Section 1. Terminal VFR Radar Services
Basic Radar Service, Service, Class B and Class C services are the four types of Radar Services designed to enhance safety by providing air traffic services to VFR aircraft. The services were designed to provide the maximum level of radar services possible with existing equipment. Additional resources (displays, communications, telco, space, etc.) must be justified by requirements other than the volume of radar service provided to VFR aircraft. Pilots should be encouraged to participate by all available methods. This is best accomplished through effective procedures and a clear understanding of the Terminal VFR Radar Services available.
P/CG Term - TERMINAL VFR RADAR SERVICES.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Chapter 7, Section 6, Basic Radar Service to VFR Aircraft- Terminal.
- Facilities unable to meet the following requirements must submit justification to the respective Terminal Operations Area Office:
- Newly commissioned terminal radar facilities must implement basic radar services to VFR aircraft, as prescribed in FAA Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, paragraph 7-6-1, Application, within 30 to 60 days after full IFR service is available. All radar facilities must provide basic radar service at primary airports and, where operationally feasible, at satellite airports with a control tower.
- Service: In addition to basic radar service, provide separation between all participating aircraft operating in an established . If a need exists, facilities may develop coded VFR departure routes for service. When such routes are established, the following provisions apply:
- Prior to implementing coded VFR departure routes, the facility must coordinate with local user groups.
- A letter to airmen must be issued advising pilots of the procedure.
- These routes must only be issued to local users familiar with the procedure.
- Detailed departure instructions must be furnished when requested by the pilot.
- Facility air traffic managers must address in writing, as a minimum, the following pertinent factors when submitting for service area office approval, either a recommendation for revision or withdrawal of an existing .
- Safety record/NMAC analysis.
- Airspace and operational efficiency.
- Unique geographical features.
- Hourly air carrier traffic density.
- User input. (User meetings, while highly desirable, are not required for withdrawals.)
- Revisions to s must be submitted to System Operations Airspace and Aeronautical Information Services () at least 9 weeks prior to one of the appropriate publication dates; i.e., Sectional Charts, Notice to Air Missions, or the Chart Supplement U.S. The following are considered sufficient justification to warrant revision:
- Changes in configuration, frequencies, or primary airport status (name, elevation, closed, abandoned, etc.).
- Additions or deletions to the VFR checkpoints/NAVAIDs.
- Typographical errors.
- Advertising Basic Radar Services:
- A sufficient number of user group meetings must be held to publicize implementation of basic radar services to as many local pilots as practicable.
- Disseminate a letter to airmen explaining the program and including a drawing of the basic radar service area. The drawing should be on a cutout from the appropriate sectional chart and should show the following:
- Lateral and vertical dimensions.
- Frequency for each sector.
- Initial VFR checkpoints indicated by flags.
- The facility air traffic manager must seek the cooperation of the in informing aviation interests about their responsibilities while operating in a basic radar service environment. Special emphasis should be placed on such points as:
- Pilot participation is urged, but it is not mandatory.
- Pilots should be aware that aircraft sequencing and traffic advisories are primarily based on aircraft maintaining assigned headings and altitudes.
- If a pilot cannot abide with an ATC instruction or clearance, he/she should notify ATC immediately.
- Follow-up meetings (“HOW GOES IT” type) must be conducted.
- s are not officially designated by airspace action and were established solely to define an area within which a separation service will be provided. Therefore, at all locations it is intended that facilities must provide the full extent of services throughout the entire advertised area. Although the area extends downward to the surface within the surface area of Class D airspace at the primary airport, a base should be established outside this surface area of Class D airspace to permit free movement of nonparticipating aircraft. The base of the must not be below the base of an associated Class E airspace.
- The size and shape (laterally/vertically) of the will vary depending upon operational requirements. However, each must reflect the most efficient and reasonable configuration to contain large turbine-powered aircraft while achieving a higher level of overall safety.
There is no requirement for the facility to retain operational jurisdiction of the airspace in its entirety if another facility can more effectively manage a particular portion of the airspace. The requirement is that the system provides the required service.
- All IFR procedures used by large turbine-powered aircraft arriving and departing designated airports must be fully contained in the . Each should be configured to ensure the most efficient use of airspace.
- Arriving and departing large turbine-powered aircraft should enter/exit the through the ceiling. However, arriving aircraft at altitudes below the ceiling are not required to climb to achieve this objective, nor are departing aircraft filed at lower altitudes.
Class C airspace must be officially designated by airspace action in 14 CFR Part 71 and is established solely to define the airspace in which all aircraft are subject to operating rules and equipment requirements specified in 14 CFR Part 91.
While the regulatory nature of this airspace requires pilots to establish two-way communications with ATC prior to entering, aircraft should not be unnecessarily prohibited from entering Class C airspace.
- Facility managers who determine a need for Class C airspace establishment must prepare and submit a staff study in accordance with FAA Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters.
- The physical dimensions of the Class C airspace will normally be a 10 NM radius capped at 4,000 feet above the primary airport elevation. This airspace must extend no lower than 1,200 feet above the surface, except that an inner core with a 5 NM radius must extend down to the surface.
- Encompassing each Class C airspace must be a site specific Outer Area with a normal radius of 20 NM. The Outer Area must extend outward from the primary Class C airspace airport and extend from the lower limits of radar/radio coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control delegated airspace excluding the Class C airspace and other airspace as appropriate.
- After issuance of the final rule designating a Class C airspace, user education meetings must be held to publicize implementation of Class C service to as many pilots as practicable.
- Issue a letter to airmen explaining the program and including a drawing of the Class C airspace. The drawing should depict, as a minimum, the following:
- The lateral and vertical dimensions of the Class C airspace and the associated Outer Area.
- Any procedural exclusions when the Class C airspace overlaps an adjacent Class D airspace.
- Initial VFR checkpoints located outside the Class C airspace.
- Followup meetings (“HOW GOES IT” type) must be conducted after implementation.
- Exceptions to Class C services may be established within the Class C airspace for special activities; i.e., practice areas, banner tows, gliders, ultralights, etc., provided the procedures are outlined in a letter of agreement with the users.
- Where the Class C airspace overlaps the Class D airspace of an adjacent airport, facility managers must include in a letter of agreement procedures defining responsibility for the control of aircraft in the overlapping area.
- The National Terminal Radar Program includes military as well as civil airports. Each case of military airport inclusion or establishment of Class C airspace must be processed through appropriate military channels for thorough examination and individual justification.
- When recommending a location for withdrawal from the Class C airspace, facility air traffic managers must prepare and submit a staff study to Washington headquarters, Airspace and Rules through the appropriate Terminal Operations Service Area Office in accordance with FAA Order JO 7400.2, Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters.
- Class B airspace must be officially designated by airspace action in 14 CFR Part 71 and is established solely to define the airspace in which all aircraft are subject to operating rules and pilot and equipment requirements specified in 14 CFR Section 91.131.
- The size and shape (laterally/vertically) of the Class B airspace will vary depending upon operational requirements. However, each Class B airspace must reflect the most efficient and reasonable configuration to contain large turbine-powered aircraft while achieving a higher level of overall safety.
There is no requirement for the Class B airspace facility to retain operational jurisdiction of the airspace in its entirety if another facility can more effectively manage a particular portion of the airspace. The requirement is that the system provide the required service.
- All IFR procedures used by large turbine-powered aircraft arriving and departing designated airports must be fully contained in the Class B airspace. Each Class B airspace should be configured to ensure the most efficient use of airspace.
- Arriving and departing large turbine-powered aircraft should enter/exit the Class B airspace through the ceiling. However, arriving aircraft at altitudes below the ceiling are not required to climb to achieve this objective, nor are departing aircraft filed at lower altitudes.
- Procedures must be developed to accommodate VFR aircraft desiring to transit the Class B airspace. If VFR corridors are published, recommend the establishment of frequency 122.750 for pilots to exchange position information when transiting the associated Class B airspace VFR corridor.