This page describes requirements to use closely spaced parallel runways identified as PRM approaches. It also outlines pilot training requirements for conducting simultaneous Instrument Landing System (ILS) PRM approaches, and when conducting ILS PRM and Localizer Type Directional Aid (LDA) PRM approaches during Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) operations. More »
- AIM 5-4-16, Simultaneous Close Parallel ILS PRM Approaches (Independent) and Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA)
Note: Select either PDF or HTM format on Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), and scroll down to Chap. 5, Sec. 4.
- Required PRM Training – The following information is required training for operators as identified in CFR PART 91, 121, 129, and 135. All pilots must complete this training before:
- ILS/PRM Approach for Air Carriers
- ILS/PRM Approach for General Aviation
1. Videos updated 1/25/2013. Reference to a cloud ceiling of 500 feet above the Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA) as being the criteria for determining the lowest altitude at which flight crews conducing the LDA approach during SOIA operations are responsible to wake turbulence mitigation was removed.
2. Differences between the FMC approach coding for the RNAV (GPS) X 28R and the charted IAPs, RNAV (GPS) PRM X Rwy 28R and RNAV (GPS) X Rwy 28R.
The FAA recently approved RNAV (GPS) approaches, which are overlays of the offset LDA PRM Rwy 28R and ILS PRM Rwy 28L approaches to be used to conduct Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) at San Francisco (KSFO). The Flight Management System (FMC) approach coding of the RNAV (GPS) X 28R is different than other FMC RNAV approach coding.
The charted Missed Approach Point (MAP) (DARNE WP) and the FMC coded MAP (CFFKC WP), which is a fictitious threshold waypoint (FTP), are not collocated. CFFKC is designated in the approach coding as the MAP so that vertical guidance is available to the Runway 28R threshold, as does the LDA Runway 28R glideslope. This vertical guidance may be utilized for situational awareness in the visual segment of the approach, between the charted MAP (DARNE WP) and the Runway 28R threshold.
As a result of coding the FTP (CFFKC WP) as the RNAV (GPS) X 28R MAP, a 30 degree heading must be initially flown, either by hand or using autopilot “heading mode”, before engaging LNAV, when executing a missed approach at and after passing the charted MAP (DARNE WP). Notes on the charted IAP and in the Attention All Users Page (AAUP) make specific reference to this procedure.
The charted MAP (DARNE WP) is coded as a stepdown fix in the FMC approach coding because the FTP (CFFKC WP) is coded as the MAP. Some FMCs will not display stepdown fixes inside the FAF (GOBEC WP). For those FMCs, the charted MAP (DARNE WP) will not appear when the RNAV (GPS) X 28R approach is line selected from the FMC. Use the distance from CFFKC (3.4 NM) as shown on the charted IAP, or other approved method, to identify the location of DARNE (WP).
Because the FMC codes the FTP (CFFKC) as the MAP for the RNAV (GPS) X 28R approach, the FMC map display will depict the initial missed approach course as beginning at CFFKC. This depiction does not match the initial missed approach procedure as charted on the RNAV (GPS) PRM X Rwy 28R and RNAV (GPS) X Rwy 28R IAPs, which begins at DARNE WP. Pilots are reminded that charted IAP guidance is to be followed, not the map display. When commencing a missed approach or go-around, after the aircraft completes the initial turn to 30 degrees, the remainder of the procedure coding (commencing with direct to OAK VORTAC or WP) is standard and can be navigated as with any other IAP.