Section 8. Spacing and Sequencing

  1. SEQUENCE/SPACING APPLICATION

Establish the sequence of arriving and departing aircraft by requiring them to adjust flight or ground operation, as necessary, to achieve proper spacing.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.

CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF OR HOLD SHORT/HOLD IN POSITION/TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY (traffic).

EXTEND DOWNWIND.

MAKE SHORT APPROACH.

NUMBER (landing sequence number),

FOLLOW (description and location of traffic),

or if traffic is utilizing another runway,

TRAFFIC (description and location) LANDING RUNWAY (number of runway being used).

TRAFFIC (description and location) LANDING THE PARALLEL RUNWAY

CIRCLE THE AIRPORT.

MAKE LEFT/RIGHT THREE-SIXTY/TWO SEVENTY.

GO AROUND (additional instructions as necessary).

CLEARED TO LAND.

CLEARED:

TOUCH-AND-GO,
or

STOP-AND-GO,
or

LOW APPROACH.

CLEARED FOR THE OPTION,

or

OPTION APPROVED,

or

UNABLE OPTION, (alternate instructions).

or

UNABLE (type of option), OTHER OPTIONS
APPROVED.

NOTE-

  1. The “Cleared for the Option” procedure will permit an instructor pilot/flight examiner/pilot the option to make a touch‐and‐go, low approach, missed approach, stop‐ and‐go, or full stop landing. This procedure will only be used at those locations with an operational control tower and will be subject to ATC approval. After ATC approval of the option, the pilot should inform ATC as soon as possible of any delay on the runway during their stop-and-go or full stop landing.
  2. For proper helicopter spacing, speed adjustments may be more practical than course changes.
  3. Read back of hold short instructions apply when hold instructions are issued to a pilot in lieu of a takeoff clearance.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-2, Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.
AIM, Para 4-3-22, Option Approach

  1. TOUCH‐AND‐GO OR STOP‐AND‐GO OR LOW APPROACH

Consider an aircraft cleared for touch‐and‐go, stop‐and‐go, or low approach as an arriving aircraft until it touches down (for touch‐and‐go), or makes a complete stop (for stop‐and‐go), or crosses the landing threshold (for low approach), and thereafter as a departing aircraft.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-1-5, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel on Runways.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-7, Wake Turbulence Separation for Intersection Departures.

  1. SIMULTANEOUS SAME DIRECTION OPERATION

Authorize simultaneous, same direction operations on parallel runways, on parallel landing strips, or on a runway and a parallel landing strip only when the following conditions are met:

  1. Operations are conducted in VFR conditions unless visual separation is applied.
  2. Two‐way radio communication is maintained with the aircraft involved and pertinent traffic information is issued.
  3. The distance between the parallel runways or landing strips is in accordance with those specified in TBL 3-8-1.

TBL 3-8-1

Same Direction Distance Minima

Aircraft category

Minimum distance (feet) between parallel

Runway centerlines

Edges of adjacent strips or runway and strip

Category I or Category II

300

200

If either aircraft is a Category III

500

400

If either aircraft is a Heavy

700

600

NOTE-

  1. Aircraft Categories specified in Table 3‐8‐1 are Same Runway Separation (SRS) categories as indicated in Para 3‐9‐6, Same Runway Separation.
  2. When conducting Simultaneous Same Direction Operations (SSDO), applicable Wake Turbulence provisions apply.
  1. SIMULTANEOUS OPPOSITE DIRECTION OPERATION

Authorize simultaneous opposite direction operations on parallel runways, on parallel landing strips, or on a runway and a parallel landing strip only when the following conditions are met:

  1. Operations are conducted in VFR conditions.
  2. Two‐way radio communication is maintained with the aircraft involved and pertinent traffic information is issued.

PHRASEOLOGY-

TRAFFIC (description) ARRIVING/DEPARTING/LOW APPROACH, OPPOSITE DIRECTION ON PARALLEL RUNWAY/LANDING STRIP.

  1. The distance between the runways or landing strips is in accordance with the minima in TBL 3-8-2.

TBL 3-8-2

Opposite Direction Distance Minima

Type of Operation

Minimum distance (feet) between parallel

Runway centerlines

Edges of adjacent strips or runway and strip

Between sunrise and sunset

1,400

1,400

Between sunset and sunrise

2,800

Not authorized