Section 6. Vectoring

  1. APPLICATION

Vector aircraft:

  1. In controlled airspace for separation, safety, noise abatement, operational advantage, confidence maneuver, or when a pilot requests.
  2. In Class G airspace only upon pilot request and as an additional service.
  3. At or above the MVA or the minimum IFR altitude except as authorized for radar approaches, special VFR, VFR operations, or by Paragraph 5-6-3 , Vectors Below Minimum Altitude.

NOTE-

VFR aircraft not at an altitude assigned by ATC may be vectored at any altitude. It is the responsibility of the pilot to comply with the applicable parts of CFR Title 14.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-5-6, Minimum En Route Altitudes.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-5-2, Priority.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-5-4, Altitude Assignment.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-7-5, Altitude Assignments.
14 CFR Section 91.119, Minimum Safe Altitudes: General.

  1. In airspace for which you have control jurisdiction, unless otherwise coordinated.
  2. So as to permit it to resume its own navigation within radar coverage.
  3. Operating special VFR only within Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E surface areas.
  4. Operating VFR at those locations where a special program is established, or when a pilot requests, or you suggest and the pilot concurs.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-4-1, Route Use.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1, Visual Separation.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-5-3, Separation.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-6-1, Application.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 9-4-4, Separation Minima.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Chapter 12, Section 1, Terminal VFR Radar Services.

  1. METHODS
  1. Vector aircraft by specifying:
  1. Direction of turn, if appropriate, and magnetic heading to be flown, or

PHRASEOLOGY-

TURN LEFT/RIGHT HEADING (degrees).

FLY HEADING (degrees).

FLY PRESENT HEADING.

DEPART (fix) HEADING (degrees).

  1. The number of degrees, in group form, to turn and the direction of turn, or

PHRASEOLOGY-

TURN (number of degrees) DEGREES LEFT/RIGHT.

  1. For NO‐GYRO procedures, the type of vector, direction of turn, and when to stop turn.

PHRASEOLOGY-

THIS WILL BE A NO‐GYRO VECTOR,

TURN LEFT/RIGHT.

STOP TURN.

  1. When initiating a vector, advise the pilot of the purpose, and if appropriate, what to expect when radar navigational guidance is terminated.

PHRASEOLOGY-

VECTOR TO (fix or airway).

VECTOR TO INTERCEPT (name of NAVAID) (specified) RADIAL.

VECTOR FOR SPACING.

(if appropriate) EXPECT DIRECT (NAVAID, waypoint, fix)

VECTOR TO FINAL APPROACH COURSE,

or if the pilot does not have knowledge of the type of approach,

VECTOR TO (approach name) FINAL APPROACH COURSE.

NOTE-

Determine optimum routing based on factors such as wind, weather, traffic, pilot requests, noise abatement, adjacent sector requirement, and letters of agreement.

  1. When vectoring or approving course deviations, assign an altitude to maintain when:
  1. The vector or approved deviation is off an assigned procedure which contains altitude instructions, i.e., instrument approach, etc.
  2. The previously issued clearance included crossing restrictions.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-2-5, Route or Altitude Amendments.

  1. The vector or approved deviation is off an assigned procedure that contains published altitude restrictions, i.e., SID, STAR, and a clearance to Climb Via/Descend Via has been issued.
  1. When vectoring or approving an aircraft to deviate off of a procedure that includes published altitude restrictions, advise the pilot if you intend on clearing the aircraft to resume the procedure.

PHRASEOLOGY-

FLY HEADING (degrees), MAINTAIN (altitude), EXPECT TO RESUME (SID, STAR, etc.).

DEVIATION (restrictions if necessary) APPROVED, MAINTAIN (altitude) EXPECT TO RESUME (SID, STAR, etc.) AT (NAVAID, fix, waypoint)

NOTE-

After a Climb Via or Descend Via clearance has been issued, a vector/deviation off of a SID/STAR cancels the altitude restrictions on the procedure. The aircraft's Flight Management System (FMS) may be unable to process crossing altitude restrictions once the aircraft leaves the SID/STAR lateral path. Without an assigned altitude, the aircraft's FMS may revert to leveling off at the altitude set by the pilot, which may be the SID/STAR's published top or bottom altitude.

  1. Provide radar navigational guidance until the aircraft is:
  1. Established within the airspace to be protected for the nonradar route to be flown, or
  2. On a heading that will, within a reasonable distance, intercept the nonradar route to be flown, and
  3. Informed of its position unless the aircraft is RNAV, FMS, or DME equipped and being vectored toward a VORTAC/TACAN or waypoint and within the service volume of the NAVAID.

PHRASEOLOGY-

(Position with respect to course/fix along route),
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION,

or

FLY HEADING (degrees). WHEN ABLE, PROCEED DIRECT (name of fix),

or
RESUME (SID/STAR/transition/procedure).

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Chapter 4, Section 1, NAVAID Use Limitations.
FAA Order JO 7110.65,Paragraph 4-5-7, Altitude Information

  1. Aircraft instructed to resume a procedure which contains published crossing restrictions (SID/STAR) must be issued/reissued all applicable restrictions or be instructed to Climb Via/Descend Via.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED DIRECT (NAVAID, fix, waypoint) CROSS (NAVAID, fix, waypoint) AT/AT OR ABOVE/AT OR BELOW (altitude), then CLIMB VIA/DESCEND VIA (SID/STAR)

EXAMPLE-

“Cleared direct Luxor, then descend via the Ksino One arrival."
“Cleared direct HITME, cross HITME at or above one one thousand, then climb via the Boach Five departure."

  1. Aircraft may not be vectored off an Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP), or issued an altitude lower than published altitude on an ODP, until at or above the MVA/MIA, at which time the ODP is canceled.

NOTE-

Once an aircraft has been vectored off an Obstacle Departure Procedure, the procedure is canceled and ATC cannot clear the aircraft to resume the ODP.

REFERENCE-

P/CG- Obstacle Departure Procedure

  1. Aircraft vectored off an RNAV route must be recleared to the next waypoint or as requested by the pilot.
  2. When flight data processing is available, update the route of flight in the computer unless an operational advantage is gained and coordination is accomplished.
  3. Inform the pilot when a vector will take the aircraft across a previously assigned nonradar route.

PHRASEOLOGY-

EXPECT VECTOR ACROSS (NAVAID radial) (airway/route/course) FOR (purpose).

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-6-1, Application.

  1. VECTORS BELOW MINIMUM ALTITUDE
  1. Except in en route automated environments in areas where more than 3 miles separation minima is required, you may vector a departing IFR aircraft, or one executing a missed approach, within 40 miles of the radar antenna and before it reaches the minimum altitude for IFR operations if separation from prominent obstacles shown on the radar scope is applied in accordance with the following:
  1. If the flight path is 3 miles or more from the obstacle and the aircraft is climbing to an altitude at least 1,000 feet above the obstacle, vector the aircraft to maintain at least 3 miles separation from the obstacle until the aircraft reports leaving an altitude above the obstacle.
  2. If the flight path is less than 3 miles from the obstacle and the aircraft is climbing to an altitude at least 1,000 feet above the obstacle, vector the aircraft to increase lateral separation from the obstacle until the 3 mile minimum is achieved or until the aircraft reports leaving an altitude above the obstacle.

REFERENCE-

P/CG Term - Obstacle.
P/CG Term - Obstruction.
P/CG Term - Prominent Obstacle.

  1. At those locations where diverse vector areas (DVA) have been established, radar facilities may vector aircraft below the MVA/MIA within the DVA described in facility directives.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 3-8-5, Establishing Diverse Vector Area/s (DVA).