Section 8. Caribbean ICAO Region

  1. APPLICATION

Provide air traffic control services in the Caribbean ICAO Region with the procedures and minima contained in this section except when noted otherwise.

  1. VERTICAL SEPARATION

Provide vertical separation in accordance with Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment and Verification.

  1. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION

Provide longitudinal separation between aircraft as follows:

  1. Supersonic flight:
  1. 10 minutes provided both aircraft are in level flight at the same Mach number or the aircraft are of the same type and are both operating in cruise climb, and one of the following;
  1. Both aircraft have reported over a common point; or,
  2. If both aircraft have not reported over a common point, the appropriate time interval being applied between aircraft exists and will exist at the common point; or,
  3. If a common point does not exist, the appropriate time interval being applied between aircraft exists and will exist at significant points along each track.
  1. 15 minutes between all other aircraft.
  1. Turbojet operations at or above FL 200 in the Miami Oceanic, Houston Oceanic and San Juan CTAs/FIRs and all altitudes in the West Atlantic Route System (WATRS) and New York Oceanic CTA/FIR (subsonic flight):
  1. Apply the prescribed minima in accordance with Paragraph 8-3-3, Mach Number Technique; or
  2. In the New York CTA/FIR, where tracks diverge from the common point and the following aircraft is maintaining a greater Mach number than the preceding aircraft:
  1. At least 10 minutes longitudinal separation exists at the point where the tracks diverge; and
  2. At least 5 minutes longitudinal separation will exist where minimum lateral separation is achieved (whichever is estimated to occur first);
  1. At or before the next significant point (normally within ten degrees of longitude along track(s)), or
  2. Within 90 minutes of the time the following aircraft passes the common point, or
  3. Within 600 NM of the common point; or
  1. Apply 15 minutes between all other turbojet aircraft.
  1. Turbojet operations below FL 200 (subsonic flight):
    Apply 20 minutes between turbojet aircraft operating below FL 200 in the San Juan Oceanic (outside the WATRS area), Miami Oceanic and Houston Oceanic CTAs/FIRs.
  2. Nonturbojet operations.
  1. Apply 20 minutes between aircraft operating in the WATRS; or
  2. Apply 20 minutes between aircraft operating below FL 200 in the Miami Oceanic, Houston Oceanic and San Juan CTAs/FIRs; or
  3. Apply 30 minutes between aircraft operating outside of the WATRS in the New York CTA/FIR.

NOTE-

The WATRS area is defined as beginning at a point 27°00'N/77°00'W direct to 20°00'N/67°00'W direct to 18°00'N/62°00'W direct to 18°00'N/60°00'W direct to 38°30'N/60°00'W direct to 38°30'N/69°15'W, thence counterclockwise along the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary to the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary, thence southbound along the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary to the point of beginning.

  1. Clear an aircraft for an ADS-B In Trail Procedure (ITP) climb or descent provided the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. The ITP climb or descent has been requested by the pilot;
  2. The aircraft identification of each reference aircraft in the ITP request exactly matches the Item 7 - aircraft identification of the corresponding aircraft's filed flight plan;
  3. The reported ITP distance between the ITP aircraft and any reference aircraft is 15 NM or more;
  4. Both the ITP aircraft and reference aircraft are either on:
  1. same identical tracks and any turn at a waypoint shall be limited to less than 45 degrees; or
  2. same tracks with no turns permitted that reduce required separation during the ITP.

NOTE-

Same identical tracks are where the angular difference is zero degrees.

  1. No speed or route change clearance shall be issued to the ITP aircraft until the ITP climb or descent is completed;
  2. The altitude difference between the ITP aircraft and any reference aircraft shall be 2000 ft or less;
  3. No instruction to amend speed, altitude or route shall be issued to any reference aircraft until the ITP climb or descent is completed;
  4. The maximum closing speed between the ITP aircraft and each reference aircraft shall be Mach 0.06; and
  5. The ITP aircraft shall not be a reference aircraft in another ITP clearance.

NOTE-

ATOP is designed to check for the above criteria prior to allowing the minima to be provided.

  1. Minima based on distance using Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C):
  1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8-8-1 between aircraft on the same track within airspace designated for Required Navigation Performance (RNP), provided:
  1. Direct controller/pilot communication via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is established, and
  2. The required ADS-C periodic reports are maintained and monitored by an automated flight data processor (for example, ATOP).

TBL 8-8-1
ADS-C Criteria

Minima

RNP

Maximum ADS-C
Periodic Reporting Interval

50 NM

10

27 minutes

50 NM

4

32 minutes

30 NM

4

10 minutes

  1. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the altitude(s) occupied by another aircraft provided:
  1. An ADS-C position report on at least one of the aircraft has been received beyond the passing point, and
  2. The aircraft have passed each other by the applicable separation minimum.

NOTE-

ATOP has been designed to check for the above criteria prior to allowing the minima to be provided.

  1. When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the controller must take action to obtain an ADS-C report.
  2. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the time the original report was due, the controller must take action to apply another form of separation.
  3. Aircraft on the same track may be cleared to climb or descend through the level of another aircraft provided:
  1. The longitudinal distance between the aircraft is determined from near simultaneous ADS-C demand reports and the ATOP software is used to ensure the following conditions are met;
  2. The longitudinal distance between the aircraft, as determined in a) above, is not less than:
  1. 15 NM when the preceding aircraft is at the same speed or faster than the following aircraft; or
  2. 25 NM when the following aircraft is not more than Mach 0.02 faster than the preceding aircraft
  1. The altitude difference between aircraft is not more than 2000 ft;
  2. The clearance is for a climb or descent of 4000 ft or less;
  3. Both aircraft are filed as single flights not flying in formation with other aircraft;
  4. Both aircraft are in level flight at a single altitude;
  5. Both aircraft are same direction;
  6. Neither aircraft are on a weather deviation;
  7. Neither aircraft have an open CPDLC request for a weather deviation;
  8. Neither aircraft are on an offset with a rejoin clearance; and
  9. The clearance is issued with a restriction that ensures vertical separation is re-established within 15 minutes from the first demand report request.
  1. LATERAL SEPARATION

In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic Procedures, Section 4, Lateral Separation, apply the following:

  1. 30 NM to RNP-4 approved aircraft operating within airspace designated for RNP-4 when direct controller/pilot communications, via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC), and the required ADS-C contracts are maintained and monitored by an automated flight data processor (e.g., ATOP).
  2. 50 NM between Required Navigation Performance (RNP 4 or RNP 10) approved aircraft which:
  1. Operate on routes or in areas within WATRS, the San Juan CTA/FIR or the Atlantic portion of the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR; or
  2. Operate in the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR outside of WATRS; or
  3. Operate in the Houston Oceanic CTA/FIR or the Gulf of Mexico portion of the Miami CTA/FIR.

NOTE-

This reduced lateral separation must not be used if track-keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced for any reason.

  1. 60 NM between:
  1. Supersonic aircraft operating above FL 275 within the New York oceanic CTA/FIR.
  2. Supersonic aircraft operating at or above FL 450 not covered in subpara 1 above.
  3. Aircraft which have MNPS or NAT HLA authorization and which:
  1. Operate within NTA HLA; or
  2. Are in transit to or from NAT HLA; or
  3. Operate for part of their flight within, above, or below NAT HLA.

NOTE-

This reduced lateral separation must not be used if track-keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced for any reason.

  1. 90 NM between aircraft not approved for RNP 4 or RNP 10 and which:
  1. Operate within WATRS; or
  2. Operate west of 55° West between the U.S., Canada, or Bermuda and points in the Caribbean ICAO Region.
  1. 100 NM between aircraft operating west of 55°West not covered by subparas a, c or d above.
  2. 120 NM between aircraft operating east of 55°West.
  1. VFR CLIMB AND DESCENT
  1. In the Houston, Miami, and San Juan CTAs, IFR flights may be cleared to climb and descend in VFR conditions only:
  1. When requested by the pilot; and
  2. Between sunrise and sunset.
  1. Apply the following when the flight is cleared:
  1. If there is a possibility that VFR conditions may become impractical, issue alternative instructions.
  2. Issue traffic information to aircraft that are not separated in accordance with the minima in this section.