Section 1. General Control
Where control responsibility within Canadian airspace has been formally delegated to the FAA by the Transport Canada Aviation Group, apply basic FAA procedures except for the Canadian procedures contained in this chapter.
In 1985, the U.S. and Canada established an agreement recognizing the inherent safety of the ATC procedures exercised by the other country. This agreement permits the use of ATC procedures of one country when that country is exercising ATC in the airspace over the territory of the other country insofar as they are not inconsistent with, or repugnant to, the laws and regulations or unique operational requirements of the country over whose territory such airspace is located. Accordingly, this chapter was revised to include only those Canadian procedures that must be used because of a Canadian regulatory or unique operational requirement.
- Class A airspace. Controlled airspace within which only IFR flights are permitted. Airspace designated from the base of all controlled high level airspace up to and including FL 600.
- Class B airspace. Controlled airspace within which only IFR and Controlled VFR (CVFR) flights are permitted. Includes all controlled low level airspace above 12,500 feet ASL or at and above the minimum en route IFR altitude, (whichever is higher) up to but not including 18,000 feet ASL. ATC procedures pertinent to IFR flights must be applied to CVFR aircraft.
The CVFR pilot is responsible to maintain VFR flight and visual reference to the ground at all times.
- Class C airspace. Controlled airspace within which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but VFR flights require a clearance from ATC to enter.
- Class D airspace. Controlled airspace within which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but VFR flights do not require a clearance from ATC to enter, however, they must establish two-way communications with the appropriate ATC agency prior to entering the airspace.
- Class E airspace. Airspace within which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but for VFR flight there are no special requirements.
- Class F airspace. Airspace of defined dimensions within which activities must be confined because of their nature, or within which limitations are imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities, or both. Special use airspace may be classified as Class F advisory or Class F restricted.
- Class G airspace. Uncontrolled airspace within which ATC has neither the authority nor responsibility for exercising control over air traffic.
Clear an aircraft to maintain “at least 1,000 feet‐on‐top” in lieu of “VFR-on-top,” provided:
- The pilot requests it.
It is the pilot's responsibility to ensure that the requested operation can be conducted at least 1,000 feet above all cloud, haze, smoke, or other formation, with a flight visibility of 3 miles or more. A pilot's request can be considered as confirmation that conditions are adequate.
- The pilot will not operate within Class A or Class B airspace.
Apply a lateral, longitudinal, or vertical separation minimum between aircraft operating in accordance with an IFR or CVFR clearance, regardless of the weather conditions.
Base controller action regarding radio failures in Canadian airspace on the requirement for pilots to comply with Canadian Airspace Regulations, which are similar to 14 CFR Section 91.185; however, the following major difference must be considered when planning control actions. Except when issued alternate radio failure instructions by ATC, pilots will adhere to the following: If flying a turbine‐powered (turboprop or turbojet) aircraft and cleared on departure to a point other than the destination, proceed to the destination airport in accordance with the flight plan, maintaining the last assigned altitude or flight level or the minimum en route IFR altitude, whichever is higher, until 10 minutes beyond the point specified in the clearance (clearance limit), and then proceed at altitude(s) or flight level(s) filed in the flight plan. When the aircraft will enter U.S. airspace within 10 minutes after passing the clearance limit, the climb to the flight planned border crossing altitude is to be commenced at the estimated time of crossing the Canada/U.S. boundary.
Do not authorize parachute jumping without prior permission from the appropriate Canadian authority.
Canadian regulations require written authority from the Ministry of Transport.
Pilots do not have to be IFR qualified to fly SVFR at night, nor does the aircraft have to be equipped for IFR flight.
- Within a control zone where there is an airport controller on duty, approve or refuse a pilot's request for SVFR on the basis of current or anticipated IFR traffic only. If approved, specify the period of time during which SVFR flight is permitted.
- Within a control zone where there is no airport controller on duty, authorize or refuse an aircraft's request for SVFR on the basis of:
- Current or anticipated IFR traffic, and
- Official ceiling and visibility reports.
- Canadian SVFR weather minimums for:
- Aircraft other than helicopters. Flight visibility (ground visibility when reported) 1 mile.
- Helicopters. Flight visibility (ground visibility when available) 1/2 mile.