.2*
8.7.3
8.7.4*

Glide slope facilities and certain other installations located within the runway strip, or which penetrate obstacle limitation surfaces, may not be frangibly mounted.

8.9.7*

A surface movement surveillance system is recommended for operations from 350 meters RVR down to 183 meters. Below 183 meters RVR, a surface movement radar or alternative technology is generally required.

Chapter 9

Emergency and Other Services

9.1.1

Emergency plans such as those specified in this section are required only at airports serving scheduled air carriers using aircraft having more than 30 seats. These airports are certificated under 14 CFR Part 139. In practice, other airports also prepare emergency plans.

9.1.12

Full-scale airport emergency exercises are conducted at intervals, not to exceed three years, at airports with scheduled passenger service using aircraft with more than 30 seats.

9.2.1

Rescue and fire fighting equipment and services such as those specified in this section are required only at airports serving scheduled air carriers in aircraft having more than 30 seats. Such airports generally equate to ICAO categories 4 through 9.
Other airports have varying degrees of services and equipment.

9.2.3*

There is no plan to eliminate, after 1 January 2005, the current practice of permitting a reduction of one category in the index when the largest aircraft has fewer than an average of five scheduled departures a day.

9.2.4
9.2.5

The level of protection at U.S. airports is derived from the length of the largest aircraft serving the airport similar to the Annex's procedure, except that maximum fuselage width is not used.
U.S. indices A-E are close equivalents of the Annex's categories 5-9. The U.S. does not have an equivalent to category 10.

Fire Extinguishing Agents and Equipment

Index

Aircraft length

Total minimum quantities of extinguishing agents

 

 

More than

Not more than

Dry chemical

Water for protein foam

Minimum trucks

Discharge rate1

A

27 meters

225 kg

0

1

See below

B

27 meters

38 meters

225 kg

5,700 L

1

See below

C

38 meters

48 meters

225 kg

5,700 L

2

See below

D

48 meters

60 meters

225 kg

5,700 L

3

See below

E

60 meters

225 kg

11,400 L

3

See below

1Truck size

Discharge rate

1,900 L but less than 7,600

at least 1,900 L per minute but not more than 3,800 L per minute

7,600 L or greater

at least 2,280 L per minute but not more than 4,560 L per minute

9.2.10

The required firefighting equipment and agents by index are shown in the table above.
The substitution equivalencies between complementary agents and foam meeting performance level A are also used for protein and fluoroprotein foam. Equivalencies for foam meeting performance level B are used only for aqueous film forming foams.

9.2.18*

There is no specific requirement to provide rescue equipment as distinguished from firefighting equipment.

9.2.19*

At least one apparatus must arrive and apply foam within 3 minutes with all other required vehicles arriving within 4 minutes.
Response time is measured from the alarm at the equipment's customary assigned post to the commencement of the application of foam at the mid-point of the farthest runway.

9.2.29*

For ICAO category 6 (U.S. index B), the U.S. allows one vehicle.

9.4.4

At the present time, there is no requirement to perform tests using a continuous friction measuring device with self-wetting features. Some U.S. airports own these devices, while others use less formal methods to monitor build-up of rubber deposits and the deterioration of friction characteristics.

9.4.15

The standard grade for temporary ramps is 15 feet longitudinal per 1 inch of height (0.56 percent slope) maximum, regardless of overlay depth.

9.4.19

There is no U.S. standard for declaring a light unserviceable if it is out of alignment or if its intensity is less than 50 percent of its specified value.

*Indicates ICAO Recommended Practice

ANNEX 14 - AERODROMES

VOLUME II - HELIPORTS

Chapter 1

Definitions

Declared distances

The U.S. does not use declared distances (take-off distance available, rejected take-off distance available, or landing distance available) in designing heliports.

Final approach and take-off area (FATO)

The U.S. ``take-off and landing area'' is comparable to the ICAO FATO, and the U.S. ``FATO'' is more comparable to the ICAO TLOF. The U.S. definition for the FATO stops with ``the take-off manoeuvre is commenced.'' This difference in definition reflects a variation in concept. The rejected take-off distance is an operational computation and is not required as part of the design.

Helicopter stand

The U.S. does not use the term “helicopter stand.” Instead, the U.S. considers paved or unpaved aprons, helipads, and helidecks, all as helicopter parking areas; i.e., helicopter stands.

Safety area

The U.S. considers the safety area to be part of the take-off and landing area which surrounds the FATO and does not call for or define a separate safety area.

Touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF)

The U.S. differs in the definition by considering helipads and helidecks to be FATO. The U.S. does not define the load bearing area on which the helicopter may touch down or lift-off as a TLOF.

Chapter 2

Heliport Data

2.1 d)

The U.S. does not measure or report a safety area as a separate feature of a heliport.

2.2

The U.S. does not ``declare'' distances for heliports.

Chapter 3

Physical Characteristics

3.1.2

The U.S. does not distinguish between single-engine and multi-engine helicopters for the purposes of heliport design standards. Neither does the U.S. design or classify heliports on the basis of helicopter performance. The U.S. FATO dimensions are at least equal to the rotor diameter of the design single rotor helicopter and the area must be capable of providing ground effect. The U.S. does not have alternative design standards for water FATOs, elevated heliports, or helidecks.

3.1.3

The U.S. has a single gradient standard; i.e., 5 percent, except in fueling areas where the limit is 2 percent, which is applicable for all portions of heliports.

3.1.6 
3.1.7* 
3.1.8*

The U.S. does not require or provide criteria for clearways in its design standards. It does encourage ownership and clearing of the land underlying the innermost portion of the approach out to where the approach surface is 10.5 meters above the level of the take-off surface.

3.1.14 to 3.1.21

Safety areas are considered part of the take-off and landing area (or primary surface) in U.S. heliport design. The take-off and landing area of the U.S. design criteria, based on 2 rotor diameters, provides for the ICAO safety area; however, the surface does not have to be continuous with the FATO or be load bearing.

3.1.22

Taxiway widths are twice the undercarriage width of the design helicopter.

3.1.23

The U.S. requires 1.25 rotor diameters plus 2 meters of separation between helicopter ground taxiways.

3.1.24

The U.S. gradient standard for taxiways is a maximum of 5 percent.

3.1.32*

The U.S. sets no gradient standards for air taxiways.

3.1.33

The U.S. requires 1.5 rotor diameters of separation between hover or air taxiways.

3.1.34

The U.S. standards for air taxiways and air transit routes are combined as the standards for hover taxiways noted in paragraphs 3.1.23, 3.1.24 and 3.1.33.

3.1.35

The U.S. sets no maximum turning angle or minimum radius of turn on hover taxiways.

3.1.36

The U.S. gradient standard for aprons is a maximum of 5 percent except in fueling areas where it is 2 percent.

3.1.37

The U.S. criterion for object clearances is 1/3 rotor diameter or 3 meters, whichever is greater.

3.1.38

The U.S. standard for helipads (comparable to helicopter stands) is 1.5 times the undercarriage length or width, whichever is greater.

3.1.39

The U.S. standard for separation between FATO center and the centerline of the runway is 120 meters.

3.2.2

The U.S. does not apply either a performance related or an alternative design standard for elevated heliport facilities.

3.2.5 to 3.2.10

The U.S. does not use safety areas in its heliport design.

3.3 
3.4

In the U.S., shipboard and relocatable off-shore helicopter ``helideck'' facilities are under the purview of the U.S. Coast Guard and utilize the International Maritime Organization (IMO) code. Fixed off-shore helideck facilities are under the purview of the Department of Interior based on their document 351DM2. Coastal water helideck facilities are under the purview of the individual affected States.

Chapter 4

Obstacle Restriction and Removal

4.1.1

The U.S. approach surface starts at the edge of the take-off and landing area.

4.1.2 a)

The U.S. approach surface width adjacent to the heliport take-off and landing area is a minimum of 2 rotor diameters.

4.1.2 b) 2)

The U.S. precision instrument approach surface flares from a width of 2 rotor diameters to a width of 1,800 meters at the 7,500 meters outer end. The U.S. does not use a note similar to the one that follows 4.1.4, as it does not differentiate between helicopter requirements on the basis of operational performance.

4.1.5

The outer limit of the U.S. transitional surfaces adjacent to the take-off and landing area is 76 meters from the centerline of the VFR approach/departure surfaces. The transitional surface width decreases to zero at a point 1,220 meters from the take-off and landing area. It does not terminate at an inner horizontal surface or at a predetermined height.

4.1.6

The U.S. transitional surfaces have a fixed width, 76 meters less the width of the take-off and landing area, from the approach centerline for visual operations and an outwardly flaring width to 450 meters for precision instrument operations. The U.S. does not use an inner horizontal surface nor terminate the transitional surfaces at a fixed/predetermined height.

4.1.7 b)

Since the U.S. includes the safety area in the take-off and landing area, the comparable elevation is at the elevation of the FATO.

4.1.9 through 4.1.20

The U.S. does not use the inner horizontal surface, the conical surface, or take-off climb surface described in these paragraphs or the note following paragraph 4.1.20 for heliport design.

4.1.21 through 4.1.25

The U.S. does not have alternative criteria for floating or fixed-in-place helidecks.

4.2

The U.S. has no requirement for a note similar to the one following the heading ``Obstacle limitation requirements.''

4.2.1

The U.S. criteria does not require a take-off climb surface or a conical obstacle limitation surface to establish a precision instrument approach procedure.

4.2.2

The U.S. criteria does not require a take-off climb surface or a conical obstacle limitation surface to establish a non-precision instrument approach procedure.

4.2.3

The U.S. criteria does not require a take-off climb obstacle limitation surface to establish a non-instrument approach procedure.

4.2.4*

The U.S. has no requirement for protective surfaces such as an inner horizontal surface or a conical surface.

4.2.5

The U.S. does not have tables for heliport design comparable to the ICAO Tables 4-1 to 4-4.

4.2.6

The U.S. subscribes to the intent of this paragraph to limit object heights in the heliport protective surfaces but uses fewer surfaces with different dimensions for those surfaces.

4.2.7*

The U.S. subscribes to the intent of this paragraph but uses different dimensional surfaces.

4.2.8

The U.S. criterion requires that a heliport have at least one approach and departure route and encourages multiple approaches separated by arcs of 90 to 180 degrees.

4.2.9*

The U.S. has no requirement that a heliport's approach surfaces provide 95 percent usability.

4.2.10

Since the U.S. does not differentiate between surface level and elevated heliports, the comments to paragraphs 4.2.1 through 4.2.5 above apply.

4.2.11

The U.S. has no requirement for a take-off climb surface. It does require at least one approach/departure surface and encourages that there be as many approaches as is practical separated by arcs of 90 to 180 degrees.

4.2.12 through 4.2.22

Since the U.S. does not have alternative design criteria for helidecks or shipboard heliports, there are no comparable U.S. protective surface requirements.

Tables 4-1, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4

The U.S. does not have tables comparable to the ICAO Tables 4-1 to 4-4.

Chapter 5

Visual Aids

5.2.1

The U.S. does not have criteria for markings to be used in defining winching areas.

5.2.3.3

The U.S. maximum mass markings are specified in 1,000 pound units rather than tonnes or kilograms.

5.2.4.3

The U.S. criterion requires FATO markers but is not specific on the number or spacing between markers.

5.2.4.4

The U.S. criteria for FATO markers is not dimensionally specific.

5.2.6

The U.S. does not require, or have criteria for, marking an aiming point.

5.2.7.1

The U.S. does not require specific criteria for marking floating or off-shore fixed-in-place helicopter or helideck facilities.

5.2.8

The U.S. does not require marking the touchdown area.

5.2.9

The U.S. does not have criteria for heliport name markings.

5.2.10

The U.S. does not have a requirement to mark helideck obstacle-free sectors.

5.2.12.2

The U.S. criterion places the air taxiway markers along the edges of the routes rather than on the centerline.

5.2.12.3

The U.S. criterion for air taxiway markers does not specify the viewing area or height to width ratio.

5.3.2.3

The U.S. heliport beacon flashes white-green-yellow colors rather than a series of timed flashes.

5.3.2.5*

The U.S. criteria is not specific on the light intensity of the flash.

5.3.3.3

The U.S. criterion specifies a 300 meters approach light system configuration. The light bars are spaced at 30 meters intervals. The first two bars of the configuration are single lights, the next two bars are two lights, then two bars with three lights, then two bars with four lights, and finally two bars with five lights.

5.3.3.4

The U.S. approach light system uses aimed PAR-56 lights.

5.3.3.6

The U.S. heliport approach light system does not contain flashing lights.

5.3.5.2 a)

The U.S. requires an odd number of lights, but not less than three lights per side.

5.3.5.2 b)

The U.S. requires a minimum of eight lights for a circular FATO and does not specify the distance between lights.

5.3.5.4*

The U.S. criteria does not specify light distribution.

5.3.6

The U.S. does not have specific criteria for aiming point lights.

5.3.8

The U.S. does not have standards for winching area lighting.

Chapter 6

Heliport Services

6.1*

The U.S. requirements for rescue and fire fighting services at certificated heliports are found in 14 CFR Part 139. Criteria for other heliports are established by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) pamphlets 403 or 418, or in regulations of local fire departments.

*Indicates ICAO Recommended Practice

ANNEX 15 - AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICES

Chapter 2

Definitions

ASHTAM

The U.S. doesn't have a series of NOTAM called ASHTAM, although notification procedures are written on handling of Volcanic Ash activity.

Danger area

“Danger area” is not used in reference to areas within the U.S. or in any of its possessions or territories.

Integrated Aeronautical Information Package

The U.S. does not use the term Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. 
The U.S. provides the elements contained in the ICAO Integrated Aeronautical Information Package individually from several different sources and not from a single source.

Maneuvering area

Any locality either on land, water, or structures, including airports/heliports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.

Movement area

The runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport/heliport which are utilized for taxiing/hover-taxiing, air-taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. At those airports/heliports with a tower, specific approval for entry onto the movement area must be obtained from ATC.

Pre-flight Information Bulletin (PIB)

The US does not use the term PIB. However, current NOTAM information is gathered and available through different sources.

SNOWTAM

The US presents the information in a different manner via a NOTAM.

Chapter 3

General

3.1.7

Data is available, but not as an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package.

3.2.1

Current quality management system applies only to the National Flight Data Center.

3.2.12

The US does not present the information in an integrated package. NFDC is responsible for the validation / verification procedures that ensure that quality requirements and traceability of aeronautical data are met.

3.3.1

The U.S. does not provide an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. There is no single office for this function. This data can be obtained from different offices (NOTAM, Publications & NFDC)

3.3.5

The U.S. does not provide an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. The U.S. does provide all of this information, but not from a single source. Information may be obtained from various offices, but not a single office.

3.3.6

The U.S. does not provide an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. The U.S. provides the elements contained in the ICAO Integrated Aeronautical Information Package individually from several different sources and not from a single source.

3.6.1

The U.S. does not produce an Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. The individual elements of the ICAO Integrated Aeronautical Information are available in plain text.

3.6.6.3

The US does not use a nationality letter in the identification of Special Use Airspace (SUA). The US does not use the letter D for danger area.

3.7.2.2

The US utilizes Geoid-03 which is a component of the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).

Chapter 4

Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP)

4.1.3

The US does not produce an Aircraft Parking / Docking Chart.

Chapter 5

NOTAM

5.1.1.1

The U.S. does not provide a NOTAM for accidental release of radioactive material, toxic chemicals, or volcanic ash deposition.

5.1.1.2

The U.S. does not routinely issue ``trigger NOTAMs'' referencing published material when an AIP amendment is issued.

5.1.1.4

FAA Order states at least 3 days (versus 7 days) notice required

5.2.1

The US does not utilize the ICAO format as noted in Appendix 6.

5.2.3

The U.S. does not use the term SNOWTAM. Procedures for reporting snow, slush, ice and water are outlined in FAA Order JO 7930.2.

5.2.4

The U.S. doesn't have a series of NOTAM called ASHTAM, although notification procedures are written on handling of Volcanic Ash activity.

Chapter 8

Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Information

8.1.3

The FAA does not use PIBs, but does provide pertinent NOTAM information in plain language form every 28 days in a document called the Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP).

8.2.1

The FAA provides all of this information, but not from a single source.

Chapter 10

Electronic Terrain and Obstacle Data

10.3.1

The U.S. does not publish the horizontal extent of obstacles.

Appendix 1

Contents of Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP)

 

The U.S. does not publish sunrise/sunset tables in the AIP.

GEN 3.1.3 4)

The U.S. does not publish pre-flight information bulletins (PIBs).

Appendix 2

SNOWTAM Format

 

The U.S. does not use the SNOWTAM for issuance of winter weather information. Snow conditions are reported using our current international NOTAM format (Class I).

Appendix 3

ASHTAM Format

1.3

ASHTAM information will continue to be distributed as an International NOTAM.

2.1

The heading will not be entered as stated.

3

ASHTAM information will be distributed in U.S. International NOTAM format.

ANNEX 16 - ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

VOLUME I - AIRCRAFT NOISE

Reference: Part 36 of Title 14 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations

Chapter 1

 

1.7

Each person who applies for a type certificate for an airplane covered by 14 CFR Part 36, irrespective of the date of application for the type certificate, must show compliance with Part 36.

Chapter 2

 

2.1.1

For type design change applications made after 14 August 1989, if an airplane is a Stage 3 airplane prior to a change in type design, it must remain a Stage 3 airplane after the change in type design regardless of whether Stage 3 compliance was required before the change in type design.

2.3.1 a)

Sideline noise is measured along a line 450 meters from and parallel to the extended runway centerline for two- and three-engine aircraft; for four-engine aircraft, the sideline distance is 0.35 NM.

2.4.2

Noise level limits for Stage 2 derivative aircraft depend upon whether the engine by-pass ratio is less than two. If it is, the Stage 2 limits apply. Otherwise, the limits are the Stage 3 limits plus 3 dB or the Stage 2 value, whichever is lower.

2.4.2.2 b)

Take-off noise limits for three-engine, Stage 2 derivative airplanes with a by-pass ratio equal to or greater than 2 are 107 EPNdB for maximum weights of 385,000 kg (850,000 lb) or more, reduced by 4 dB per halving of the weight down to 92 EPNdB for maximum weights of 28,700 kg (63,177 lb) or less. Aircraft with a by-pass ratio less than 2 only need meet the Stage 2 limits.

2.5.1

Trade-off sum of excesses not greater than 3 EPNdB and no excess greater than 2 EPNdB.

2.6.1.1

For airplanes that do not have turbo-jet engines with a by-pass ratio of 2 or more, the following apply:

  1. four-engine airplanes - 214 meters (700 feet);
    b) all other airplanes - 305 meters (1,000 feet).

For all airplanes that have turbo-jet engines with a by-pass ratio of 2 or more, the following apply:

  1. four-engine airplanes - 210 meters (689 feet);
    b) three-engine airplanes - 260 meters (853 feet);
    c) airplanes with fewer than three engines - 305 meters (1,000 feet).

The power may not be reduced below that which will provide level flight for an engine inoperative or that will maintain a climb gradient of at least 4 percent, whichever is greater.

Chapter 3

 

3.1.1

For type design change applications made after 14 August 1989, if an airplane is a Stage 3 airplane prior to a change in type design, it must remain a Stage 3 airplane after the change in type design regardless of whether Stage 3 compliance was required before the change in type design.

3.3.1 a) 2)

The U.S. has no equivalent provision in 14 CFR Part 36.

3.3.2.2

A minimum of two microphones symmetrically positioned about the test flight track must be used to define the maximum sideline noise. This maximum noise may be assumed to occur where the aircraft reaches 305 meters (1,000 feet).

 

14 CFR Part 36 does not require symmetrical measurements to be made at each and every point for propeller-driven airplane sideline noise determination.

3.6.2.1 c)

Under 14 CFR Part 36, during each test take-off, simultaneous measurements should be made at the sideline noise measuring stations on each side of the runway and also at the take-off noise measuring station. If test site conditions make it impractical to simultaneously measure take-off and sideline noise, and if each of the other sideline measurement requirements is met, independent measurements may be made of the sideline noise under simulated flight path techniques. If the reference flight path includes a power cutback before the maximum possible sideline noise level is developed, the reduced sideline noise level, which is the maximum value developed by the simulated flight path technique, must be the certificated sideline noise value.

3.6.2.1 d)

14 CFR Part 36 specifies the day speeds and the acoustic reference speed to be the minimum approved value of V2+10 kt, or the all-engines operating speed at 35 feet (for turbine-engine powered airplanes) or 50 feet (for reciprocating-engine powered airplanes), whichever speed is greater as determined under the regulations constituting the type certification basis of the airplane. The test must be conducted at the test day speeds ±3 kt.

3.7.4

If a take-off test series is conducted at weights other than the maximum take-off weight for which noise certification is requested:

  1. at least one take-off test must be at or above that maximum weight;
    b) each take-off test weight must be within +5 or -10 percent of the maximum weight.

If an approach test series is conducted at weights other than the maximum landing weight for which certification is requested:

  1. at least one approach test must be conducted at or above that maximum weight;
    b) each test weight must exceed 90 percent of the maximum landing weight.

Total EPNL adjustment for variations in approach flight path from the reference flight path and for any difference between test engine thrust or power and reference engine thrust or power must not exceed 2 EPNdB.

Chapter 5

 

5.1.1

Applies to all large transport category aircraft (as they do to all subsonic turbo-jet aircraft regardless of category). Commuter category aircraft, propeller-driven airplanes below 8,640 kg (19,000 lb) are subject to 14 CFR Part 36, Appendix F or to Appendix G, depending upon the date of completion of the noise certification tests.

Chapter 6

 

6.1.1

Applies to new, all propeller-driven airplane types below 19,000 lb (8,640 kg.) in the normal, commuter, utility, acrobatic, transport, or restricted categories for which the noise certification tests are completed before 22 December 1988.

Chapter 8

 

General

14 CFR Part 36 (Section 36.1 (h)) defines Stage 1 and Stage 2 noise levels and Stage 1 and Stage 2 helicopters. These definitions parallel those used in 14 CFR Part 36 for turbo-jets and are used primarily to simplify the acoustical change provisions in Section 36.11.

 

14 CFR Part 36 (Section 36.805(c)) provides for certain derived versions of helicopters for which there are no civil prototypes to be certificated above the noise level limits.

8.1.1 a)

Applicable to new helicopter types for which application for an original type certificate was made on or after 6 March 1988.

8.1.1 b)

Applicable only to “acoustical changes'' for which application for an amended or supplemental type certificate was made on or after 6 March 1988.

8.4

14 CFR Part 36 Appendix H specifies a slightly different rate of allowable maximum noise levels as a function of helicopter mass. The difference can lead to a difference in the calculated maximum noise limits of 0.1 EPNdB under certain roundoff condition.

8.6.3.1 b)

Does not include the VNE speeds.

8.7

14 CFR Part 36 Appendix H does not permit certain negative corrections. Annex 16 has no equivalent provision.

8.7.4

EPNL correction must be less than 2.0 EPNdB for any combination of lateral deviation, height, approach angle and, in the case of flyover, thrust or power.

 

Corrections to the measured data are required if the tests were conducted below the reference weight.

 

Corrections to the measured data are required if the tests were conducted at other than reference engine power.

8.7.5

The rotor speed must be maintained within one percent of the normal operating RPM during the take-off procedure.

8.7.8

The helicopter shall fly within ±10° from the zenith for approach and take-off, but within ±5° from the zenith for horizontal flyover.

Chapter 10

 

General

Exception from acoustical change rule given for aircraft with flight time prior to 1 January 1955 and land configured aircraft reconfigured with floats or skis.

10.1.1

Applies to new, amended, or supplemental type certificates for propeller-driven airplanes not exceeding 8,640 kg (19,000 lb) for which noise certification tests have not been completed before 22 December 1988.

10.4

The maximum noise level is a constant 73 dBA up to 600 kg (1,320 lb). Above that weight, the limit increases at the rate of 1 dBA/75kg (1 dBA/165 lb) up to 85 dBA at 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) after which it is constant up to and including 8,640 kg (19,000 lb).

10.5.2, second phase, d)

For variable-pitch propellers, the definition of engine power is different in the second segment of the reference path. Maximum continuous installed power instead of maximum power is used.

Chapter 11

 

11.1

14 CFR Part 36 Appendix J was effective 11 September 1992 and applies to those helicopters for which application for a type certificate was made on or after 6 March 1986.

11.4

14 CFR Part 36 Appendix J specifies a slightly different rate of allowable maximum noise levels as a function of helicopter mass. The difference can lead to a difference in the calculated maximum noise limits of 0.1 EPNdB under certain roundoff condition.

11.6

14 CFR Part 36 Appendix J prescribes a ±15 meter limitation on the allowed vertical deviation about the reference flight path. Annex 16 has no equivalent provision.

PART V

 

General

No comparable provision exists in U.S. Federal Regulations. Any local airport proprietor may propose noise abatement operating procedures to the FAA which reviews them for safety and appropriateness.

Appendix 1

 

General

Sections 3, 8, and 9 of Appendix 1 which contain the technical specifications for equipment, measurement and analysis and data correction for Chapter 2 aircraft and their derivatives differ in many important aspects from the corresponding requirements in Appendix 2 which has been updated several times. 14 CFR Part 36 updates have generally paralleled those of Appendix 2 of Annex 16. These updated requirements are applicable in the U.S. to both Stage 2 and Stage 3 aircraft and their derivatives.

2.2.1

A minimum of two microphones symmetrically positioned about the test flight track must be used to define the maximum sideline noise. This maximum noise may be assumed to occur where the aircraft reaches 305 meters (1,000 feet), except for four-engine, Stage 2 aircraft for which 439 meters (1,440 feet) may be used.

2.2.2

No obstructions in the cone defined by the axis normal to the ground and the half-angle 80° from the axis.

2.2.3 c)

Relative humidity and ambient temperature over the sound path between the aircraft and 10 meters above the ground at the noise measuring site is such that the sound attenuation in the 8 kHz one-third octave band is not greater than 12 dB/100 meters and the relative humidity is between 20 and 95 percent. However, if the dew point and dry bulb temperature used for obtaining relative humidity are measured with a device which is accurate to within one-half a degree Celsius, the sound attenuation rate shall not exceed 14 dB/100 meters in the 8 kHz one-third octave band.

2.2.3 d)

Test site average wind not above 12 kt and average cross-wind component not above 7 kt.

2.3.4

The aircraft position along the flight path is related to the recorded noise 10 dB downpoints.

2.3.5

At least one take-off test must be a maximum take-off weight and the test weight must be within +5 or -10 percent of maximum certificated take-off weight.

Appendix 2

 

2.2.1

A minimum of two symmetrically placed microphones must be used to define the maximum sideline noise at the point where the aircraft reaches 305 meters.

2.2.2

When a multiple layering calculation is required, the atmosphere between the airplane and the ground shall be divided into layers. These layers are not required to be of equal depth, and the maximum layer depth must be 100 meters.

2.2.2 b)

14 CFR Part 36 specifies that the lower limit of the temperature test window is 36 degrees Fahrenheit (2.2 degrees Celsius). Annex 16 provides 10 degrees Celsius as the lower limit for the temperature test window.

 

14 CFR Part 36 does not specify that the airport facility used to obtain meteorological condition measurements be within 2,000 meters of the measurement site.

2.2.2 c)

14 CFR Part 36 imposes a limit of 14 dB/100 meters in the 8 kHz one-third octave band when the temperature and dew point are measured with a device which is accurate to within one-half a degree Celsius.

2.2.3

14 CFR Part 36 requires that the limitations on the temperature and relative humidity test window must apply over the whole noise propagation path between a point 10 meters above the ground and the helicopter. Annex 16 specifies that the limitations on the temperature and relative humidity test window apply only at a point 10 meters above the ground.

 

14 CFR Part 36 requires that corrections for sound attenuation must be based on the average of temperature and relative humidity readings at 10 meters and the helicopter. Annex 16 implies that the corrections for sound absorption are based on the temperature and relative humidity measured at 10 meters only.

3.2.6

No equivalent requirement.

3.4.5

For each detector/integrator the response to a sudden onset or interruption of a constant sinusoidal signal at the respective one-third octave band center frequency must be measured at sampling times 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 seconds after the onset or interruption. The rising responses must be the following amounts before the steady-state level:

0.5 seconds: 4.0 ± 1.0 dB
1.0 seconds: 1.75 ± 0.75 dB
1.5 seconds: 1.0 ± 0.5 dB
2.0 seconds: 0.6 ± 0.5 dB

3.4.5 (Note 1)

No equivalent provision in 14 CFR Part 36.

3.5.2

No equivalent requirement.

5.4

14 CFR Part 36 requires that the difference between airspeed and groundspeed shall not exceed 10 kt between the 10 dB down time period.

8.4.2

14 CFR Part 36 specifies a value of -10 in the adjustment for duration correction. Annex 16 specifies a value of -7.5.

9.1.2, 9.1.3

14 CFR Part 36 always requires use of the integrated procedure if the corrected take-off or approach noise level is within 1.0 dB of the applicable noise limit.

Appendix 6

 

4.4.1

The microphone performance, not its dimensions, is specified. The microphone must be mounted 1.2 meters (4 feet) above ground level. A windscreen must be employed when the wind speed is in excess of 9 km/h (5 kt).

5.2.2 a)

Reference conditions are different. Noise data outside the applicable range must be corrected to 77 degrees F and 70 percent humidity.

5.2.2 c)

There is no equivalent provision in 14 CFR Part 36. Fixed-pitch propeller-driven airplanes have a special provision. If the propeller is fixed-pitch and the test power is not within 5 percent of reference power, a helical tip Mach number correction is required.

ANNEX 16 - ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

VOLUME II - AIRCRAFT ENGINE EMISSIONS

Chapter 1

 

 

The U.S. currently has regulations prohibiting intentional fuel venting from turbojet, turbofan and turboprop aircraft, but we do not now have a regulation preventing the intentional fuel venting from helicopter engines.

ANNEX 17 - SECURITY - SAFEGUARDING INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION AGAINST ACTS OF UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE

There are no reportable differences between U.S. regulations and the Standards and Recommended Practices contained in this Annex.

ANNEX 18 - THE SAFE TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR

Adopted by the ICAO Council 6/26/81

Effective Date: 1/1/83

Applicability Date: 1/1/84

(Note: Differences are to be filed with ICAO by 6/1/83).

PANS - OPS - 8168/611

VOLUME 1

PART III

 

Table III-1-1
and
Table III-1-2

Max speeds for visual maneuvering (Circling)” must not be applied to circling procedures in the U.S. Comply with the airspeeds and circling restrictions in ENR 1.5, paragraphs 11.1 and 11.6, in order to remain within obstacle protection areas.

PART IV

 

1.2.1

The airspeeds contained in ENR 1.5 shall be used in U.S. CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.

PAN - ABC - DOC 8400

Differences between abbreviations used in U.S. AIP, International NOTAMs Class I and Class II, and Notices to Airmen Publication and ICAO PANS - ABC are listed in GEN 2.2. For other U.S. listings of abbreviations (contractions) for general use, air traffic control, and National Weather Service (NWS), which differ in some respects, see U.S. publication Contractions Handbook (FAA Order JO 7340.2). In addition, various U.S. publications contain abbreviations of terms used therein, particularly those unique to that publication.