Section 3. Operations

  1. DISSEMINATION OF WEATHER INFORMATION

Facility air traffic managers must establish procedures for the prompt collection and dissemination of weather information. The procedures must address SIGMET, AIRMET, CWA, PIREP and other known or observed weather that may affect aircraft safety. These procedures must contain direction for a central source to be responsible for:

  1. Soliciting and handling PIREPs in accordance with the provisions of FAA Order JO 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, paragraph 2-6-2, PIREP Solicitation and Dissemination.
  2. Reviewing SIGMET, AIRMET, and CWA to determine the required distribution, and disseminating SIGMET, AIRMET and/or CWA information in accordance with the following:

NOTE-

Simply attempting to accelerate the movement of all weather data will not accomplish our objectives. Greater emphasis is being placed on screening and selective dissemination of weather data. Selective dissemination takes into account the need to alert pilots to significant weather reports in sufficient detail to assist them in making decisions pertinent to flight safety and to provide the information an ATC facility requires to promote the safe and efficient use of its airspace.

  1. Disseminate pertinent information from SIGMET, AIRMET, or CWA to other terminal ATC facilities within your terminal area.
  2. Disseminate selective SIGMET, AIRMET, and CWA information on a need-to-know basis in accordance with the provisions of FAA Order JO 7110.65, paragraph 2-6-6, Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory.
  1. WIND INSTRUMENTS AT APPROACH CONTROL FACILITIES
  1. The same wind sensor may be used to provide wind information in ATCT and approach control facilities when they are located on the same airport.
  2. Approach control facilities not located at the airport to which radar service is being provided may issue wind data received from the tower at that airport. The wind data may be transmitted to the approach control facility by TelAutograph, data communication circuit, voice lines, etc.
  3. The facility air traffic manager of an approach control that provides radar service to an Air Force Base must identify facility requirements for wind indicators, in writing, to the local USAF Air Weather Service Commander.
  1. LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR/MICROBURST DETECTION SYSTEMS
  1. Procedures for the dissemination of wind information derived from the Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS) or other automated wind shear detection systems, are contained in FAA Order JO 7110.65, paragraph 3-1-8, Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Advisories. Guidance to facility air traffic managers concerning the operational use of the LLWAS is as follows:
  1. Prior to operational use of LLWAS facilities, a letter to airmen must be published explaining, as a minimum, the location and designation of the remote sensors, the capabilities and limitations of the system, and the availability of current LLWAS remote sensor wind information if requested by the pilot. A new letter to airmen must be issued whenever changes to the above minimum criteria or system upgrade/modifications are made.

NOTE-

The LLWAS may be retained as a backup system no longer than 6 months after the WSP has been commissioned.

  1. At positions of operation where installed, LLWAS airport wind information appearing on the tower LLWAS display may be used in place of the direct dial or commissioned AWOS/ASOS automated display wind information.

NOTE-

Towers having the responsibility for weather observations must comply with the requirements as specified in subparagraph 2-10-1a, Wind Instrument Sensors.

  1. TRACONs may use direct dial, LLWAS, or commissioned AWOS/ASOS automated display wind information for operational purposes.
  2. Facility managers may designate the use of displayed wind information oriented to the threshold end of the runway in lieu of airport winds where LLWAS expanded network systems or LLWAS that are integrated with TDWR are installed, if deemed operationally advantageous.
  3. The LLWAS airport, direct dial, or commissioned AWOS/ASOS automated winds may be used during outages of the sensors that provide threshold winds:
  1. Include in the letter to airmen an explanation that wind information given to arriving aircraft on that runway/s may be derived from the automated AWOS/ASOS wind equipment or wind sensor equipment near the runway threshold rather than from the LLWAS airport wind source. It is not intended that controllers specify the remote source when issuing these winds to arriving aircraft, except when an alert occurs. This must be explained in the letter to airmen.
  2. Use wind information derived from commissioned AWOS/ASOS for ATIS broadcasts and issuing weather reports. Wind information from commissioned AWOS/ASOS or LLWAS centerfield may be used when issuing surface wind to departing aircraft.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 2-10-1, Wind Instrument Sensors.

  1. When it is determined that a component or the whole LLWAS has failed, take the following action: If a component such as a remote sensor fails, notify Technical Operations (Tech Ops). During periods when wind shear is likely to occur or has been reported; e.g., frontal activity, thunderstorms, or pilot reports, inform users by broadcasting on the ATIS that the component is out of service.

EXAMPLE-

“Low level wind shear west boundary sensor out of service.”

  1. Technical Operations is responsible for the verification of the accuracy of the LLWAS. The SMO will notify air traffic of any equipment that is out of tolerance.
  1. RELAY OF RVR VALUES
  1. Relay of RVR values from the weather observing facility to the control tower may be discontinued at the request of the tower when there is no traffic activity at that specific location.
  2. Establish relative priorities on the visibility information at locations with two or more RVR runways where data is required for two or more runways.
  1. ADVANCE APPROACH INFORMATION

Where more than one position could issue the data, assign responsibility for issuing advance approach information to a specific position in a facility directive. Display the information so that it is readily accessible to the controller having a need for it.

  1. ILS HEIGHT/DISTANCE LIMITATIONS
  1. An ILS is normally flight checked to 4,500 feet and 18 miles for the localizer and to 4,500 feet and 10 miles for the glide slope.
  2. If an operational need to exceed these limitations exists, ATC submits an Expanded Service Volume (ESV) request IAW 8260.19, with a description of the flight procedure requiring it. Flight inspection must validate the ESV.
  1. LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS (LAHSO)
  1. The air traffic manager must determine a valid operational need exists before conducting simultaneous takeoff and landing or simultaneous landing operations. This need may be considered evident if:
  1. Present airport capacity/acceptance rate will be increased; and
  2. Arrival/departure delays will be reduced; and
  3. A reasonable savings in fuel consumption will result.
  1. Before authorizing simultaneous takeoff and landing or simultaneous landing operations as specified in the current LAHSO directive.
  1. Coordinate with each of the appropriate Flight Standards field offices having jurisdiction at the airport according to the type of aircraft operations involved and with user groups as required by paragraph 4-2-4, Coordination of ATC Procedures, including the appropriate military authority where units are based at the airport.

NOTE-

Appropriate Flight Standards offices are: the ACDO for air carrier operations or the FSDO or both/either.

  1. Prepare a facility directive using the information as specified in the current LAHSO directive prescribing procedures for conducting these operations. The directive must contain a diagram that depicts the airport runway configuration, identifies the configuration to be used, and specifies the Available Landing Distance (ALD) from the landing threshold to the Hold-Short Point.

NOTE-

Any aircraft that is not listed in the current LAHSO directive must not be considered for LAHSO.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-4, Intersecting Runway Separations.

  1. Ensure the directive identifies the eligible aircraft which may operate on each runway, based on the ALD, current LAHSO directive, and/or FAA Order JO 7360.1, Aircraft Type Designators.
  2. Provide a list of runways authorized for LAHSO, along with the appropriate ALD to System Operations Airspace and Aeronautical Information Management, for publication in the Chart Supplement U.S. and appropriate U.S. Terminal Procedures Publications.
  3. Conduct user briefings at least 45 days before implementation.
  1. Air traffic managers must obtain concurrence from the appropriate Flight Standards field offices and conduct a preliminary environmental review before conducting LAHSO.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order 1050.1, Policies and Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts.

NOTE-

This is only applicable to those facilities not currently conducting LAHSO operations.

  1. LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW) OPERATIONS
  1. The ATM must:
  1. Determine an operational need exists before conducting LUAW operations.
  2. Before authorizing LUAW operations, conduct a review of the impact that airport configuration and local conditions may have on the application of LUAW procedures.
  3. Prepare a facility directive. The directive must prescribe items (a) through (d). Items (e) through (i) must be included if applicable.
  1. Local procedures for conducting these operations.
  2. Methods to assist the local controller in maintaining awareness of aircraft positions on the airport, for example, annotating flight progress strips or marking the location of aircraft with color-coded chips on a magnetic diagram of the airport.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-1-7, Use of Active Runways.

  1. The consolidation and staffing of positions.
  2. The requirements necessary for issuing a landing clearance with an aircraft holding in position.
  1. The safety logic system must be operated in full core alert runway configuration.
  2. The reported weather must be ceiling of 800 feet or more.
  3. The reported visibility must be 2 miles or more.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW), subpara c1.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-5, Landing Clearance, subpara b.

  1. Runway geometry, for example, the physical configuration of runways and other airport movement areas.
  2. Weather conditions, time of day, for example, prevailing light conditions.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW), subpara c1 and g.

  1. Fleet mix.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-7, Wake Turbulence Separation for Intersection Departures.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-8, Intersecting Runway Separation.

  1. Traffic volume; complexity restrictions.
  2. Obstructions or limitations to visibility from controller-to-aircraft and aircraft-to-aircraft perspectives.
  1. Local control position must not be consolidated/combined with any other non-local control position. For example, local control must not be consolidated/combined with the operations supervisor (OS)/controller-in-charge (CIC) position, clearance delivery, flight data, ground control, cab coordinator, etc. Local control can be combined with other local control positions to include tower associate (local assist) or local monitor position. When a Class B/helicopter position with defined control tower airspace is established, this position can be combined with local control.
  2. The tower associate (local assist) position or a local monitor position must be staffed to permit more than one aircraft at a time to LUAW on the same runway between sunrise and sunset.
  3. The OS/CIC position should not be combined with any other position.
  4. Ensure OS/CICs review paragraph 2-6-1a, Watch Supervision, with an emphasis on maintaining situational awareness and management of the operational environment with a goal toward eliminating distractions.
  5. Do not authorize LUAW operations at an intersection between sunset and sunrise unless the following is implemented:
  1. The runway is used as a departure-only runway.
  2. Only one aircraft at a time is permitted to LUAW on the same runway.
  3. Document on FAA Form 7230-4, Daily Record of Facility Operation, the following: “LUAW at INT of RWY (number) and TWY (name) IN EFFECT” when using runway as a departure-only runway. “LUAW at INT of RWY (number) and TWY (name) SUSPENDED” when the runway is not used as a departure-only runway.
  4. At least 90 days before planned implementation, ATMs must submit the local directive outlining this operation to the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations for approval. The appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations must be notified of any proposed operational changes (for example, a change to the runway or taxiway for conducting LUAW operations).
  1. ATMs must submit operational need for LUAW and a facility directive to the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations for approval. ATMs must maintain a copy of the approval correspondence from the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations.
  2. The appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations must ensure an annual review of LUAW operations. The results of this review must be forwarded to and archived by the Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations.
  1. VISUAL SEPARATION

Air traffic managers at adjacent ATCTs who wish to conduct tower-applied visual separation are required to complete the following:

  1. Prepare a facility directive at each facility and enter into an LOA between the concerned facilities. At a minimum, the LOA must include:
  1. Required equipment to conduct the operation.
  2. Clear definition of the specific runway configurations and flows for the operation.
  3. Ceiling and visibility requirements.
  4. Missed approach instructions, where applicable.
  5. A requirement that the aircraft type and intentions be made known to all controllers providing visual separation under these procedures.
  6. Procedures for OS/CIC personnel to:
  1. Accomplish coordination between all concerned facilities prior to conducting and upon termination of the specified operation,
  2. Assess the operation during equipment failures.
  3. Terminate the operation when not permitted due to weather conditions.
  1. Ensure that all personnel receive initial, and when appropriate, recurrent/annual refresher training.
  2. Document the operation in a Letter to Airmen and publish it on the Federal NOTAM System (FNS) website.
  3. Submit an operational needs request along with an update adding tower-applied visual separation procedures to their facility directives. These documents must be approved by the appropriate Air Traffic Services Service Area Director prior to implementation.
  4. ATMs must maintain a copy of the approval correspondence.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1, Visual Separation.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 4-3-2, Appropriate Subjects.

  1. TAKEOFF CLEARANCE

At those airports where the airport configuration does not allow for an aircraft to completely cross one runway and hold short of the departure runway and/or where airports do not have runway hold markings between runways, the ATM must establish guidelines for how aircraft are cleared for takeoff based on the airport configurations. These guidelines must ensure aircraft are still precluded from mistakenly departing from other than the assigned runway while taking into account factors affecting aircraft being “clear of the runway,” for example, minimum distance between runways, presence of hold position markings, signage, etc. A facility directive must include where these procedures are able to be applied.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-9, Takeoff Clearance.
P/CG Term - Clear of the Runway.

  1. MULTIPLE RUNWAY CROSSINGS
  1. Air traffic managers at airports where the taxi route between runway centerlines is 1,300 feet or less must submit a request to the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations for approval before authorizing multiple runway crossings.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-2, Taxi and Ground Movement Operations.

FIG 10-3-1

Multiple Runway Crossings

A graphic depicting multiple runway crossings.

  1. The request must address the specific locations
    where multiple runway crossings will be authorized. This must only include locations where the intervening taxi route is 1,300 feet or less between runway centerlines.
  2. Facilities must keep a copy of the approval correspondence issued by the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations.
  3. Facility directives must include a diagram that depicts the runway/taxiway intersections where multiple runway crossings are authorized.
  4. The Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations must conduct an annual audit of multiple runway crossing operations authorized in their areas. The audit must ensure compliance with all applicable taxi procedures identified in FAA Order JO 7110.65 paragraph 3-7-2. The audit should include a review of all runway incursions attributable to multiple runway crossing clearances and all necessary documentation required above.

NOTE-

Two or more Permission Based Exemptions may not be combined in multiple runway crossing clearances that exceed 1,300 feet.

  1. AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION

Whenever there is construction on a movement area, or on a non-movement area that affects movement area operations, the ATM must:

  1. Notify the Airport Construction Advisory Council via email to the following address: 9-AJA-ConstructionCouncil@faa.gov. The email should describe the construction project in detail.
  2. Create, approve, and publish appropriate changes to local procedures.
  3. Ensure training for all operational personnel is completed and documented.
  4. Provide continued training and/or briefings for the duration of the construction project to ensure operational personnel are advised on construction changes as the project progresses.
  5. Ensure the latest version of the “Runway-Taxiway Construction Best Practices” for preparation and operations is reviewed by appropriate personnel during construction.
  6. Ensure the latest version of the “Runway-Taxiway Construction Checklist” for preparation and operations is used and completed by appropriate personnel.

NOTE-

Both the “Runway-Taxiway Construction Best Practices” and “Runway-Taxiway Construction Checklist” are available on the Runway Safety website. Go to the FAA homepage, search Runway Safety and click the Construction link.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 2-9-3, Content.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-1, Ground Traffic Movement.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-1, Departure Information.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW).
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-9, Take-off Clearance.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-1, Landing Information.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-5, Landing Clearance.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-13, Change in Runway Length Due to Construction.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-1, Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS).

  1. CHANGE IN RUNWAY LENGTH DUE TO CONSTRUCTION

When a runway length has been temporarily or permanently shortened, local procedures must be issued to include procedures covering the phraseology for all taxi, takeoff and landing clearances, ATIS broadcasts, NOTAMs, and other significant activities to ensure safety is not compromised. The ATM must:

  1. Review and publish local weather criteria for each runway selected during periods of construction affecting the available runway length, for example:
  1. 800' ceiling and 2 SM visibility – arrival/departure runway.
  2. Weather less than 2 SM visibility - departure only runway.
  1. Ensure training for operational personnel is completed prior to any runway length changes that include the following:
  1. Use of the term “full length.”
  2. Use of the term “shortened.”
  3. Review of current and future national “Runway Construction Changes” training materials.
  1. Provide continued training and/or briefings for the duration of the construction project to ensure operational personnel are advised of construction changes as the project progresses.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 2-9-3, Content.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-7-1, Ground Traffic Movement.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-1, Departure Information.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-4, Line Up and Wait (LUAW).
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-9, Take-off Clearance.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-1, Landing Information.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-10-5, Landing Clearance.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-12, Airport Construction.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-1, Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS).

  1. APPROACHES TO PARALLEL RUNWAYS
  1. Where vectors are provided to intercept parallel final approach courses, facilities must review and, where necessary, address speed requirements to reduce the potential for overshoot situations.
  2. When determining speed requirements, consider, at a minimum, the following:
  1. Airspace constraints.
  2. Field elevation.
  3. Fleet mix.
  4. Airport layout.
  5. Traffic flow(s).
  6. Local weather.
  1. When speed requirements are implemented, those requirements must be contained in a facility directive.
  1. GO-AROUND/MISSED APPROACH
  1. Tower facility directives must address procedures for go-arounds and/or missed approaches. The procedures must require controllers to issue control instructions as necessary to establish separation. During the development or review of these procedures, facilities must give consideration, at a minimum, to the following factors:
  1. Operational position configuration.
  2. Communication and/or control transfer.
  3. Runway configuration.
  4. Evaluation of existing waivers (for example, reduced separation on final).
  5. Wake turbulence.
  6. Weather conditions.
  7. Type of approach (instrument or visual).

REFERENCE-

P/CG Term - Go-around.
P/CG Term - Low Approach.
P/CG Term - Missed Approach.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-8-1, Sequence/Spacing Application.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-8-2, Touch-and-Go or Stop-and-Go or Low Approach.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-8-11, Practice Approaches.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 4-8-12, Low Approach and Touch-and-Go.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-5-4, Minima.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-6-3, Vectors Below Minimum Altitude.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-4, Departure and Arrival.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 5-8-5, Departures and Arrivals on Parallel or Nonintersecting Diverging Runways.
FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 7-2-1, Visual Separation.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-8, Simultaneous Converging Instrument Approaches, subpara b4(b).
FAA Order JO 7110.308, Para 6b1(d), Para 6c2(i).

  1. Facility air traffic managers may develop procedural mitigations for non-intersecting converging runways when a 1 NM extension of the runway centerline crosses the centerline of the other runway or the 1 NM extensions of a runway cross the extension of another runway. Facility directives must:
  1. Specify procedures to ensure that an arrival that executes a go-around does not conflict with a departure off the non-intersecting converging runway.
  2. Define technological tools that could assist in the locally developed procedures.
  3. Specify procedures to be used when conditions dictate that intersecting runway separation standards must be applied.

NOTE-

  1. The locally developed procedure will ensure that the potential go around aircraft will not conflict with a departing aircraft that is departing the non-intersecting converging runways. All locally developed procedures will be approved by the Director of Operations, Headquarters. ATMs will determine what tools are needed in the development of local procedures. These may include, but are not limited to:
    1. Arrival Departure Window (ADW)
    2. ASDE-X/ASSC Virtual Runway Intersection Point (VRIP)
    3. Cutoff Points (CP) developed with the use of enhanced TARGETS.

REFERENCE-

FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 3-9-9, Non-intersecting Converging Runway Operations.

  1. The procedures must be evaluated on an annual basis to determine their effectiveness.
  2. A facility may be permitted to conduct independent non-intersecting Converging Runway Operations (CRO) without use of the mitigations as defined in graph b, when the following conditions are met:
  1. A documented independent safety analysis indicating that a specific non-intersecting CRO configuration meets FAA safety criteria.
  2. Runway configurations for which these provisions are applied must be specified in a facility directive.

NOTE-

The above provisions will only be considered after review of a facility Safety Risk Management Document (SRMD).

  1. EQUIVALENT LATERAL SPACING OPERATIONS (ELSO)

At locations conducting 10 degree course divergence for simultaneous or successive RNAV departures on the same runway or parallel runways that are separated by 2,500 feet or more, air traffic managers must complete the following:

  1. Create radar video map overlays that depict the initial departure tracks from each affected runway end.
  2. Develop and administer initial controller training for ELSO. Annual proficiency training on local ELSO procedures are required.
  3. Include in the facility Standard Operating Procedures or a Letter of Agreement with a satellite tower, that the OM/OS/CIC assess the feasibility of continuing ELSO when wind conditions dictate that aircraft cannot consistently fly the intended RNAV track. This is due to the detrimental effects of a strong cross wind component affecting initial departure tracks.