ENR 1.4 ATS Airspace Classification

  1. General
    1. There are two categories of airspace or airspace areas:
      1. Regulatory (Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace areas, restricted and prohibited areas).
      2. Nonregulatory (military operations areas [MOA], warning areas, alert areas, controlled firing areas [CFA], and national security areas [NSA]).

        NOTE-

        Additional information on special use airspace (prohibited areas, restricted areas [permanent or temporary], warning areas, MOAs [permanent or temporary], alert areas, CFAs, and NSAs) may be found in Section ENR 5.1, Prohibited, Restricted and Other Areas, paragraph 1 and Section ENR 5.2, Military Exercise and Training Areas, paragraphs 1. through 3.

    2. Within these two categories, there are four types:
      1. Controlled.
      2. Uncontrolled.
      3. Special use.
      4. Other airspace.
    3. The categories and types of airspace are dictated by:
      1. The complexity or density of aircraft movements.
      2. The nature of the operations conducted within the airspace.
      3. The level of safety required.
      4. The national and public interest.
    4. It is important that pilots be familiar with the operational requirements for each of the various types or classes of airspace. Subsequent sections will cover each class in sufficient detail to facilitate understanding.
    5. General Dimensions of Airspace Segments
      1. Refer to Title 14 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) for specific dimensions, exceptions, geographical areas covered, exclusions, specific transponder/ADS-B or other equipment requirements, and flight operations.

        REFERENCE-

        See GEN 1.7, Annex 2, for U.S. Differences From ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures.

    6. Hierarchy of Overlapping Airspace Designations 
      1. When overlapping airspace designations apply to the same airspace, the operating rules associated with the more restrictive airspace designation apply.
      2. For the purpose of clarification:
        1. Class A airspace is more restrictive than Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace.
        2. Class B airspace is more restrictive than Class C, Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace.
        3. Class C airspace is more restrictive than Class D, Class E, or Class G airspace.
        4. Class D airspace is more restrictive than Class E or Class G airspace.
        5. Class E is more restrictive than Class G airspace.
    7. Basic VFR Weather Minimums
      1. No person may operate an aircraft under basic VFR when the flight visibility is less, or at a distance from clouds that is less, than that prescribed for the corresponding altitude and class of airspace. (See TBL ENR 1.4-1.)

        NOTE-

        Student pilots must comply with 14 CFR Section 61.89(A) (6) and (7).

      2. Except as provided in 14 CFR Section 91.157, Special VFR Minimums, no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet. (See 14 CFR Section 91.155(c).)
    8. VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels (See TBL ENR 1.4-2.)

      TBL ENR 1.4-1
      Basic VFR Weather Minimums

      Airspace

      Flight Visibility

      Distance from Clouds

      Class A

      Not Applicable

      Not Applicable

      Class B

      3 statute miles

      Clear of Clouds

      Class C

      3 statute miles

      500 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      2,000 feet horizontal

      Class D

      3 statute miles

      500 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      2,000 feet horizontal

      Class E
      Less than 10,000 feet MSL


      3 statute miles


      500 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      2,000 feet horizontal

      At or above 10,000 feet MSL

      5 statute miles

      1,000 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      1 statute mile horizontal

      Class G
      1,200 feet or less above the surface (regardless of MSL altitude).

       

       

      For aircraft other than helicopters:

       

       

      Day, except as provided in 14 CFR § 91.155(b)

      1 statute mile

      Clear of clouds

      Night, except as provided in 14 CFR § 91.155(b)

      3 statute miles

      500 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      2,000 feet horizontal

      For helicopters:

       

       

      Day

      ½ statute mile

      Clear of clouds

      Night, except as provided in §91.155(b)

      1 statute mile

      Clear of clouds

      More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than 10,000 feet MSL.

       

       

      Day

      1 statute mile

      500 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      2,000 feet horizontal

      Night

      3 statute miles

      500 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      2,000 feet horizontal

      More than 1,200 feet above the surface and at or above 10,000 feet MSL.

      5 statute miles

      1,000 feet below
      1,000 feet above
      1 statute mile horizontal

      TBL ENR 1.4-2
      VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels

      If your magnetic course
      (ground track) is:

      And you are more than 3,000 feet above the surface but below 18,000 feet MSL, fly:

      And you are above 18,000 feet MSL
      to FL 290, fly:

      0to 179

      Odd thousands MSL, plus 500 feet (3,500; 5,500; 7,500, etc.)

      Odd Flight Levels plus 500 feet
      (FL 195; FL 215; FL 235, etc.)

      180 to 359

      Even thousands MSL, plus 500 feet (4,500; 6,500; 8,500, etc.)

      Even Flight Levels plus 500 feet
      (FL 185; FL 205; FL 225, etc.)

  2. Controlled Airspace
    1. General
      1. Controlled Airspace. A generic term that covers the different classification of airspace (Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace) and defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. (See TBL ENR 1.4-3 for Airspace Classes). Airspace classes are pronounced in the ICAO phonetics for clarification. The term “class” may be dropped when referring to airspace in pilot/controller communications.
      2. IFR Requirements. IFR operations in any class of controlled airspace requires that a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and receive an appropriate ATC clearance.
      3. IFR Separation. Standard IFR separation is provided to all aircraft operating under IFR in controlled airspace.
      4. VFR Requirements. It is the responsibility of the pilot to insure that ATC clearance or radio communication requirements are met prior to entry into Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace. The pilot retains this responsibility when receiving ATC radar advisories. (See 14 CFR Part 91.)

        REFERENCE-

        14 CFR Part 91.

      5. Traffic Advisories. Traffic advisories will be provided to all aircraft as the controller's work situation permits.
      6. Safety Alerts. Safety Alerts are mandatory services and are provided to ALL aircraft. There are two types of Safety Alerts, Terrain/Obstruction Alert and Aircraft Conflict/Mode Intruder Alert.
        1. Terrain/Obstruction Alert. A Terrain/Obstruction Alert is issued when, in the controller's judgment, an aircraft's altitude places it in unsafe proximity to terrain and/or obstructions.

          TBL ENR 1.4-3
          Airspace Classes

          A graphic depicting the Airspace Classes.
        2. Aircraft Conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert. An Aircraft Conflict/Mode C Intruder Alert is issued if the controller observes another aircraft which places it in an unsafe proximity. When feasible, the controller will offer the pilot an alternative course of action.
      7. Ultralight Vehicles. No person may operate an ultralight vehicle within Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an airport unless that person has prior authorization from the ATC facility having jurisdiction over that airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 103.)
      8. Unmanned Free Balloons. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an unmanned free balloon below 2,000 feet above the surface within the lateral boundaries of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport. (See 14 CFR Part 101.)
      9. Parachute Jumps. No person may make a parachute jump, and no pilot in command may allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft, in or into Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 105.)
    2. Class A Airspace
      1. Definition. Generally, that airspace from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska; and designated international airspace beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar coverage, and within which domestic procedures are applied.
      2. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft under IFR.

        REFERENCE-

        14 CFR Section 71.33, Sections 91.167 through 91.193, Sections 91.215 through 91.217, and Sections 91.225 through 91.227.

      3. Charts. Class A airspace is not specifically charted.
    3. Class B Airspace
      1. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR operations is “clear of clouds.”
      2. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements. Regardless of weather conditions, an ATC clearance is required prior to operating within Class B airspace. Pilots should not request a clearance to operate within Class B airspace unless the requirements of 14 CFR Sections 91.131, 91.215, and 91.225 are met. Included among these requirements are:
        1. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft must be equipped with an operable two-way radio capable of communicating with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that Class B airspace.
        2. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at the following primary airports within Class B airspace unless the pilot in command holds at least a private pilot certificate:
          1. Andrews Air Force Base, MD.
          2. Atlanta Hartsfield Airport, GA.
          3. Boston Logan Airport, MA.
          4. Chicago O'Hare Intl. Airport, IL.
          5. Dallas/Fort Worth Intl. Airport, TX.
          6. Los Angeles Intl. Airport, CA.
          7. Miami Intl. Airport, FL.
          8. Newark Intl. Airport, NJ.
          9. New York Kennedy Airport, NY.
          10. New York La Guardia Airport, NY.
          11. Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, DC.
          12. San Francisco Intl. Airport, CA.
        3. No person may take off or land a civil aircraft at an airport within Class B airspace or operate a civil aircraft within Class B airspace unless:
          1. The pilot in command holds at least a private pilot certificate; or
          2. The pilot-in-command holds a recreational pilot certificate and has met the requirements of 14 CFR Section 61.101; or
          3. The pilot-in-command holds a sport pilot certificate and has met the requirements of 14 CFR Section 61.325; or
          4. The aircraft is operated by a student pilot:
            1. Who seeks a private pilot certificate and has met the requirements of 14 CFR Section 61.95.
            2. Who seeks a recreational pilot or sport pilot certificate and has met the requirements of 14 CFR Section 61.94.
        4. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each person operating a large turbine engine-powered airplane to or from a primary airport must operate at or above the designated floors while within the lateral limits of Class B airspace.
        5. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each aircraft must be equipped as follows:
          1. For IFR operations, an operable VOR or TACAN receiver or an operable and suitable RNAV system; and
          2. For all operations, a two-way radio capable of communications with ATC on appropriate frequencies for that area.
          3. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting capability and operable ADS-B Out equipment.

            NOTE-

            ATC may, upon notification, immediately authorize a deviation from the altitude reporting equipment requirement; however, a request for a deviation from the 4096 transponder equipment requirement must be submitted to the controlling ATC facility at least one hour before the proposed operation. A request for a deviation from the ADS-B equipage requirement must be submitted using the FAA's automated web authorization tool at least one hour but not more than 24 hours before the proposed operation. (See ENR 1.1, Paragraph 37.7, Transponder Operation).

        6. Mode C Veil
          1. The airspace within 30 nautical miles of an airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1 of 14 CFR Part 91 (generally primary airports within Class B airspace areas), from the surface upward to 10,000 feet mean seal level (MSL). Unless otherwise authorized by air traffic control, aircraft operating within this airspace must be equipped with operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting capability and operable ADS-B Out equipment.
          2. However, aircraft that were not originally certificated with an engine-driven electrical system or that have not subsequently been certified with a system installed may conduct operations within a Mode C veil provided the aircraft remains outside Class A, B or C airspace; and below the altitude of the ceiling of a Class B or Class C airspace area designated for an airport or 10,000 feet MSL, whichever is lower.
      3. Charts. Class B airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude Charts, and Terminal Area Charts.
      4. Flight Procedures
        1. Flights. Aircraft within Class B airspace are required to operate in accordance with current IFR procedures. A clearance for a visual approach to a primary airport is not authorization for turbine powered airplanes to operate below the designated floors of the Class B airspace.
        2. VFR Flights
          1. Arriving aircraft must obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering Class B airspace and must contact ATC on the appropriate frequency, and in relation to geographical fixes shown on local charts. Although a pilot may be operating beneath the floor of the Class B airspace on initial contact, communications with ATC should be established in relation to the points indicated for spacing and sequencing purposes.
          2. Departing aircraft require a clearance to depart Class B airspace and should advise the clearance delivery position of their intended altitude and route of flight. ATC will normally advise VFR aircraft when leaving the geographical limits of the Class B airspace. Radar service is not automatically terminated with this advisory unless specifically stated by the controller.
          3. Aircraft not landing or departing the primary airport may obtain an ATC clearance to transit the Class B airspace when traffic conditions permit and provided the requirements of 14 CFR Section 91.131 are met. Such VFR aircraft are encouraged, to the extent possible, to operate at altitudes above or below the Class B airspace or transit through established VFR corridors. Pilots operating in VFR corridors are urged to use frequency 122.750 MHz for the exchange of aircraft position information.
      5. ATC Clearances and Separation. An ATC clearance is required to enter and operate within Class B airspace. VFR pilots are provided sequencing and separation from other aircraft while operating within Class B airspace. (See ENR 1.1, Paragraph 39., Terminal Radar Service for VFR Aircraft.)

        NOTE-

        1. Separation and sequencing of VFR will be suspended in the event of a power outage as this service is dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the service is not available and issued wind, runway information, and the time or place to contact the tower.
        2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during Center Radar Presentation (CENRAP) Operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to the primary airport will be provided on a workload permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when CENRAP is in use.
        1. VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less by a minimum of:
          1. Target resolution; or
          2. 500 feet vertical separation; or
          3. Visual separation.
        2. VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR aircraft which weigh more than 19,000 and turbojets by no less than:
          1. 1 1/2 miles lateral separation; or
          2. 500 feet vertical separation; or
          3. Visual separation.
        3. This program is not to be interpreted as relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clearance, or to remain in weather conditions equal to or better than the minimums required by 14 CFR Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when compliance with an assigned route, heading, and/or altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, vortex exposure, and weather minimums.
        4. ATC may assign altitudes to VFR aircraft that do not conform to 14 CFR Section 91.159. “RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES” will be broadcast when the altitude assignment is no longer needed for separation or when leaving Class B airspace. Pilots must return to an altitude that conforms to 14 CFR Section 91.159.
        5. Proximity Operations. VFR aircraft operating in proximity to Class B airspace are cautioned against operating too closely to the boundaries, especially where the floor of the Class B airspace is 3,000 feet or less above the surface or where VFR cruise altitudes are at or near the floor of higher levels. Observance of this precaution will reduce the potential for encountering an aircraft operating at the altitudes of Class B floors. Additionally, VFR aircraft are encouraged to utilize the VFR Planning Chart as a tool for planning flight in proximity to Class B airspace. Charted VFR Flyway Planning charts are published on the back of the existing VFR Terminal Area Charts.
    4. Class C Airspace
      1. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, and that have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a surface area with a 5 NM radius, and an outer area with a 10 NM radius that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation.
      2. Outer Area. Class C airspace areas have a procedural (nonregulatory) Outer Area. Normally this area is 20 NM from the primary Class C airspace airport. Its vertical limit extends from the lower limits of radio/radar coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control's delegated airspace, excluding the Class C airspace itself, and other airspace as appropriate. (This outer area is not charted.)
      3. Charts. Class C airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts where appropriate.
      4. Operating Rules and Pilot Equipment Requirements
        1. Pilot Certification. No specific certification required.
        2. Equipment
          1. Two-way radio.
          2. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting capability and operable ADS-B Out equipment.
            1. Within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia at and above 10,000 feet MSL, excluding the airspace at and below 2,500 feet above the surface, and
            2. At and above 3,000 feet MSL over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 nautical miles.

              NOTE-

              See Section ENR 1.1, Paragraph 37.7, Transponder/ADS-B Operation, subparagraph 37.7.6 for Mode C Transponder Requirements and ENR 1.1, paragraph 45, for ADS-B requirements for operating above Class C airspace.

          3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the Class C airspace ATC facility on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, radar beacon code, destination, and request Class C service. Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class C airspace boundary to preclude entering Class C airspace before two-way radio communications are established.

            NOTE-

            1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, “(aircraft callsign) standby,” radio communications have been established and the pilot can enter the Class C airspace.
            2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate provision of Class C services, the controller will inform the pilot to remain outside the Class C airspace until conditions permit the services to be provided.
            3. It is important to understand that if the controller responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft identification, radio communications have not been established and the pilot may not enter the Class C airspace.
            4. Class C airspace areas have a procedural Outer Area. Normally this area is 20 NM from the primary Class C airspace airport. Its vertical limit extends from the lower limits of radio/radar coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control's delegated airspace, excluding the Class C airspace itself, and other airspace as appropriate. (This outer area is not charted.)
            5. Pilots approaching an airport with Class C service should be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter non-transponder/non-ADS-B VFR aircraft.

            EXAMPLE-

            1. [Aircraft callsign] “remain outside the Class Charlie airspace and standby.”
            2. “Aircraft calling Dulles approach control, standby.”
          4. Departures from:
            1. A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in Class C airspace.
            2. A satellite airport without an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established as soon as practicable after departing with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace.
          5. Aircraft Speed. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class C airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).
      5. Air Traffic Services. When two-way radio communications and radar contact are established, all VFR aircraft are:
        1. Sequenced to the primary airport.
        2. Provided Class C services within the Class C airspace and the Outer Area.
        3. Provided basic radar services beyond the outer area on a workload permitting basis. This can be terminated by the controller if workload dictates.
      6. Aircraft Separation. Separation is provided within the Class C airspace and the Outer Area after two-way radio communications and radar contact are established. VFR aircraft are separated from IFR aircraft within the Class C airspace by any of the following:
        1. Visual separation.
        2. 500 feet vertical separation.
        3. Target resolution.
        4. Wake turbulence separation will be provided to all aircraft operating:
          1. Behind and less than 1,000 feet below super or heavy aircraft,
          2. To small aircraft operating behind and less than 500 feet below B757 aircraft, and
          3. To small aircraft following a large aircraft on final approach.

            NOTE-

            1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the service is not available and issued wind, runway information, and the time or place to contact the tower.
            2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to the primary airport will be provided on workload permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when CENRAP is in use.
            3. Pilot participation is voluntary within the outer area and can be discontinued within the outer area at the pilots request. Class C services will be provided in the outer area unless the pilot requests termination of the service.
            4. Some facilities provide Class C services only during published hours. At other times, terminal IFR radar service will be provided. It is important to note that the communications and transponder/ADS-B requirements are dependent on the class of airspace established outside of the published hours.
      7. Secondary Airports
        1. In some locations, Class C airspace may overlie the Class D surface area of a secondary airport. In order to allow that control tower to provide service to aircraft, portions of the overlapping Class C airspace may be procedurally excluded when the secondary airport tower is in operation. Aircraft operating in these procedurally excluded areas will only be provided airport traffic control services when in communication with the secondary airport tower.
        2. Aircraft proceeding inbound to a satellite airport will be terminated at a sufficient distance to allow time to change to the appropriate tower or advisory frequency. Class C services to these aircraft will be discontinued when the aircraft is instructed to contact the tower or change to advisory frequency.
        3. Aircraft departing secondary controlled airports will not receive Class C services until they have been radar identified and two-way communications have been established with the Class C airspace facility.
        4. This program is not to be interpreted as relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clearance, or to remain in weather conditions equal to or better than the minimums required by 14 CFR Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when compliance with an assigned route, heading, and/or altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, vortex exposure, and weather minimums.
      8. Class C Airspace Areas By State
        These states currently have designated Class C airspace areas that are depicted on sectional charts. Pilots should consult current sectional charts and NOTAMs for the latest information on services available. Pilots should be aware that some Class C airspace underlies or is adjacent to Class B airspace.
        (See TBL ENR 1.4-4.)

        TBL ENR 1.4-4
        Class C Airspace Areas by State

        State/City

        Airport

        ALABAMA

         

        Birmingham

        Birmingham-Shuttlesworth
        International

        Huntsville

        International-Carl T Jones Fld

        Mobile

        Regional

        ALASKA

         

        Anchorage

        Ted Stevens International

        ARIZONA

         

        Davis-Monthan

        AFB

        Tucson

        International

        ARKANSAS

         

        Fayetteville (Springdale)

        Northwest Arkansas Regional

        Little Rock

        Adams Field

        CALIFORNIA

         

        Beale

        AFB

        Burbank

        Bob Hope

        Fresno

        Yosemite International

        Monterey

        Peninsula

        Oakland

        Metropolitan Oakland
        International

        Ontario

        International

        Riverside

        March AFB

        Sacramento

        International

        San Jose

        Norman Y. Mineta International

        Santa Ana

        John Wayne/Orange County

        Santa Barbara

        Municipal

        COLORADO

         

        Colorado Springs

        Municipal

        CONNECTICUT

         

        Windsor Locks

        Bradley International

        FLORIDA

         

        Daytona Beach

        International

        Fort Lauderdale

        Hollywood International

        Fort Myers

        SW Florida Regional

        Jacksonville

        International

        Orlando

        Sanford International

        Palm Beach

        International

        Pensacola

        NAS

        Pensacola

        Regional

        Sarasota

        Bradenton International

        Tallahassee

        Regional

        Whiting

        NAS

        GEORGIA

         

        Savannah

        Hilton Head International

        HAWAII

         

        Kahului

        Kahului

        IDAHO

         

        Boise

        Air Terminal

        ILLINOIS

         

        Champaign

        Urbana U of Illinois-Willard

        Chicago

        Midway International

        Moline

        Quad City International

        Peoria

        Greater Peoria Regional

        Springfield

        Abraham Lincoln Capital

        INDIANA

         

        Evansville

        Regional

        Fort Wayne

        International

        Indianapolis

        International

        South Bend

        Regional

        IOWA

         

        Cedar Rapids

        The Eastern Iowa

        Des Moines

        International

        KANSAS

         

        Wichita

        Mid-Continent

        KENTUCKY

         

        Lexington

        Blue Grass

        Louisville

        International-Standiford Field

        LOUISIANA

         

        Baton Rouge

        Metropolitan, Ryan Field

        Lafayette

        Regional

        Shreveport

        Barksdale AFB

        Shreveport

        Regional

        MAINE

         

        Bangor

        International

        Portland

        International Jetport

        MICHIGAN

         

        Flint

        Bishop International

        Grand Rapids

        Gerald R. Ford International

        Lansing

        Capital City

        MISSISSIPPI

         

        Columbus

        AFB

        Jackson

        Jackson-Evers International

        MISSOURI

         

        Springfield

        Springfield-Branson National

        MONTANA

         

        Billings

        Logan International

        NEBRASKA

         

        Lincoln

        Lincoln

        Omaha

        Eppley Airfield

        Offutt

        AFB

        NEVADA

         

        Reno

        Reno/Tahoe International

        NEW HAMPSHIRE

         

        Manchester

        Manchester

        NEW JERSEY

         

        Atlantic City

        International

        NEW MEXICO

         

        Albuquerque

        International Sunport

        NEW YORK

         

        Albany

        International

        Buffalo

        Niagara International

        Islip

        Long Island MacArthur

        Rochester

        Greater Rochester International

        Syracuse

        Hancock International

        NORTH CAROLINA

         

        Asheville

        Regional

        Fayetteville

        Regional/Grannis Field

        Greensboro

        Piedmont Triad International

        Pope

        AFB

        Raleigh

        Raleigh-Durham International

        OHIO

         

        Akron

        Akron-Canton Regional

        Columbus

        Port Columbus International

        Dayton

        James M. Cox International

        Toledo

        Express

        OKLAHOMA

         

        Oklahoma City

        Will Rogers World

        Tinker

        AFB

        Tulsa

        International

        OREGON

         

        Portland

        International

        PENNSYLVANIA

         

        Allentown

        Lehigh Valley International

        PUERTO RICO

         

        San Juan

        Luis Munoz Marin International

        RHODE ISLAND

         

        Providence

        Theodore Francis Green State

        SOUTH CAROLINA

         

        Charleston

        AFB/International

        Columbia

        Metropolitan

        Greer

        Greenville-Spartanburg
        International

        Myrtle Beach

        Myrtle Beach International

        Shaw

        AFB

        TENNESSEE

         

        Chattanooga

        Lovell Field

        Knoxville

        McGhee Tyson

        Nashville

        International

        TEXAS

         

        Abilene

        Regional

        Amarillo

        Rick Husband International

        Austin

        Austin-Bergstrom International

        Corpus Christi

        International

        Dyess

        AFB

        El Paso

        International

        Harlingen

        Valley International

        Laughlin

        AFB

        Lubbock

        Preston Smith International

        Midland

        International

        San Antonio

        International

        VERMONT

         

        Burlington

        International

        VIRGIN ISLANDS

         

        St. Thomas

        Charlotte Amalie Cyril E. King

        VIRGINIA

         

        Richmond

        International

        Norfolk

        International

        Roanoke

        Regional/Woodrum Field

        WASHINGTON

         

        Point Roberts

        Vancouver International

        Spokane

        Fairchild AFB

        Spokane

        International

        Whidbey Island

        NAS, Ault Field

        WEST VIRGINIA

         

        Charleston

        Yeager

        WISCONSIN

         

        Green Bay

        Austin Straubel International

        Madison

        Dane County Regional-Traux Field

        Milwaukee

        General Mitchell International

    5. Class D Airspace
      1. Definition. Generally, Class D airspace extends upward from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace will normally be designed to contain the procedures.
        1. Class D surface areas may be designated as full-time or part-time. Part-time Class D effective times are published in the Chart Supplement U.S.
        2. Part-time Class D surface areas may default to either a Class E surface area or Class G airspace. When a part–time Class D surface area defaults to Class G, the surface area airspace becomes Class G up to, but not including, the overlying controlled airspace. Normally, the overlying controlled airspace is the Class E transition area airspace that begins at either 700 feet or 1200 feet AGL. This may be determined by consulting the applicable VFR Sectional or Terminal Area Charts.
      2. Operating Rules and Pilot Equipment Requirements
        1. Pilot Certification. No specific certification required.
        2. Equipment. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable two-way radio is required.
        3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in the Class D airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the control tower on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, destination, and any request(s). Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class D airspace boundary to preclude entering the Class D airspace before two-way radio communications are established.

          NOTE-

          1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, “(aircraft callsign) standby,” radio communications have been established, and the pilot can enter the Class D airspace.
          2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate entry into Class D airspace, the controller will inform the pilot to remain outside the Class D airspace until conditions permit entry.

          EXAMPLE-

          1. “[Aircraft callsign] remain outside the Class Delta airspace and standby.”
            It is important to understand that if the controller responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft callsign, radio communications have not been established, and the pilot may not enter the Class D airspace.
          2. “Aircraft calling Manassas tower standby.”
            At those airports where the control tower does not operate 24 hours a day, the operating hours of the tower will be listed on the appropriate charts and in the Chart Supplement U.S. During the hours the tower is not in operation, the Class E surface area rules or a combination of Class E rules to 700 feet above ground level and Class G rules to the surface will become applicable. Check the Chart Supplement U.S. for specifics.
        4. Departures from:
          1. A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class D airspace.
          2. A satellite airport without an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class D airspace as soon as practicable after departing.
        5. Aircraft Speed. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class D airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).
      3. Class D airspace areas are depicted on Sectional and Terminal charts with blue segmented lines, and on IFR En Route Low Altitude charts with a boxed [D].
      4. Arrival extensions.
        1. Class D airspace arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures may be Class D or Class E airspace. As a general rule, if all extensions are 2 miles or less, they remain part of the Class D surface area. However, if any one extension is greater than 2 miles, then all extensions become Class E.
        2. Surface area arrival extensions are effective concurrent with the published times of the Class D surface area. For example, if a part–time Class D surface area changes to Class E airspace, the arrival extensions will remain in effect as Class E airspace. If a part–time Class D surface area changes to Class G airspace, the associated arrival extensions will become Class G at the same time.
      5. Separation for VFR Aircraft. No separation services are provided to VFR aircraft.
    6. Class E Airspace
      1. Definition. Class E airspace is a type of controlled airspace that is designated to serve a variety of terminal or en route purposes as described below.
      2. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements.
        1. Pilot Certification. No specific certification required.
        2. Equipment. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC:
          1. An operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting capability and operable ADS-B Out equipment are required at and above 10,000 feet MSL within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia, excluding the airspace at and below 2,500 feet above the surface, and
          2. Operable ADS-B Out equipment at and above 3,000 feet MSL over the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline of the United States out to 12 nautical miles.

            NOTE-

            The airspace described in (b) is specified in 14 CFR § 91.225 for ADS-B Out requirements. However, 14 CFR § 91.215 does not include this airspace for transponder requirements.

        3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. No specific requirements.
      3. Charts. Class E airspace below 14,500 feet MSL is charted on Sectional, Terminal, and IFR Enroute Low Altitude charts.
      4. Vertical limits. Except where designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace in the United States consists of the airspace extending upward from 14,500 feet MSL to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL overlying: the 48 contiguous states, including the waters within 12 miles from the coast of the 48 contiguous states; the District of Columbia; Alaska, including the waters within 12 miles from the coast of Alaska, and that airspace above FL 600; excluding:
        1. The Alaska peninsula west of longitude 160°00'00''W.; and
        2. The airspace below 1,500 feet above the surface of the earth unless specifically designated lower.

          NOTE-

          Class E airspace above FL 600 has no upper limit.

      5. Types of Class E Airspace
        1. Surface area designated for an airport. Class E designated as a surface area for an airport where a control tower is not in operation. The airspace will be configured to contain all instrument procedures. Class E surface areas normally extend from the surface up to but not including the overlying controlled airspace.
        2. Extension to a surface area:
          1. Class E airspace areas may be designated as extensions to Class B, Class C, and Class D surface areas. Such extensions provide controlled airspace to contain standard instrument approach procedures without imposing a communications requirement on pilots operating under VFR. Surface area arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures become part of the primary core surface area and are effective concurrent with the times of the primary core surface area.
          2. When a part–time Class C or Class D surface area defaults to Class E, the arrival extensions will remain in effect as Class E airspace. When a part–time Class C, Class D, or Class E surface area defaults to Class G, the associated arrival extensions will default to Class G at the same time.
        3. Airspace used for transition:
          1. Class E airspace areas extending upward from either 700 feet AGL (shown as magenta vignette on sectional charts) or 1,200 feet AGL (blue vignette) are designated in conjunction with an airport with an approved instrument procedure. These areas are used for transitioning aircraft to/from the terminal or en route environment.
          2. Unless otherwise specified, 700/1200-foot AGL Class E airspace areas remain in effect continuously, regardless of airport operating hours or surface area status. The 700/1200-foot transition areas should not be confused with surface areas or arrival extensions.
        4. En Route Domestic Areas. There are Class E airspace areas that extend upward from a specified altitude and are en route domestic airspace areas that provide controlled airspace in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR en route ATC services, but the Federal airway system is inadequate.
        5. Federal Airways and Low-altitude RNAV Routes. Federal airways and low-altitude RNAV routes are Class E airspace areas and, unless otherwise specified, they extend upward from 1,200 feet AGL to, but not including,18,000 feet MSL. Federal airways consist of L/MF airways (colored Federal airways) and VOR Federal airways. L/MF airways are green, red, amber, and blue. VOR Federal airways are classified as Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian. Low-altitude RNAV routes include T-routes and helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes).
        6. Offshore Airspace Areas. There are Class E airspace areas that extend upward from a specified altitude to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL and are designated as offshore airspace areas. These areas provide controlled airspace beyond 12 nautical miles from the coast of the U.S. in those areas where there is a requirement to provide IFR en route ATC services and within which the U.S. is applying domestic procedures.
      6. Separation for VFR Aircraft. No separation services are provided to VFR aircraft.
  3. Class G Airspace
    1. General
      Class G airspace (uncontrolled) is that portion of airspace that has not been designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace.
    2. VFR Requirements
      Rules governing VFR flight have been adopted to assist the pilot in meeting his/her responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft. Minimum flight visibility and distance from clouds required for VFR flight are contained in 14 CFR Section 91.155. (See TBL ENR 1.4-1 for a tabular presentation of these rules).
    3. IFR Requirements
      1. Title 14 CFR specifies the pilot and aircraft equipment requirements for IFR flight. Pilots are reminded that in addition to altitude or flight level requirements, 14 CFR Section 91.177 includes a requirement to remain at least 1,000 feet (2,000 feet in designated mountainous terrain) above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 nautical miles from the course to be flown.
      2. IFR Altitudes. (See TBL ENR 1.4-5.)
  4. Other Airspace Areas
    1. Airport Advisory/Information Services
      1. There are two advisory type services available at selected airports. Airports offering these services are listed in the Chart Supplement U.S. and the published service hours may be changed by NOTAM D.
        1. Local Airport Advisory (LAA) service is available only in Alaska and is operated within 10 statute miles of an airport where a control tower is not operating but where a FSS is located on the airport. At such locations, the FSS provides a complete local airport advisory service to arriving and departing aircraft. During periods of fast changing weather the FSS will automatically provide Final Guard as part of the service from the time the aircraft reports “on-final” or “taking-the-active-runway” until the aircraft reports “on-the-ground” or “airborne.”

          NOTE-

          Current FAA policy, when requesting remote ATC services, requires that a pilot monitor the automated weather broadcast at the landing airport prior to requesting ATC services. The FSS automatically provides Final Guard, when appropriate, during LAA operations. Final Guard is a value added wind/altimeter monitoring service, which provides an automatic wind and altimeter check during active weather situations when the pilot reports on-final or taking the active runway. During the landing or take-off operation when the winds or altimeter are actively changing the FSS will blind broadcast significant changes when the specialist believes the change might affect the operation. Pilots should acknowledge the first wind/altimeter check but due to cockpit activity no acknowledgement is expected for the blind broadcasts. It is prudent for a pilot to report on-the-ground or airborne to end the service.

          TBL ENR 1.4-5
          IFR Altitudes Class G Airspace

          If your magnetic course
          (ground track) is:

          And you are below
          18,000 feet MSL, fly:

          0° to 179°

          Odd thousands MSL, (3,000; 5,000; 7,000, etc.)

          180° to 359°

          Even thousands MSL, (2,000; 4,000; 6,000, etc.)

        2. Remote Airport Information Service (RAIS) is provided in support of short term special events like small to medium fly-ins. The service is advertised by NOTAM D only. The FSS will not have access to a continuous readout of the current winds and altimeter; therefore, RAIS does not include weather and/or Final Guard service. However, known traffic, special event instructions, and all other services are provided.

          NOTE-

          The airport authority and/or manager should request RAIS support on official letterhead directly with the manager of the FSS that will provide the service at least 60 days in advance. Approval authority rests with the FSS manager and is based on workload and resource availability.

          REFERENCE-

          See GEN 3.3, Air Traffic Services, Paragraph 9.2, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers.

        3. It is not mandatory that pilots participate in the Airport Advisory programs. Participation enhances safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports; therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and provide feedback that will help improve the program.
    2. Published VFR Routes. Published VFR routes for transitioning around, under, and through complex airspace such as Class B airspace were developed through a number of FAA and industry initiatives. All of the following terms; i.e., “VFR Flyway,” “VFR Corridor,” “Class B Airspace VFR Transition Route,” and “Terminal Area VFR Route” have been used when referring to the same or different types of routes or airspace. The following paragraphs identify and clarify the functionality of each type of route, and specify where and when an ATC clearance is required.
      1. VFR Flyways
        1. VFR Flyways and their associated Flyway Planning charts were developed from the recommendations of a National Airspace Review Task Group. A VFR Flyway is defined as a general flight path not defined as a specific course, for use by pilots in planning flights into, out of, through, or near complex terminal airspace to avoid Class B airspace. An ATC clearance is NOT required to fly these routes.
        2. VFR Flyways are depicted on the reverse side of some of the VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC), commonly referred to as Class B airspace charts. Eventually all TACs will include a VFR Flyway Planning Chart. These charts identify VFR flyways designed to help VFR pilots avoid major controlled traffic flows. They may further depict multiple VFR routings throughout the area which may be used as an alternative to flight within Class B airspace. The ground references provide a guide for improved visual navigation. These routes are not intended to discourage requests for VFR operations within Class B airspace but are designed solely to assist pilots in planning for flights under and around busy Class B airspace without actually entering Class B airspace.
        3. It is very important to remember that these suggested routes are not sterile of other traffic. The entire Class B airspace, and the airspace underneath it, may be heavily congested with many different types of aircraft. Pilot adherence to VFR rules must be exercised at all times. Further, when operating beneath Class B airspace, communications must be established and maintained between your aircraft and any control tower while transiting the Class B, Class C, and Class D surface areas of those airports under Class B Airspace.
      2. VFR Corridors
        1. The design of a few of the first Class B airspace areas provided a corridor for the passage of uncontrolled traffic. A VFR corridor is defined as airspace through Class B airspace, with defined vertical and lateral boundaries, in which aircraft may operate without an ATC clearance or communication with air traffic control.
        2. These corridors are, in effect, a “hole” through Class B airspace. (See FIG ENR 1.4-1.) A classic example would be the corridor through the Los Angeles Class B airspace, which has been subsequently changed to Special Flight Rules airspace (SFR). A corridor is surrounded on all sides by Class B airspace and does not extend down to the surface like a VFR Flyway. Because of their finite lateral and vertical limits, and the volume of VFR traffic using a corridor, extreme caution and vigilance must be exercised.

          FIG ENR 1.4-1
          Class B Airspace

          A graphic depicting Class B airspace.
        3. Because of the heavy traffic volume and the procedures necessary to efficiently manage the flow of traffic, it has not been possible to incorporate VFR corridors in the development or modifications of Class B airspace in recent years.
      3. Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes
        1. To accommodate VFR traffic through certain Class B airspace, such as Seattle, Phoenix, and Los Angeles, Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes were developed. A Class B Airspace VFR Transition Route is defined as a specific flight course depicted on a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) for transiting a specific Class B airspace. These routes include specific ATC assigned altitudes, and pilots must obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering Class B airspace on the route.
        2. These routes, as depicted in FIG ENR 1.4-2, are designed to show the pilot where to position his/her aircraft outside of, or clear of, the Class B airspace where an ATC clearance can normally be expected with minimal or no delay. Until ATC authorization is received, pilots must remain clear of Class B airspace. On initial contact, pilots should advise ATC of their position, altitude, route name desired, and direction of flight. After a clearance is received, the pilot must fly the route as depicted and, most importantly, adhere to ATC instructions.
    3. Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)
      1. Background. The terminal radar service areas (TRSA) were originally established as part of the Terminal Radar Program at selected airports. TRSAs were never controlled airspace from a regulatory standpoint because the establishment of TRSAs were never subject to the rulemaking process; consequently, TRSAs are not contained in 14 CFR Part 71 nor are there any TRSA operating rules in Part 91. Part of the Airport Radar Service Area (ARSA) program was to eventually replace all TRSAs. However, the ARSA requirements became relatively stringent, and it was subsequently decided that TRSAs would have to meet ARSA criteria before they would be converted. TRSAs do not fit into any of the U.S. Airspace Classes; therefore, they will continue to be non-Part 71 airspace areas where participating pilots can receive additional radar services which have been redefined as TRSA Service.
      2. TRSA Areas. The primary airport(s) within the TRSA become(s) Class D airspace. The remaining portion of the TRSA overlies other controlled airspace which is normally Class E airspace beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and established to transition to/from the en route/terminal environment.
      3. Participation. Pilots operating under VFR are encouraged to contact the radar approach control and avail themselves of the TRSA Services. However, participation is voluntary on the part of the pilot. See ENR 1.1, paragraph 39.2, for details and procedures.
      4. Charts. TRSAs are depicted on VFR sectional and terminal area charts with a solid black line and altitudes for each segment. The Class D portion is charted with a blue segmented line.

        FIG ENR 1.4-2
        VFR Transition Route

        A graphic depicting a VFR Transition route. ATC Clearance Required.