Section 7. North Atlantic ICAO Region

  1. APPLICATION

Provide air traffic control services in the North Atlantic ICAO Region with the procedures and minima contained in this section except when noted otherwise.

  1. VERTICAL SEPARATION

Provide vertical separation in accordance with Chapter 4, IFR, Section 5, Altitude Assignment and Verification.

  1. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION

In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic Procedures, Section 3, Longitudinal Separation, apply the following:

  1. Supersonic flight:
  1. 10 minutes provided that:
  1. both aircraft are in level flight at the same Mach number or the aircraft are of the same type and are both operating in cruise climb, and one of the following;
  1. The aircraft concerned have reported over a common point; or,
  2. If the aircraft have not reported over a common point, the appropriate time interval being applied between aircraft exists and will exist at the common point; or,
  3. If a common point does not exist, the appropriate time interval being applied between aircraft exists and will exist at significant points along each track.
  1. 15 minutes between aircraft in supersonic flight not covered in subpara a1 above.
  1. Turbojet operations (subsonic flight):
  1. Apply the prescribed minima in accordance with Paragraph 8-3-3, Mach Number Technique; or
  2. Where tracks diverge from the common point and the following aircraft is maintaining a greater Mach Number than the preceding aircraft:
  1. At least 10 minutes longitudinal separation exists at the point where the tracks diverge; and
  2. At least 5 minutes longitudinal separation will exist where minimum lateral separation is achieved (whichever is estimated to occur first);
  1. At or before the next significant point (normally within ten degrees of longitude along track(s)), or
  2. Within 90 minutes of the time the following aircraft passes the common point, or
  3. Within 600 NM of the common point.
  1. Apply 15 minutes between all other turbojet aircraft.
  1. Nonturbojet operations:
  1. Apply 20 minutes between aircraft operating in the West Atlantic Route System (WATRS), or
  2. Apply 30 minutes between aircraft operating outside of the WATRS.

NOTE-

The WATRS area is defined as beginning at a point 27°00'N/77°00'W direct to 20°00'N/67°00'W direct to 18°00'N/62°00'W direct to 18°00'N/60°00'W direct to 38°30'N/60°00'W direct to 38°30'N/69°15'W, thence counterclockwise along the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary to the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary, thence southbound along the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR boundary to the point of beginning.

  1. Clear an aircraft for an ADS-B In Trail Procedure (ITP) climb or descent provided the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. The ITP climb or descent has been requested by the pilot;
  2. The aircraft identification of each reference aircraft in the ITP request exactly matches the Item 7 - aircraft identification of the corresponding aircraft's filed flight plan;
  3. The reported ITP distance between the ITP aircraft and any reference aircraft is 15 NM or more;
  4. Both the ITP aircraft and reference aircraft are either on:
  1. same identical tracks and any turn at a waypoint shall be limited to less than 45 degrees; or
  2. same tracks with no turns permitted that reduce required separation during the ITP.

NOTE-

Same identical tracks are where the angular difference is zero degrees.

  1. No speed or route change clearance shall be issued to the ITP aircraft until the ITP climb or descent is completed;
  2. The altitude difference between the ITP aircraft and any reference aircraft shall be 2000 ft or less;
  3. No instruction to amend speed, altitude or route shall be issued to any reference aircraft until the ITP climb or descent is completed;
  4. The maximum closing speed between the ITP aircraft and each reference aircraft shall be Mach 0.06; and
  5. The ITP aircraft shall not be a reference aircraft in another ITP clearance.

NOTE-

ATOP is designed to check for the above criteria prior to allowing the minima to be provided.

  1. Minima based on distance using Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C):
  1. Apply the minima as specified in TBL 8-7-1 between aircraft on the same track within airspace designated for Required Navigation Performance (RNP), provided:
  1. Direct controller/pilot communication via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is established, and
  2. The required ADS-C periodic reports are maintained and monitored by an automated flight data processor (for example, ATOP).

TBL 8-7-1
ADS-C Criteria

Minima

RNP

Maximum ADS-C
Periodic Reporting Interval

50 NM

10

27 minutes

50 NM

4

32 minutes

30 NM

4

10 minutes

  1. Aircraft on reciprocal tracks may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the altitude(s) occupied by another aircraft provided:
  1. An ADS-C position report on at least one of the aircraft has been received beyond the passing point, and
  2. The aircraft have passed each other by the applicable separation minimum.

NOTE-

ATOP has been designed to check for the above criteria prior to allowing the minima to be provided.

  1. When an ADS-C periodic or waypoint change event report is overdue by 3 minutes, the controller must take action to obtain an ADS-C report.
  2. If no report is received within 6 minutes of the time the original report was due, the controller must take action to apply another form of separation.
  3. Aircraft on the same track may be cleared to climb or descend through the level of another aircraft provided:
  1. The longitudinal distance between the aircraft is determined from near simultaneous ADS-C demand reports and the ATOP software is used to ensure the following conditions are met;
  2. The longitudinal distance between the aircraft, as determined in a) above, is not less than:
  1. 15 NM when the preceding aircraft is at the same speed or faster than the following aircraft; or
  2. 25 NM when the following aircraft is not more than Mach 0.02 faster than the preceding aircraft
  1. The altitude difference between aircraft is not more than 2000 ft;
  2. The clearance is for a climb or descent of 4000 ft or less;
  3. Both aircraft are filed as single flights not flying in formation with other aircraft;
  4. Both aircraft are in level flight at a single altitude;
  5. Both aircraft are same direction;
  6. Neither aircraft are on a weather deviation;
  7. Neither aircraft have an open CPDLC request for a weather deviation;
  8. Neither aircraft are on an offset with a rejoin clearance; and
  9. The clearance is issued with a restriction that ensures vertical separation is re-established within 15 minutes from the first demand report request.
  1. LATERAL SEPARATION

In accordance with Chapter 8, Offshore/Oceanic Procedures, Section 4, Lateral Separation, apply the following:

  1. 30 NM to RNP-4 approved aircraft operating within airspace designated for RNP-4 when direct controller/pilot communications, via voice or Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC), and the required ADS-C contracts are maintained and monitored by an automated flight data processor (e.g., ATOP).
  2. 50 NM between Required Navigation Performance (RNP 4 or RNP 10) approved aircraft which:
  1. Operate on routes or in areas within WATRS, the San Juan CTA/FIR or the Atlantic portion of the Miami Oceanic CTA/FIR; or
  2. Operate in the New York Oceanic CTA/FIR outside of WATRS.

NOTE-

This reduced lateral separation must not be used if track-keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced for any reason.

  1. 60 NM or 1 degree latitude between:
  1. Supersonic aircraft operating above FL 275.
  2. Aircraft which have MNPS or NAT HLA authorization and which:
  1. Operate within NAT HLA; or
  2. Are in transit to or from NAT HLA; or
  3. Operate for part of their flight within, above, or below NAT HLA.

NOTE-

This reduced lateral separation must not be used if track-keeping capability of the aircraft has been reduced for any reason.

  1. 90 NM or 1 and 1/2 degrees latitude between aircraft not approved for RNP 4 or RNP 10 and which:
  1. Operate on routes or in areas within WATRS, the San Juan CTA/FIR or the Atlantic portion of the Miami CTA/FIR;
  2. Operate between points in the U.S. or Canada, and Bermuda;
  3. Operate west of 55° West between the U.S., Canada, or Bermuda and points in the Caribbean ICAO Region.
  1. 120 NM or 2 degrees latitude between aircraft not covered by subparas a, c or d above.

NOTE-

Tracks may be spaced with reference to their difference in latitude, provided that in any interval of 10 degrees of longitude the change in latitude of at least one of the tracks does not exceed 3 degrees when operating south of 58°North.

  1. PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER DEVIATIONS IN NORTH ATLANTIC (NAT) AIRSPACE

Aircraft must request an ATC clearance to deviate. Since aircraft will not fly into known areas of weather, weather deviation requests should take priority over routine requests. If there is no traffic in the horizontal dimension, ATC must issue clearance to deviate from track; or if there is conflicting traffic in the horizontal dimension, ATC separates aircraft by establishing vertical separation. If there is conflicting traffic and ATC is unable to establish the required separation, ATC must:

  1. Advise the pilot unable to issue clearance for requested deviation;
  2. Advise the pilot of conflicting traffic; and
  3. Request pilot's intentions.

PHRASEOLOGY-

UNABLE (requested deviation), TRAFFIC IS (call sign, position, altitude, direction), ADVISE INTENTIONS.

NOTE-

  1. The pilot will advise ATC of intentions by the most expeditious means available.
  2. In the event that pilot/controller communications cannot be established or a revised ATC clearance is not available, pilots will follow the procedures outlined in the Regional Supplementary Procedures, ICAO Doc. 7030.