Section 11. Surveillance Approaches - Terminal
Provide recommended altitudes on final approach if the pilot requests. If recommended altitudes are requested, inform the pilot that recommended altitudes which are at or above the published MDA will be given for each mile on final.
RECOMMENDED ALTITUDES WILL BE PROVIDED FOR EACH MILE ON FINAL TO MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/CIRCLING MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.
- VISUAL REFERENCE REPORT
Aircraft may be requested to report the runway, approach/runway lights, or airport in sight. Helicopters making a “point‐in‐space” approach may be requested to report when able to proceed to the landing area by visual reference to a prescribed surface route.
REPORT (runway, approach/runway lights or airport) IN SIGHT.
REPORT WHEN ABLE TO PROCEED VISUALLY TO AIRPORT/HELIPORT.
- DESCENT NOTIFICATION
- Issue advance notice of where descent will begin and issue the straight‐in MDA prior to issuing final descent for the approaches.
The point at which descent to the minimum descent altitude is authorized is the final approach fix unless an altitude limiting stepdown‐fix is prescribed.
- When it is determined that the surveillance approach will terminate in a circle to land maneuver, request the aircraft approach category from the pilot. After receiving the aircraft approach category, provide him/her with the applicable circling MDA prior to issuing final descent for the approach.
Pilots are normally expected to furnish the aircraft approach category to the controller when it is determined that the surveillance approach will terminate in a circle to land maneuver. If this information is not voluntarily given, solicit the aircraft approach category from the pilot, and then issue him/her the applicable circling MDA.
PREPARE TO DESCEND IN (number) MILE(S).
for straight‐in approaches,
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE (altitude).
for circling approaches,
REQUEST YOUR AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY. (Upon receipt of aircraft approach category), PUBLISHED CIRCLING MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE (altitude).
- DESCENT INSTRUCTIONS
When an aircraft reaches the descent point, issue one of the following as appropriate:
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-12-10, Elevation Failure.
- Unless a descent restriction exists, advise the aircraft to descend to the MDA.
(Number) MILES FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/HELIPORT. DESCEND TO YOUR MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.
- When a descent restriction exists, specify the prescribed restriction altitude. When the aircraft has passed the altitude limiting point, advise to continue descent to MDA.
(Number) MILES FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/HELIPORT. DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (restriction altitude).
DESCEND TO YOUR MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.
- Issue course guidance, inform the aircraft when it is on course, and frequently inform the aircraft of any deviation from course. Transmissions with aircraft on surveillance final approach should occur approximately every 15 seconds.
SLIGHTLY/WELL LEFT/RIGHT OF COURSE.
Controllers should not key the radio transmitter continuously during radar approaches to preclude a lengthy communications block. The decision on how often transmitters are unkeyed is the controller's prerogative.
- Issue trend information, as required, to indicate target position with respect to the extended runway centerline and to describe the target movement as appropriate corrections are issued. Trend information may be modified by the terms “RAPIDLY” and “SLOWLY” as appropriate.
“Going left/right of course.”
“Left/right of course and holding/correcting.”
- Inform the aircraft of its distance from the runway, airport/heliport, or MAP, as appropriate, each mile on final.
(Number) MILE(S) FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/HELIPORT OR MISSED APPROACH POINT.
- Recommended altitudes must be furnished, if requested, in accordance with Paragraph , Altitude Information.
ALTITUDE SHOULD BE (altitude).
- APPROACH GUIDANCE TERMINATION
- Discontinue surveillance approach guidance when:
- Requested by the pilot.
- In your opinion, continuation of a safe approach to the MAP is questionable.
- The aircraft is over the MAP.
- Surveillance approach guidance may be discontinued when the pilot reports the runway or approach/runway lights in sight or if a “point‐in‐space” approach, he/she reports able to proceed to the landing area by visual reference to a prescribed surface route.
- When approach guidance is discontinued in accordance with subparagraph a and the aircraft has reported the runway or approach/runway lights in sight, advise the aircraft of its position and to proceed visually.
(Distance) MILE(S) FROM RUNWAY/AIRPORT/HELIPORT,
OVER MISSED APPROACH POINT.
PROCEED VISUALLY (additional instructions/clearance as required.)
- When approach guidance is discontinued in accordance with subparagraph a above and the aircraft has not reported the runway or approach/runway lights in sight, advise the aircraft of its position and to execute a missed approach unless the runway or approach/runway lights are in sight or, if a “point‐in‐space” approach, unless able to proceed visually.
(Distance) MILE(S) FROM RUNWAY,
OVER MISSED APPROACH POINT.
APPROACH/RUNWAY LIGHTS NOT IN SIGHT, EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH/(missed approach instructions). (Additional instructions/clearance, as required.)
(Distance and direction) FROM AIRPORT/HELIPORT/MISSED APPROACH POINT.
IF UNABLE TO PROCEED VISUALLY, EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH. (Additional instructions/clearance, if required.)
Terminal instrument approach procedures and flight inspection criteria require establishment of a MAP for each procedure including the point to which satisfactory radar guidance can be provided.