Section 9. Departure Procedures and Separation

  1. DEPARTURE INFORMATION

Provide current departure information, as appropriate, to departing aircraft.

  1. Departure information contained in the ATIS broadcast may be omitted if the pilot states the appropriate ATIS code.
  2. Issue departure information by including the following:
  1. Runway in use. (May be omitted if pilot states “have the numbers.”)
  2. Surface wind from direct readout dial, wind shear detection system, or automated weather observing system information display. (May be omitted if pilot states “have the numbers.”)
  3. Altimeter setting. (May be omitted if pilot states “have the numbers.”)

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 2-7-1, Current Settings.

  1. Time, when requested.
  2. Issue the official ceiling and visibility, when available, to a departing aircraft before takeoff as follows:
  1. To a VFR aircraft when weather is below VFR conditions.
  2. To an IFR aircraft when weather is below VFR conditions or highest takeoff minima, whichever is greater.

NOTE-

Standard takeoff minimums are published in 14 CFR Section 91.175(f). Takeoff minima other than standard are prescribed for specific airports/runways and published in a tabular form supplement to the FAA instrument approach procedures charts and appropriate FAA Forms 8260.

  1. Issue the route for the aircraft/vehicle to follow on the movement area in concise and easy to understand terms. The taxi clearance must include the specific route to follow.
  2. USAF NOT APPLICABLE. An advisory to “check density altitude” when appropriate.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 2-10-6, Broadcast Density Altitude Advisory.

  1. Issue braking action for the runway in use as received from pilots when braking action advisories are in effect.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 2-7-2, Altimeter Setting Issuance Below Lowest Usable FL.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-8, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Advisories.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-3-5, Braking Action Advisories.
P/CG Term- Braking Action Advisories.

  1. Runway Condition Codes. Furnish RwyCC, as received from the Airport Operator, to aircraft via the ATIS.
  2. For opposite direction departure operations, controllers may verbally issue the RwyCC, as identified in the FICON NOTAM, in reverse order. Controllers must not include reversed RwyCC on the ATIS broadcast.
  3. When the ATIS is unavailable, and when the runway length available for departure has been temporarily shortened, controllers must ensure that pilots receive the runway number combined with a shortened announcement for all departing aircraft.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (NUMBER) SHORTENED

EXAMPLE-

“Runway Two-Seven shortened.”

  1. DEPARTURE DELAY INFORMATION

USA/USAF/USN NOT APPLICABLE

When gate‐hold procedures are in effect, issue the following departure delay information as appropriate:

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-3, Gate Hold Procedures.

  1. Advise departing aircraft the time at which the pilot can expect to receive engine startup advisory.

PHRASEOLOGY-

GATE HOLD PROCEDURES ARE IN EFFECT. ALL AIRCRAFT CONTACT (position) ON (frequency) FOR ENGINE START TIME. EXPECT ENGINE START/TAXI (time).

  1. Advise departing aircraft when to start engines and/or to advise when ready to taxi.

PHRASEOLOGY-

START ENGINES, ADVISE WHEN READY TO TAXI,

or

ADVISE WHEN READY TO TAXI.

  1. If the pilot requests to hold in a delay absorbing area, the request must be approved if space and traffic conditions permit.
  2. Advise all aircraft on GC/FD frequency upon termination of gate hold procedures.

PHRASEOLOGY-

GATE HOLD PROCEDURES NO LONGER IN EFFECT.

  1. DEPARTURE CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS

Inform departing IFR, SVFR, VFR aircraft receiving radar service, and TRSA VFR aircraft of the following:

  1. Before takeoff.
  1. Issue the appropriate departure control frequency and beacon code. The departure control frequency may be omitted if a SID has been or will be assigned and the departure control frequency is published on the SID.

PHRASEOLOGY-

DEPARTURE FREQUENCY (frequency), SQUAWK (code).

  1. Inform all departing IFR military turboprop/turbojet aircraft (except transport and cargo types) to change to departure control frequency. If the local controller has departure frequency override, transmit urgent instructions on this frequency. If the override capability does not exist, transmit urgent instructions on the emergency frequency.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CHANGE TO DEPARTURE.

  1. USAF. USAF control towers are authorized to inform all departing IFR military transport/cargo type aircraft operating in formation flight to change to departure control frequency before takeoff.
  1. After takeoff.
  1. When the aircraft is about 1/2 mile beyond the runway end, instruct civil aircraft, and military transport, and cargo types to contact departure control, provided further communication with you is not required.
  2. Do not request departing military turboprop/turbojet aircraft (except transport and cargo types) to make radio frequency or radar beacon changes before the aircraft reaches 2,500 feet above the surface.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1, Visual Separation.

  1. LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)
  1. The intent of LUAW is to position aircraft for an imminent departure. Authorize an aircraft to line up and wait, except as restricted in subpara g, when takeoff clearances cannot be issued because of traffic. Issue traffic information to any aircraft so authorized. Traffic information may be omitted when the traffic is another aircraft which has landed on or is taking off the runway and is clearly visible to the holding aircraft. Do not use conditional phrases such as “behind landing traffic” or “after the departing aircraft.”
  2. First state the runway number followed by the line up and wait clearance.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number), LINE UP AND WAIT.

NOTE-

When using LUAW, an imminent departure is one that will not be delayed beyond the time that is required to ensure a safe operation. An aircraft should not be in LUAW status for more than 90 seconds without additional instructions.

  1. Procedures.
  1. At facilities without a safety logic system or facilities with the safety logic system in the limited configuration:
  1. Do not issue a landing clearance to an aircraft requesting a full-stop, touch-and-go, stop-and-go, option, or unrestricted low approach on the same runway with an aircraft that is holding in position or taxiing to line up and wait until the aircraft in position starts takeoff roll.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number), CONTINUE, TRAFFIC HOLDING IN POSITION,

or

RUNWAY (number) (pattern instructions as appropriate) TRAFFIC HOLDING IN POSITION.

EXAMPLE-

“American 528, Runway Two-Three continue, traffic holding in position.”

“Twin Cessna Four Four Golf, Runway One-Niner Right, base approved, traffic holding in position."

“Baron Two Five Foxtrot, Runway One-Niner, extend downwind, tower will call your base, traffic holding in position."

  1. Do not authorize an aircraft to LUAW if an aircraft has been cleared to land, touch-and-go, stop-and–go, option, or unrestricted low approach on the same runway.
  1. Except when reported weather conditions are less than ceiling 800 feet or visibility less than 2 miles, facilities using the safety logic system in the full core alert mode:
  1. May issue a landing clearance for a full-stop, touch-and-go, stop-and-go, option, or unrestricted low approach to an arriving aircraft with an aircraft holding in position or taxiing to LUAW on the same runway, or
  2. May authorize an aircraft to LUAW when an aircraft has been cleared for a full stop, touch-and-go, stop-and-go, option, or unrestricted low approach on the same runway.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-5, Landing Clearance.

  1. When an aircraft is authorized to line up and wait, inform it of the closest traffic within 6-flying miles requesting a full-stop, touch-and-go, stop-and- go, option, or unrestricted low approach to the same runway.

EXAMPLE-

“United Five, Runway One Eight, line up and wait. Traffic a Boeing Seven Thirty Seven, six mile final.

  1. Do not authorize an aircraft to line up and wait when the departure point is not visible from the tower, unless the aircraft's position can be verified by ASDE or the runway is used for departures only.
  2. An aircraft may be authorized to line up and wait at an intersection between sunset and sunrise under the following conditions:
  1. The procedure must be approved by the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations.
  2. The procedure must be contained in a facility directive.
  3. The runway must be used as a departure-only runway.
  4. Only one aircraft at a time is permitted to line up and wait on the same runway.
  5. Document on FAA Form 7230-4, Daily Record of Facility Operation, the following: “LUAW at INT of RWY (number) and TWY (name) IN EFFECT” when using runway as a departure-only runway. “LUAW at INT of RWY (number) and TWY (name) SUSPENDED” when runway is not used as a departure-only runway.
  1. Do not authorize an aircraft to line up and wait at anytime when the intersection is not visible from the tower.
  2. Do not authorize aircraft to simultaneously line up and wait on the same runway, between sunrise and sunset, unless the local assist/local monitor position is staffed.
  3. USN. Do not authorize aircraft to line up and wait simultaneously on intersecting runways.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CONTINUE HOLDING,

or

TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.

  1. When aircraft are authorized to line up and wait on runways that intersect, traffic must be exchanged between that aircraft and the aircraft that is authorized to line up and wait, depart, or arrive to the intersecting runway(s).

EXAMPLE-

“United Five, Runway Four, line up and wait, traffic holding Runway Three-One.”
“Delta One, Runway Three-One, line up and wait, traffic holding Runway Four.”

Or, when issuing traffic information to an arrival aircraft and an aircraft that is holding on runway(s) that intersect(s):

“Delta One, Runway Four, line up and wait, traffic landing Runway Three-One.”
“United Five, Runway Three-One, cleared to land. Traffic holding in position Runway Four.”

Or, when issuing traffic information to a departing aircraft and an aircraft that is holding on runway(s) that intersect(s):

“Delta One, Runway Three-One, line up and wait, traffic departing Runway Four.”
“United Five, Runway Four, cleared for takeoff, traffic holding in position Runway Three-One.”

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Operations.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-4, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Separation.

  1. When a local controller delivers or amends an ATC clearance to an aircraft awaiting departure and that aircraft is holding short of a runway or is holding in position on a runway, an additional clearance must be issued to prevent the possibility of the aircraft inadvertently taxiing onto the runway and/or beginning takeoff roll. In such cases, append one of the following ATC instructions as appropriate:
  1. HOLD SHORT OF RUNWAY, or
  2. HOLD IN POSITION.
  1. USAF/USN. When issuing additional instructions or information to an aircraft holding in takeoff position, include instructions to continue holding or taxi off the runway, unless it is cleared for takeoff.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CONTINUE HOLDING,

or

TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.

  1. When authorizing an aircraft to line up and wait at an intersection, state the runway intersection.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator), LINE UP AND WAIT.

  1. When two or more aircraft call the tower ready for departure, one or more at the full length of a runway and one or more at an intersection, state the location of the aircraft at the full length of the runway when authorizing that aircraft to line up and wait.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number), FULL-LENGTH, LINE UP AND WAIT.

EXAMPLE-

“American Four Eighty Two, Runway Three-Zero full length, line up and wait.”

NOTE-

The controller need not state the location of the aircraft departing the full length of the runway if there are no aircraft holding for departure at an intersection for that same runway.

  1. Do not use the term “full length” when the runway length available for departure has been temporarily shortened. On permanently shortened runways, do not use the term “full length” until the Chart Supplement U.S. is updated to include the change(s).

NOTE-

The use of the term “full length” could be interpreted by the pilot(s) as the available runway length prior to the runway being shortened.

  1. Whenever a runway length has been temporarily or permanently shortened, state the word “shortened” immediately following the runway number as part of the line up and wait clearance.
  1. The addition of “shortened” must be included in the line up and wait clearance for the duration of the construction project when the runway is temporarily shortened.
  2. The addition of “shortened” must be included in the line up and wait clearance until the Chart Supplement U.S. is updated to include the change(s) when the runway is permanently shortened.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number) SHORTENED, LINE UP AND WAIT.

EXAMPLE-

“Runway Two-Seven shortened, line up and wait.”

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Airport Construction
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-13, Change in Runway Length Due to Construction

  1. ANTICIPATING SEPARATION

Takeoff clearance need not be withheld until prescribed separation exists if there is a reasonable assurance it will exist when the aircraft starts takeoff roll.

REFERENCE-

P/CG Term- Clear of the Runway.

  1. SAME RUNWAY SEPARATION

Separate a departing aircraft from a preceding departing or arriving aircraft using the same runway by ensuring that it does not begin takeoff roll until:

  1. The other aircraft has departed and crossed the runway end or turned to avert any conflict. (See FIG 3-9-1.) If you can determine distances by reference to suitable landmarks, the other aircraft needs only be airborne if the following minimum distance exists between aircraft: (See FIG 3-9-2.)
  1. When only Category I aircraft are involved- 3,000 feet.
  2. When a Category I aircraft is preceded by a Category II aircraft- 3,000 feet.
  3. When either the succeeding or both are Category II aircraft- 4,500 feet.
  4. When either is a Category III aircraft- 6,000 feet.
  5. When the succeeding aircraft is a helicopter, visual separation may be applied in lieu of using distance minima.

FIG 3-9-1

Same Runway Separation

[View 1]

A graphic depicting an example of same runway separation where the other aircraft has departed and crossed the runway end or turned to avert conflict.

FIG 3-9-2

Same Runway Separation

[View 2]

A graphic depicting a same runway separation where the other aircraft needs only be airborne if the minimum distances exist between the aircraft, if you can determine the distances by reference to suitable landmarks.

NOTE-

Aircraft same runway separation (SRS) categories are specified in FAA Order JO 7360.1, Aircraft Type Designators and based upon the following definitions:

CATEGORY I− small single-engine propeller driven aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs. or less, and all helicopters.

CATEGORY II− small twin-engine propeller driven aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs. or less.

CATEGORY III− all other aircraft.

  1. A preceding landing aircraft is clear of the runway. (See FIG 3-9-3.)

FIG 3-9-3

Preceding Landing Aircraft Clear of Runway

A graphic depicting a preceding landing aircraft clear of runway.

REFERENCE-

P/CG Term- Clear of the Runway.

WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION

  1. Do not issue clearances which imply or indicate approval of rolling takeoffs by super or heavy aircraft except as provided in Paragraph 3-1-14, Ground Operations When Volcanic Ash is Present.
  2. Do not issue clearances to a small aircraft to line up and wait on the same runway behind a departing super or heavy aircraft to apply the necessary intervals.

REFERENCE-

AC 90-23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence.

  1. The minima in Paragraph 5-5-4, Minima, subparagraph g, may be applied in lieu of the time interval requirements in subparagraphs f, g, and h. When Paragraph 5-5-4, Minima, is applied, ensure that the appropriate radar separation exists at or prior to the time an aircraft becomes airborne.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 2–1–16, Authorization for Separation Services by Towers.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10–5–3, Functional Use of Certified Tower radar Displays.

NOTE-

  1. The pilot may request additional separation, but should make this request before taxiing on the runway.
  2. Takeoff clearance to the following aircraft should not be issued until the time interval has passed after the preceding aircraft begins takeoff roll.
  1. Separate aircraft taking off from the same runway or a parallel runway separated by less than 2,500 feet (See FIG 3-9-4):
  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 3 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 2 minutes.

FIG 3-9-4

Same Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separate aircraft taking off from the same runway or a parallel runway separated by less than 2,500 feet. The graphic says "departure behind departure needs Wake Turbulence Separation."

  1. Separate a small behind a B757 aircraft by 2 minutes when departing:
  1. The same runway or a parallel runway separated by less than 700 feet. (See FIG 3-9-5 and FIG 3-9-6.)

FIG 3-9-5

Same Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating a small behind a B757 aircraft by 2 minutes when departing the same runway. The graphic says "departure behind departure needs Wake Turbulence Separation."

FIG 3-9-6

Parallel Runway Separated by Less than 700 Feet

A graphic depicting separating a small behind a B757 aircraft by 2 minutes when departing a parallel runway separated by less than 700 feet. The graphic says "departure behind departure needs Wake Turbulence Separation."

  1. A parallel runway separated by 700 feet or more if projected flight paths will cross. (See FIG 3-9-7).

FIG 3-9-7

Parallel Runway Separated by 700 Feet or More

Projected Flight Paths Cross

A graphic depicting separating a small behind a B757 aircraft by 2 minutes when departing a parallel runway separated by 700 feet or more if projected flight paths will cross. The graphic says "departure behind departure needs Wake Turbulence Separation."

  1. Separate aircraft departing from a parallel runway separated by 2,500 feet or more if projected flight paths will cross (See FIG 3-9-8):
  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 3 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 2 minutes.

FIG 3-9-8

Parallel Runways Separated by 2,500 feet or More

A graphic depicting separating aircraft when departing a parallel runway separated by 2,500 feet or more if projected flight paths will cross. The graphic says "departure behind departure needs Wake Turbulence Separation."

  1. Separate aircraft when operating on a runway with a displaced landing threshold if projected flight paths will cross when either a departure follows an arrival or an arrival follows a departure by the following minima:
  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 3 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 2 minutes.
  3. Small behind B757 - 2 minutes.
  1. Separate an aircraft behind another aircraft that has departed or made a low/missed approach when utilizing opposite direction takeoffs or landings on the same or parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet by the following minima:
  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 4 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 3 minutes
  1. Separate a small aircraft behind a B757 that has departed or made a low/missed approach by 3 minutes when utilizing opposite direction takeoffs or landings from:
  1. The same runway or a parallel runway separated by less than 700 feet.
  2. A parallel runway separated by 700 feet or more if projected flight paths will cross.
  1. Do not approve pilot requests to deviate from the required intervals contained in subparagraphs f through k.

PHRASEOLOGY-

HOLD FOR WAKE TURBULENCE.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-7, Wake Turbulence Separation for Intersection Departures.

  1. Separate a small aircraft behind a large aircraft (except B757) that has departed or made a low/missed approach when utilizing opposite direction takeoffs on the same runway by 3 minutes unless a pilot has initiated a request to deviate from the time interval. In the latter case, issue a wake turbulence cautionary advisory before clearing the aircraft for takeoff. Controllers must not initiate or suggest a waiver of the time interval.

NOTE-

A request for takeoff does not initiate a waiver request.

  1. Inform aircraft when it is necessary to hold in order to provide the required time interval.
  1. WAKE TURBULENCE SEPARATION FOR INTERSECTION DEPARTURES
  1. Apply the following wake turbulence criteria for intersection departures:
  1. Separate a small aircraft weighing 12,500 lbs. or less taking off from an intersection on the same runway (same or opposite direction takeoff) behind a departing small aircraft weighing more than 12,500 lbs. by ensuring that the aircraft does not start takeoff roll until at least 3 minutes after the preceding aircraft has taken off.
  2. Separate a small aircraft taking off from an intersection on the same runway (same or opposite direction takeoff) behind a departing large aircraft (except B757) by ensuring that the aircraft does not start takeoff roll until at least 3 minutes after the preceding aircraft has taken off.
  3. Separate a small aircraft taking off from an intersection (same or opposite direction takeoff) behind a preceding departing B757 aircraft by ensuring that the small aircraft does not start takeoff roll until at least 3 minutes after the B757 has taken off from:
  1. The same runway or a parallel runway separated by less than 700 feet.
  2. Parallel runways separated by 700 feet or more, or parallel runways separated by 700 feet or more with the runway thresholds offset by 500 feet or more, if projected flight paths will cross.
  1. Separate aircraft departing from an intersection on the same runway (same or opposite direction takeoff), parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet, and parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet with the runway thresholds offset by 500 feet or more, by ensuring that the aircraft does not start take-off roll until the following intervals exist after the preceding aircraft has taken off:

NOTE-

Apply Para 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation, subpara f to parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet with runway thresholds offset by less than 500 feet.

  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 4 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 3 minutes.
  1. Inform aircraft when it is necessary to hold in order to provide the required time interval.

PHRASEOLOGY-

HOLD FOR WAKE TURBULENCE.

NOTE-

Aircraft conducting touch‐and‐go and stop‐and‐go operations are considered to be departing from an intersection.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-8-2, Touch-and-Go or Stop-and-Go or Low Approach.

  1. The time interval is not required when:
  1. A pilot has initiated a request to deviate from the time intervals contained in subpara a1 or a2.

NOTE-

A request for takeoff does not initiate a waiver request; the request for takeoff must be accomplished by a request to deviate from the time interval.

  1. USA NOT APPLICABLE. The intersection is 500 feet or less from the departure point of the preceding aircraft and both aircraft are taking off in the same direction.
  2. Successive touch-and-go or stop-and-go operations are conducted with any aircraft following an aircraft in the pattern that requires wake turbulence separation, or an aircraft departing the same runway that requires wake turbulence separation in accordance with subparas a1, a2, a3, or a4 (except for super aircraft), provided the pilot is maintaining visual separation/spacing behind the preceding aircraft. Issue a wake turbulence cautionary advisory and the position of the larger aircraft.

NOTE-

Not authorized with a Super as the lead or departure aircraft.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, subpar g.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1, Visual Separation

  1. If action is initiated to reduce the separation between successive touch-and-go or stop-and-go operations, apply the appropriate separation contained in subpara a1, a2, a3, or a4.
  1. When applying the provision of subpara b:
  1. Issue a wake turbulence advisory before clearing the aircraft for takeoff.
  2. Do not clear the intersection departure for an immediate takeoff.
  3. Issue a clearance to permit the trailing aircraft to deviate from course enough to avoid the flight path of the preceding aircraft when applying subpara b1 or b2.
  4. Separation requirements in accordance with Para 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation, must also apply.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation.

  1. INTERSECTING RUNWAY/INTERSECTING FLIGHT PATH OPERATIONS
  1. Issue traffic information to each aircraft operating on intersecting runways.
  2. Separate departing aircraft from another aircraft using an intersecting runway by ensuring that the departure does not begin takeoff roll until one of the following exists:

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-21, Traffic Advisories.

  1. The preceding aircraft has departed and passed the intersection or is turning to avert any conflict. (See FIG 3-9-9).

FIG 3-9-9

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating aircraft from another aircraft using an intersecting runway when the preceding aircraft has departed and passed the intersection or is turning to avert any conflict.

  1. A preceding arriving aircraft (See FIG 3-9-10).
  1. Is clear of the landing runway, or
  2. Has completed the landing roll on the runway and will hold short of the intersection, or
  3. Has completed the landing roll and is observed turning at an exit point prior to the intersection, or
  4. Has passed the intersection.

Reference-

P/CG Term- Clear of the Runway.
P/CG Term – Landing Roll.

FIG 3-9-10

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating aircraft from another aircraft using an intersecting runway when a preceding arriving aircraft is clear of the landing runway, completed the landing roll and will hold short of the intersection, or has passed the intersection.

WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION

  1. Separate aircraft taking off behind a departing or landing aircraft on an intersecting runway if flight paths will cross (See FIG 3-9-11 and FIG 3-9-12):

NOTE-

Takeoff clearance to the following aircraft should not be issued until the appropriate time interval has passed after the preceding aircraft began takeoff roll.

  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 3 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 2 minutes.
  3. Small behind B757 - 2 minutes.

FIG 3-9-11

Departure Behind Departure on Intersecting Runway

A graphic depicting separating aircraft taking off behind a departing aircraft on an intersecting runway if flight paths will cross.

FIG 3-9-12

Departure Behind Arrival on Intersecting Runway

A graphic depicting separating aircraft taking off behind a landing aircraft on an intersecting runway if flight paths will cross.

  1. Pilot requests to deviate from the required time intervals must not be approved if the preceding aircraft requires wake turbulence separation.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.

  1. NONINTERSECTING CONVERGING RUNWAY OPERATIONS
  1. Separate departing aircraft from an aircraft using a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths intersect by ensuring that the departure does not begin takeoff roll until one of the following exists:

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 2-1-21, Traffic Advisories.

  1. The preceding aircraft has departed and crossed the departure runway, or is turning to avert any conflict. (See FIG 3-9-13).

FIG 3-9-13

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating departing aircraft from an aircraft using a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths intersect by ensuring that the departure does not begin takeoff roll until the preceding aircraft has departed and cross the departure runway, or is turning to avert any conflict.

  1. A preceding arriving aircraft has completed the landing roll and will hold short of the projected intersection, passed the projected intersection, or has crossed over the departure runway (See FIG 3-9-14 and FIG 3-9-15 ).

FIG 3-9-14

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating departing aircraft from an aircraft using a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths intersect by ensuring that the departure does not begin takeoff roll until a preceding aircraft has completed the landing roll and will hold short of the projected intersection or passed the projected intersection.

FIG 3-9-15

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating departing aircraft from an aircraft using a nonintersecting runway when the flight paths intersect by ensuring that the departure does not begin takeoff roll until a preceding aircraft has completed the landing roll and has crossed over the departure runway.

  1. If the extended centerline of a runway crosses a converging runway or the extended centerline of a converging runway at a distance on 1NM or less from either departure end, apply the provisions of Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway/ Intersecting Flight Path Operations, unless the facility is using aids specified in a facility directive, (may include but are not limited to, Arrival/Departure Window (ADW), ASDE-X Virtual Runway Intersection Point (VRIP), cut-off points or automation). (See FIG 3-9-16 and FIG 3-9-17.)

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-15, Go-Around/Missed Approach

FIG 3-9-16

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting if the extended centerline of a runway crosses a converging runway. Apply the provisions of Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight path Operations.

FIG 3-9-17

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting if the extended centerline of a runway crosses a converging runway at a distance of 1NM or less from either departure end. Apply the provisions of Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight path Operations.

WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION

  1. Separate aircraft taking off behind a departing aircraft on a crossing runway if projected flight paths will cross (See FIG 3-9-18):
  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 3 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 2 minutes.
  3. Small behind B757 - 2 minutes.

FIG 3-9-18

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating aircraft taking off behind a departing aircraft on a crossing runway if projected flight paths will cross.

NOTE-

Takeoff clearance to the following aircraft should not be issued until the time interval has passed from when the preceding aircraft began takeoff roll.

  1. Separate aircraft departing behind a landing aircraft on a crossing runway if the departure will fly through the airborne path of the arrival (See FIG 3-9-19):
  1. Heavy, large, or small behind super - 3 minutes.
  2. Heavy, large, or small behind heavy - 2 minutes.
  3. Small behind B757 - 2 minutes.

FIG 3-9-19

Intersecting Runway Separation

A graphic depicting separating aircraft departing behind a landing aircraft on a crossing runway if the departure will fly through the airborne path of the arrival.

  1. Do not approve pilot requests to deviate from the required time interval if the preceding aircraft requires wake turbulence separation.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-3, Successive or Simultaneous Departures.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-5, Departures and Arrivals on Parallel or Nonintersecting Diverging Runways.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima, Subparagraph g.

  1. TAKEOFF CLEARANCE
  1. When issuing a clearance for takeoff, first state the runway number followed by the takeoff clearance.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number), CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

EXAMPLE-

“RUNWAY TWO SEVEN, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.”

NOTE-

Turbine-powered aircraft may be considered ready for takeoff when they reach the runway unless they advise otherwise.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-3-1, Departure Terminology.

  1. When clearing an aircraft for takeoff from an intersection, state the runway intersection.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator) CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

  1. When two or more aircraft call the tower ready for departure, one or more at the full length of a runway and one or more at an intersection, state the location of the aircraft at the full length of the runway when clearing that aircraft for takeoff.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number), FULL LENGTH, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

EXAMPLE-

“American Four Eighty Two, Runway Three Zero full length, cleared for takeoff.”

  1. The controller must ensure that all runways along the taxi route that lead to the departure runway are crossed before the takeoff clearance is issued, except as stated in paragraph 3-9-10e.

FIG 3-9-20

Runway/Taxiway Proximity

A graphic depicting runway/taxiway proximity for takeoff clearance.

  1. At those airports where the airport configuration does not allow for an aircraft to completely cross one runway and hold short of the departure runway and/or where airports do not have runway hold markings between runways, state the runway to be crossed with the takeoff clearance if the aircraft is not able to complete a runway crossing before reaching its departure runway.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CROSS RUNWAY (number), RUNWAY (number) CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

EXAMPLE-

“CROSS RUNWAY TWO FOUR LEFT, RUNWAY TWO FOUR RIGHT, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.”

FIG 3-9-21

Runway/Taxiway Proximity

A graphic depicting runway/taxiway proximity for takeoff clearance.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-10, Takeoff Clearance.
P/CG Term- Clear of the Runway.

  1. Do not use the term “full length” when the runway length available for departure has been temporarily shortened. On permanently shortened runways, do not use the term “full length” until the Chart Supplement U.S. is updated to include the change(s).

NOTE-

The use of the term “full length” could be interpreted by the pilot(s) as the available runway length prior to the runway being shortened.

  1. Whenever a runway length has been temporarily or permanently shortened, state the word “shortened” immediately following the runway number as part of the takeoff clearance. This information must be issued in conjunction with the takeoff clearance.
  1. The addition of “shortened” must be included in the takeoff clearance for the duration of the construction project when the runway is temporarily shortened.
  2. The addition of “shortened” must be included in the takeoff clearance until the Chart Supplement U.S. is updated to include the change(s) when the runway is permanently shortened.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number) SHORTENED, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

EXAMPLE-

“Runway Two-Seven shortened, cleared for takeoff.”

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator) INTERSECTION DEPARTURE SHORTENED, CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

EXAMPLE-

“Runway Two-Seven at Juliet, intersection departure shortened, cleared for takeoff.”

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Airport Construction
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-13, Change in Runway Length Due to Construction

  1. USAF. When an aircraft is cleared for takeoff, inform it of the closest traffic within 6 miles on final approach to the same runway. If the approaching aircraft is on a different frequency, inform it of the departing aircraft.
  2. USA/USN/USAF. Issue surface wind and takeoff clearance to aircraft.

PHRASEOLOGY-

RUNWAY (number), WIND (surface wind in direction and velocity). CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

  1. CANCELLATION OF TAKEOFF CLEARANCE

Cancel a previously issued clearance for takeoff and inform the pilot of the reason if circumstances require. Once an aircraft has started takeoff roll, cancel the takeoff clearance only for the purpose of safety.

NOTE-

In no case should a takeoff clearance be canceled after an aircraft has started its takeoff roll solely for the purpose of meeting traffic management requirements/EDCT.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CANCEL TAKEOFF CLEARANCE (reason).