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Air Traffic and General Operating Rules

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Number Office Title Date
90-66B AFS-800 Non-Towered Airport Flight Operations This AC calls attention to regulatory requirements, recommended operations, and communications procedures for operating at an airport without a control tower or an airport with a control tower that operates only part time. It recommends traffic patterns, communications phraseology, and operational procedures for use by aircraft, lighter-than-air aircraft, gliders, parachutes, rotorcraft, and ultralight vehicles. This AC stresses safety as the primary objective in these operations. This AC is related to the right-of-way rules under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, § 1.1 (traffic pattern), and part 91, §§ 91.113 and 91.126. 03-13-2018
90-80C AFS-400 Approval of Offshore Standard Approach Procedures, Airborne Radar Approaches, and Helicopter En Route Descent Areas This AC provides criteria and describes acceptable methods for obtaining approval to use Offshore Standard Approach Procedures (OSAP), Airborne Radar Approaches (ARA), and Helicopter En Route Descent Areas (HEDA) to descend in uncontrolled airspace to an altitude where the pilot can proceed to land using visual references to the surface. This AC provides operational approval information for operators conducting operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 91, 91 subpart K (part 91K), and 135 to support issuance of operations specifications (OpSpec) or letters of authorization (LOA). 12-21-2017
90-106A AFS-400 Enhanced Flight Vision Systems - Change 1

This advisory circular (AC) provides information about using an enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) in lieu of natural vision while conducting instrument approach operations. It addresses dispatching and releasing aircraft for EFVS operations and explains the requirements for conducting EFVS operations to 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) and EFVS operations to touchdown and rollout. This AC also explains how to obtain an operations specification (OpSpec), management specification (MSpec), or letter of authorization (LOA) to conduct those EFVS operations that require an approval.

We have made every attempt to write EFVS regulations that are performance based and not limited to a specific sensor technology. The regulations accommodate future growth in real-time sensor technologies used in most EFVSs and maximize the benefits of rapidly evolving instrument approach procedures (IAP) and advanced flight deck technology to increase safety and access during low-visibility operations.

03-02-2017
90-48D AFS-800 Pilots' Role in Collision Avoidance (With Change 1)

This advisory circular (AC) is issued for the purpose of alerting all pilots to thepotential hazards of midair collisions and near midair collisions (NMAC), and to emphasize those basic problem areas related to the human causal factors where improvements in pilot education, operating practices, procedures, and improved scanning techniques are needed to reduce midair conflicts.

04-19-2016
90-105A AFS-400 Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System and in Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for operators to conduct Required Navigation Performance (RNP) operations in the United States, in oceanic and remote continental airspace, and in foreign countries which adopt International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards for RNP operations. Guidance is provided for the following: • Required Navigation Performance Approach (RNP APCH) procedures; • Barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV); • RNP 1 (terminal) operations; • RNP 0.3 (rotorcraft) operations; • RNP 2 domestic, offshore, oceanic, and remote continental operations; • RNP 4 oceanic and remote continental operations; • RNP 10 (Area Navigation (RNAV) 10) oceanic and remote continental operations; • Advanced Required Navigation Performance (A-RNP), and • Additional Capabilities. This AC does not apply to those approaches which require unique authorization (Required Navigation Performance Authorization Required (RNP AR), as described in AC 90 101( ), Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR, nor does it address instrument approach procedures (IAP) using localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) or localizer performance without vertical guidance (LP), which are addressed in AC 90-107( ), Guidance for Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance and Localizer Performance without Vertical Guidance Approach Operations in the U.S. National Airspace System. 03-07-2016
90-109A AFS-800 Transition to Unfamiliar Aircraft

This advisory circular (AC) is intended to help plan the transition to any unfamiliar fixed-wing airplanes, including type-certificated (TC) and/or experimental airplanes. It provides information and guidance to owners and pilots of experimental, simple, complex, high-performance, and/or unfamiliar airplanes. It also provides information to flight instructors who teach in these airplanes. This information and guidance contains recommendations for training experience for pilots of experimental airplanes in a variety of groupings based on performance and handling characteristics. This AC does not address the testing of newly built experimental airplanes. The current edition of AC 90-89, Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook, provides information on such testing. However, if a pilot is planning to participate in a flight test program in an unfamiliar and/or experimental airplane, this AC should be used to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to safely accomplish the test program utilizing the guidance found in AC 90-89.

06-29-2015
90-113A AFS-400 Instrument Flight Procedure Validation (IFPV) of Satellite-based Instrument Flight Procedures (IFPs)

This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for conducting instrument flight procedure validation (IFPV) of satellite-based performance-based navigation (PBN) instrument flight procedures (IFP) for both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft. It also addresses validation of helicopter wide area augmentation system (WAAS) special IFP. This AC supplements and does not change the requirements of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual. Ground validation, preflight validation (including simulator evaluation and obstacle assessment), and flight validation are described in this document.

The primary audience for this AC is non-FAA service providers performing IFPV. The secondary audience is Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors and Air Traffic Organization (ATO) personnel within the FAA who are directly associated with the FAA IFPV process and/or charged with the responsibility to authorize and provide oversight of non-FAA IFPV service providers.

05-01-2015
90-89B AFS-350 Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook

This advisory circular (AC) provides suggestions and safety related recommendations primarily to assist amateur and ultralight builders in developing individualized aircraft flight-test plans. It also provides guidance for experimental light sport aircraft flight testing after modifications to the aircraft. It provides recommendations and suggestions you can combine with other sources on test flying, such as the aircraft plan/kit manufacturer’s flight testing instructions and other flight testing data. This will help you develop a detailed flight-test plan, tailored for your aircraft and resources.

This AC attempts to make you aware that test flying an aircraft is a critical undertaking, which you should approach with thorough planning, skill, and common sense. The flight-test plan is the heart of all professional flight testing. The plan should account for every hour spent in the flight-test phase and you should adhere to it with the same respect for the unknown that all successful test pilots share. The time allotted for each phase of a personalized flight-test plan may vary, and each phase may have more events or checks than suggested in this AC, but your goals, should be the same. You should add flight-test operational and performance data to the aircraft’s flight manual so you can reference the data prior to each flight.

04-27-2015
90-112A AFS-400 Development and Submission of Special Instrument Procedures to the FAA

This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the submission and approval of special instrument flight procedures developed by non-FAA service providers and submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for review and approval. Special instrument procedures are those procedures developed for specific users and are not processed under Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), Part 97. Occasionally, the word "must" or similar language is used within this AC where the desired action is deemed critical. The use of such language is not intended to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by 14 CFR.

04-14-2015
90-110A AFS-460 Instrument Flight Procedure Service Provider Authorization Guidance for RequiredNavigation Performance Authorization Required Procedures

This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for Instrument Flight Procedure(IFP) developers, hereinafter referred to as "IFP Service Providers," to become authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to develop Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 97 Required Navigation Performance IFPs with Authorization Required (RNP AR).

02-13-2015
90-114A AFS-400 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Operations with Change 1

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a new rule contained in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, §§ 91.225 and 91.227. This rule requires Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out performance when operating in designated classes of airspace within the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) after January 1, 2020. This advisory circular (AC) provides users of the NAS guidance on a means of conducting flight operations in accordance with §§ 91.225 and 91.227. The appendices in this AC provide guidance for additional operations enabled by ADS-B to include ADS-B In.

10-28-2014
90-115 AJR-1 Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP)

This Advisory Circular provides guidance to customers of the National Airspace System (NAS) regarding a new traffic management initiative for managing flights through a constrained area.  The new traffic management initiative builds upon concepts found in Ground Delay Programs (GDPs), Airspace Flow Programs (AFPs; AC 90-102A) and required reroutes.  The new initiative is called the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program or CTOP. The CTOP is one of many new traffic management initiatives being developed within Collaborative Air Traffic Management Technologies (CATMT) as we progress toward the Next-Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

06-24-2014
90-23G AFS-400 Aircraft Wake Turbulence

This advisory circular (AC) presents basic information on wake vortex behavior, alerts pilots to the hazards of aircraft wake turbulence, and recommends operational procedures to avoid wake turbulence encounters.

02-10-2014
90-93B AJT-0 Operating Procedures for Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCT) that are not Operated by, or Under Contract with, the United States (Non-Federal)

This advisory circular (AC) recommends publications, administrative, and operational procedures that will assist in the management of a non-Federal ATCT (NFCT).

04-22-2013
90-108 AFS-400 Use of suitable Area navigation (RNAV) system on Conventional Routes and Procedures - Change 1

This advisory circular (AC) provides operational and airworthiness guidance regrading the suitablity and use of RNAV systems while operating on or transitioning to, conventional i.e. non-RNAV, routes and procedures within the United States (US) National Airspace System (NAS).

03-03-2011
90-101A AFS-400 Approval Guidance for Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Procedures with Authorization Required (AR) Including Change 1

This advisory circular (AC) provides airworthiness and operational approval guidance material for aircraft operators conducting Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 97 Area Navigation (RNAV) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) instrument approach procedures (IAP) with Authorization Required (AR), charted as "RNAV (RNP) RWY XX." Hereafter, refer to these procedures as "RNP AR" within this AC. Operational approvals obtained under the guidelines of this AC also apply to existing RNAV (RNP) IAP with special aircraft and aircrew authorization required (SAAAR). As current RNAV (RNP) SAAAR instrument approach charts are revised or amended, they will be updated to reflect AR.

a. Method of Compliance. This AC provides a method of compliance with public RNP AR IAP requirements. In lieu of following this method without deviation, operators may elect to follow an alternative method, provided the alternative method is acceptable to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

b. Language. This AC uses mandatory terms such as "must" only in the sense of ensuring applicability of these particular methods of compliance when using the acceptable means of compliance described herein. This AC does not change, add, or delete regulatory requirements or authorize deviations from regulatory requirements.

02-23-2011
90-107 AFS-400 Guidance for localizer performance with Vertical Guidance and Localizer

 

This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for operators to conduct Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 97 instrument flight rules (IFR) Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument approach procedures (IAP) with Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance (LPV) and Localizer Performance without vertical guidance (LP) lines of minima using the wide area augmentation system (WAAS).

02-11-2011
90-91K AJR-1 North American Route Program Provides guidance to users of the National Air Space System for participation in the North American Route Program (NRP). 12-11-2008
90-102A AJR-1 Airspace Flow Program This Advisory Circular replaces AC 90-102 and provides guidance to customers of the National Airspace System (NAS) regarding changes to the traffic management process for managing flights through a constrained area with an Airspace Flow Program (AFP). In this process, traffic managers identify a constraint in the en route system, develop a real-time list of flights that are filed into the constrained area, and implement an AFP. Pilots need to be aware that an AFP distributes expect departure clearance times (EDCT) in order to meter air traffic demand through the area. Examples of constraints include thunderstorm activity, turbulence, and periods of excess demand. The list of flights includes aircraft that have filed flight plans, filed early intent flight plans, or operate in the constrained area based on historical flight plan data. 05-30-2008
90-100A AFS-400 U.S Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations with Change 2

This advisory circular (AC) provides operational and airworthiness guidance for operation on U.S. Area Navigation (RNAV) routes, Instrument Departure Procedures (DPs), and Standard Terminal Arrivals (STARs). Operators and pilots should use the guidance in this AC to determine their eligibility for these U.S. RNAV routes and procedures. In lieu of following this guidance without deviation, operators may elect to follow an alternative method, provided the alternative method is found to be acceptable by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). For the purpose of this AC, "compliance" means meeting operational and functional performance criteria. Mandatory terms in this AC such as "must" are used only to ensure applicability of these particular methods of compliance when the acceptable means of compliance described are used. This AC does not change, add, or delete regulatory requirements or authorize deviations from regulatory requirements.

03-01-2007
90-96A AFS-400 Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate Under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV)

Provides guidance regarding on-board Area Navigation (BRNAV) equipment requirements for operators of U.S. registered civil aircraft, operating in a Basic Area Navigation (BRNAV) environment in the European region.

01-13-2005
90-99 ATA-301 High Altitude Airspace Redesign Phase 1 09-22-2003
90-95 AFS-800 Unanticipated Right Yaw in Helicopters Examines the unanticipated right yaw phenomenon, the circumstances under which it may be encountered, how it can be prevented, and how the pilot should react if it is encountered. 02-07-1995
90-67B ATP-129 Light Signals from the Control Tower for Ground Vehicles, Equipment, and Personnel Provides the aviation community with the meaning of the light signals used when communicating with ground vehicles, equipment, and personnel on the airport movement area from the control tower. 08-25-1994
90-50D ASR-520 Requirements for 760-Channel VHF Radio for Aeronautical Operations Encourages aircraft owners to upgrade their air-ground radio communication systems. Describes and upgrades civil air traffic control frequencies in the very high frequency (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) band. The 136.000 to 136.975 MHz band became available for aeronautical use on January 1, 1990. 04-09-1992

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