Section 12. PAR Approaches- Terminal
Inform the aircraft when it is approaching glidepath (approximately 10 to 30 seconds before final descent).
DECISION HEIGHT (number of feet).
When an aircraft reaches the point where final descent is to start, instruct it to begin descent.
- Issue course guidance and inform the aircraft when it is on glidepath and on course, and frequently inform the aircraft of any deviation from glidepath or course. Transmissions with aircraft on precision final approach should occur approximately every 5 seconds.
SLIGHTLY/WELL ABOVE/BELOW GLIDEPATH.
SLIGHTLY/WELL LEFT/RIGHT OF COURSE.
Controllers should not key the radio transmitter continuously during radar approaches to preclude a lengthy communications block. The decision on how often transmitters are unkeyed is the controller's prerogative.
- Issue trend information as required, to indicate target position with respect to the azimuth and elevation cursors and to describe target movement as appropriate corrections are issued. Trend information may be modified by the terms “RAPIDLY” or “SLOWLY,” as appropriate.
“Going above/below glidepath.”
“Going right/left of course.”
“Above/below glidepath and coming down/up.”
“Above/below glidepath and holding.”
“Left/right of course and holding/correcting.”
Inform the aircraft of its distance from touchdown at least once each mile on final approach.
(Number of miles) MILES FROM TOUCHDOWN.
Inform the aircraft when it reaches the published decision height.
AT DECISION HEIGHT.
- Continue to provide glidepath and course information prescribed in paragraph , Glidepath and Course Information, subparagraphs and , until the aircraft passes over threshold.
Glidepath and course information provided below decision height is advisory only. 14 CFR Section 91.175 outlines pilot responsibilities for descent below decision height.
- Inform the aircraft when it is passing over the approach lights.
OVER APPROACH LIGHTS.
- Inform the aircraft when it is passing over the landing threshold and inform it of its position with respect to the final approach course.
OVER LANDING THRESHOLD, (position with respect to course).
- Requested by the pilot.
- In your opinion, continuation of a safe approach to the landing threshold is questionable.
- The aircraft passes over landing threshold.
- The pilot reports the runway/approach lights in sight and requests to or advises that he/she will proceed visually.
A pilot's report of “runway in sight” or “visual” is not a request to proceed visually.
- When precision approach guidance is discontinued in accordance with subparagraph , advise the aircraft of its position and to proceed visually.
(Distance) MILE(S) FROM TOUCHDOWN, PROCEED VISUALLY (additional instructions/clearance as required).
- After a pilot has reported the runway/approach lights in sight and requested to or advised that he/she will proceed visually, and has been instructed to proceed visually, all approach procedures must be discontinued.
- Continue to monitor final approach and frequency. Pilots must remain on final controller's frequency until touchdown or otherwise instructed.
Issue communications transfer instructions.
CONTACT (terminal control function) (frequency, if required) AFTER LANDING.
Communications transfer instructions should be delayed slightly until the aircraft is on the landing roll‐out to preclude diversion of the pilot's attention during transition and touchdown.
- Discontinue instructions and tell the aircraft to take over visually or if unable, to execute a missed approach. If the aircraft executes a missed approach, apply subparagraph below.
NO GLIDEPATH INFORMATION AVAILABLE. IF RUNWAY, APPROACH/RUNWAY LIGHTS, NOT IN SIGHT, EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH/(alternative instructions).
- If a surveillance approach, or without glide slope, is established for the same runway, inform the aircraft that a surveillance approach can be given. Use or the azimuth portion of the to conduct the approach and apply , Radar, , Surveillance Approaches- Terminal. When the azimuth is used, inform the pilot that mileage information will be from touchdown, and at those runways where specific minima have been established for without glideslope, inform the pilot that the azimuth will be used for the approach.
Approach information when azimuth used:
“This will be a surveillance approach to runway three six. Mileages will be from touchdown.”
“This will be a surveillance approach to runway three six using P-A-R azimuth. Mileages will be from touchdown.”
“Five miles from touchdown, descend to your minimum descent altitude/minimum altitude.”
- If the elevation portion of the equipment is inoperative before starting a precision approach, apply subparagraph .
approaches may be conducted when the is unusable provided a nonradar instrument approach will position the aircraft over a navigational aid or fix within the precision radar coverage, or an adjacent radar facility can provide a direct radar handoff to the controller.