Section 8. Radar Departures

  1. PROCEDURES

Use standard departure routes and channelized altitudes whenever practical to reduce coordination. Do not, however, assign these routes solely to provide for possible radar or communication failure.

  1. INITIAL HEADING
  1. Before departure, assign the initial heading to be flown if a departing aircraft is to be vectored immediately after takeoff.

PHRASEOLOGY-

FLY RUNWAY HEADING.
TURN LEFT/RIGHT, HEADING (degrees).

NOTE-

  1. TERMINAL. A purpose for the heading is not necessary, since pilots operating in a radar environment associate assigned headings with vectors to their planned route of flight.
  2. ATC assumes responsibility for terrain and obstacle avoidance when IFR aircraft are below the minimum IFR altitude (MVA, MIA, MEA) and are taken off departure/ missed approach procedures, or are issued go-around instructions, except when utilizing a Diverse Vector Area (DVA) with an aircraft departing from the surface.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-3-2, Departure Clearances.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-6-3, Vectors Below Minimum Altitude.

  1. Issue an altitude to maintain with the initial heading when the heading will take the aircraft off a departure procedure that contains both a published lateral path to a waypoint and crossing restrictions.
  2. When conducting simultaneous parallel runway departures utilizing RNAV SIDs, advise aircraft of the initial fix/waypoint on the RNAV route.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RNAV to (fix/waypoint), RUNWAY (number), CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

EXAMPLE-

“RNAV to MPASS, Runway Two-Six Left, cleared for takeoff.”

NOTE-

  1. TERMINAL. A purpose for an initial waypoint advisory is not necessary since pilots associate this advisory with the flight path to their planned route of flight. Pilots must immediately advise ATC if a different RNAV SID is entered in the aircraft FMS.
  2. The SID transition is not restated as it is contained in the ATC clearance.
  3. Aircraft cleared via RNAV SIDs designed to begin with a vector to the initial waypoint are assigned a heading before departure.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-9, Nonintersecting Converging Runway Operations
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-3-2, Departure Clearances
AIM, Para 5-2-7. Departure Control

  1. SUCCESSIVE OR SIMULTANEOUS DEPARTURES

TERMINAL

Separate aircraft departing from the same airport/heliport or adjacent airports/heliports in accordance with the following minima provided radar identification with the aircraft will be established within 1 mile of the takeoff runway end/helipad and courses will diverge by 15 degrees or more.

NOTE-

  1. FAA Order 8260.46, Departure Procedure (DP) Program, and FAA Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS), Volume 4, establishes guidelines for IFR departure turning procedures which assumes a climb to 400 feet above the departure end of runway (DER) elevation before a turn is commenced. TERPS criteria ensures obstacle clearance with a climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile from the DER. “Immediately after departure” is considered to be any turn that provides at least 15 degrees of divergence that commences no later than 2 miles from the DER.
  2. Consider known aircraft performance characteristics when applying initial separation to successive departing aircraft.
  3. When one or both of the departure surfaces is a helipad, use the takeoff course of the helicopter as a reference, comparable to the centerline of a runway and the helipad center as the threshold.
  1. Between aircraft departing the same runway/ helipad or parallel runways/helicopter takeoff courses separated by less than 2,500 feet- 1 mile if courses diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately after departure or 10 degrees or more when both aircraft are departing the same runway and both are flying an RNAV SID. (See FIG 5-8-1, FIG 5-8-2, and FIG 5-8-3.)

NOTE-

RNAV SIDs specific to this paragraph are those SIDs constructed with a specific lateral path that begins at the DER.

FIG 5-8-1
Successive Departures

A graphic depicting successive departures on the same runway.

FIG 5-8-2
Simultaneous Departures

A graphic depicting simultaneous course departures separated by 1 mile and 15 degrees from parallel runways  separated by less than 2,500 feet.

FIG 5-8-3
Simultaneous Departures

A graphic depicting simultaneous departures from a runway parallel to a helicopter takeoff separated by less than 2,500 feet.

NOTE-

This procedure does not apply when wake turbulence separation is required.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-7, Wake Turbulence Separation for Intersection Departures.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Operations.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.

  1. Between aircraft departing from diverging runways:
  1. Nonintersecting runways. Authorize simultaneous takeoffs if runways diverge by 15 degrees or more. (See FIG 5-8-4.)

FIG 5-8-4
Nonintersecting Runway Departures

A graphic depicting simultaneous takeoffs from nonintersecting runways diverging by 15 degrees or more.

  1. Intersecting runways and/or helicopter takeoff courses which diverge by 15 degrees or more. Authorize takeoff of a succeeding aircraft when the preceding aircraft has passed the point of runway and/or takeoff course intersection. When applicable, apply the procedure in Paragraph 3-9-5, Anticipating Separation. (See FIG 5-8-5 and FIG 5-8-6.)

FIG 5-8-5
Intersecting Runway Departures

A graphic depicting takeoff courses for intersecting runways by 15 degrees or more.

NOTE-

This procedure does not apply when wake turbulence separation is required.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.

FIG 5-8-6
Intersecting Helicopter Course Departures

A graphic depicting takeoff courses for intersecting helicopter course departures by 15 degrees or more.

  1. Between aircraft departing in the same direction from parallel runways/helicopter takeoff courses. Authorize simultaneous takeoffs if the centerlines/ takeoff courses are separated by at least 2,500 feet and courses diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately after departure or 10 degrees or more when both aircraft are flying an RNAV SID. (See FIG 5-8-7 and FIG 5-8-8.)

NOTE-

RNAV SIDs specific to this paragraph are those SIDs constructed with a specific lateral path that begins at the DER.

FIG 5-8-7
Parallel Runway Departures

A graphic depicting simultaneous parallel runway departures separated by 2,500 feet or more with courses that diverge by 15 degrees or more.

FIG 5-8-8
Parallel Helicopter Course Departures

A graphic depicting simultaneous parallel helicopter and runway departures separated by 2,500 feet or more with courses that diverge by 15 degrees or more.

  1. DEPARTURE AND ARRIVAL

TERMINAL. Except as provided in Paragraph 5-8-5, Departures and Arrivals on Parallel or Nonintersecting Diverging Runways, separate a departing aircraft from an arriving aircraft on final approach by a minimum of 2 miles if separation will increase to a minimum of 3 miles (5 miles when 40 miles or more from the antenna) within 1 minute after takeoff.

NOTE-

  1. This procedure permits a departing aircraft to be released so long as an arriving aircraft is no closer than 2 miles from the runway at the time. This separation is determined at the time the departing aircraft commences takeoff roll.
  2. Consider the effect surface conditions, such as ice, snow, and other precipitation, may have on known aircraft performance characteristics, and the influence these conditions may have on the pilot's ability to commence takeoff roll in a timely manner.
  1. DEPARTURES AND ARRIVALS ON PARALLEL OR NONINTERSECTING DIVERGING RUNWAYS

TERMINAL. Authorize simultaneous operations between an aircraft departing on a runway and an aircraft on final approach to another parallel or nonintersecting diverging runway if the departure course diverges immediately by at least 30 degrees from the missed approach course until separation is applied and provided one of the following conditions are met:

NOTE-

When one or both of the takeoff/landing surfaces is a helipad, consider the helicopter takeoff course as the runway centerline and the helipad center as the threshold.

  1. When parallel runway thresholds are even, the runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart. (See FIG 5-8-9 and FIG 5-8-10.)

FIG 5-8-9
Parallel Thresholds are Even

A graphic depicting simultaneous operations between an aircraft departing and and aircraft on final approach to another parallel runway when the departure course diverges immediately by 30 degrees from the missed approach course when parallel runway thresholds are even and the runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart.

FIG 5-8-10
Parallel Thresholds are Even

A graphic depicting simultaneous operations between a helciopter departing and and aircraft on final approach to another parallel runway when the departure course diverges immediately by 30 degrees from the missed approach course when parallel runway thresholds are even and the runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart.

  1. When parallel runway thresholds are staggered and:
  1. The arriving aircraft is approaching the nearer runway: the centerlines are at least 1,000 feet apart and the landing thresholds are staggered at least 500 feet for each 100 feet less than 2,500 the centerlines are separated. (See FIG 5-8-11 and FIG 5-8-12.)

FIG 5-8-11
Parallel Thresholds are Staggered

A graphic depicting simultaneous operations when parallel runway thresholds are staggered and the arriving aircraft is approaching the nearer runway, the centerlines are at least 1,000 feet apart and the landing thresholds are staggered at least 500 feet for each 100 feet less than 2,500 the centerlines are separated.

FIG 5-8-12
Parallel Thresholds are Staggered

A graphic depicting simultaneous operations between an approaching aircraft and a departing helicopter when parallel runway thresholds are staggered and the arriving aircraft is approaching the nearer runway, the centerlines are at least 1,000 feet apart and the landing thresholds are staggered at least 500 feet for each 100 feet less than 2,500 the centerlines are separated.

NOTE-

In the event of a missed approach by an aircraft requiring wake turbulence separation behind it, apply the procedures in Paragraph 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation and/or Paragraph 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Operations to ensure that the larger aircraft does not overtake or cross in front of an aircraft departing from the adjacent parallel runway.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.

  1. The arriving aircraft is approaching the farther runway: the runway centerlines separation exceeds 2,500 feet by at least 100 feet for each 500 feet the landing thresholds are staggered. (See FIG 5-8-13.)

FIG 5-8-13
Parallel Thresholds are Staggered

A graphic depicting simultaneous operations when parallel runway thresholds are staggered and the arriving aircraft is approaching the farther runway: the runway centerlines separation exceeds 2,500 feet by at least 100 feet for each 500 feet the landing thresholds are staggered.

  1. When nonintersecting runways diverge by 15 degrees or more and runway edges do not touch. (See FIG 5-8-14.)

FIG 5-8-14
Diverging Nonintersecting Runways

A graphic depicting simultaneous operations when nonintersecting runways diverge by 15 degrees or more and runway edges do not touch.

  1. When the aircraft on takeoff is a helicopter, hold the helicopter until visual separation is possible or apply the separation criteria in subparas a, b, or c.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-4, Departure and Arrival.