Systems and Equipment Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes and Airships
This advisory circular (AC) sets forth an acceptable means of showing compliance with Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), part 23, for the certification of systems and equipment in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes and airships. The policy in this AC is considered applicable for airship projects; however, the certifying office should only use specific applicability and requirements if they are determined to be reasonable, applicable and relevant to the airship project. This AC applies to Subpart D from § 23.671 and Subpart F. This AC both consolidates existing policy documents, and certain ACs that cover specific paragraphs of the regulations, into a single document and adds new guidance.
This document is intended to provide guidance for the original issue of part 23 and the various amendments through Amendment 23-62. This version of the AC covers policy available through December 31, 2007, Policy that became available after December 31, 2007, will be consolidated in future revisions to the AC.
System Safety Analysis and Assessment for Part 23 Airplanes
This advisory circular (AC) sets forth an acceptable means of showing compliance with Title 14 of the Code .of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), § 23.1309, through Amendment 23-6.2: for equipment, systems, and installations in 14 CFR part 23 airplanes. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It is issued for guidance purposes and to outline a method of compliance with the rules. An applicant may elect to follow an alternate method, provided the FAA finds it to be an acceptable means of complying with the applicable requirements of 14 CFR. However, if the applicant uses the means described in the AC, they must follow it in all important respects.
Installation of Electronic Display in Part 23 Airplanes
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for showing compliance with certain requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 23, as well as general guidance for the design, installation, integration, and approval of electronic flight deck displays, components, and systems installed in part 23 category airplanes. The guidance provided in this document is directed to airplane and avionics manufacturers, modifiers, and operators of part 23 category airplanes. Applicants for a technical standard order (TSO) should consider following the guidance in this AC when the TSO requirements do not provide sufficient guidance. The main purpose of this revision of the AC is providing the guidance for the requirements in the turbojet rulemaking and some general updating due to lessons learned and advance and emerging technologies.
Flight Test Guide for Certification of Part 23 Airplanes
a. This advisory circular (AC) sets forth an acceptable means, but not the only means, of showing compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 23 concerning flight tests and pilot judgements. Material in this AC is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature and does not constitute a regulation.
b. This AC is one method being utilized to achieve national standardization in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes. This AC applies to Subpart B and various sections under Subparts A, D, E, F and G from § 23.1 through § 23.1589. This AC consolidates existing policy documents, and certain ACs that cover specific paragraphs of the regulations, into a single document.
c. This material is intended as a ready reference for part 23 airplane manufacturers, modifiers, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) design evaluation engineers, flight test engineers, and engineering flight test pilots, including Organization Delegation Option (DOA).
Airport Ground Vehicle Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Squitter Equipment
Provides guidance on the development, installation, testing, approval, and maintenance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Out squitter units for airport ground vehicles. Using this AC, airports will be able to acquire approved and authorized airport ground vehicle ADS-B squitter units that are compliant with Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 91, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Out Performance Requirements to Support Air Traffic Control (ATC) Service, as well as the initial set of ADS-B applications. Please note that the technical specifications for manufacturing ADS-B squitter units for airport ground vehicles are published in the FAA’s document, Vehicle Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) Specification, Version 2.4, published May 1, 2012.
Contact the appropriate FAA Airport District Office or Regional Airports Division to discuss Airport Improvement Program (AIP) eligibility.
Learn more about Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B).
Guidance Material for 14 CFR § 35.23, Propeller Control System
This advisory circular (AC) provides definitions and guidance for demonstrating compliance with the propeller control system requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR 35.23).
Certification Maintenance Requirements
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on the selection, documentation, and control of Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMR). This AC also provides a rational basis for coordinating the Maintenance Review Board (MRB), if the MRB process is used, and CMR selection processes to ensure premises made in the system safety analyses supporting the compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.1309, and other system safety rules (such as §§ 25.671, 25.783, 25.901, and 25.933) are protected in service. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for selecting, documenting, and managing CMRs. Terms such as "shall" and "must" are used only in the sense of ensuring applicability of this particular means of compliance when the acceptable means of compliance described herein is used.
Standards for Using Remote Sensing Technologies in Airport Surveys
Provides guidance on the use of remote sensing technologies in the collection of data describing the physical infrastructure of an airport. This version is a substantial rewrite and includes new sections on remote sensing technologies other than aerial imagery (primarily LIDAR) for collecting airport data. See also the Airports GIS website.
Use of Nondestructive Testing in the Evaluation of Airport Pavements
Focuses on nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment that measures pavement surface deflections after applying a static or dynamic load to the pavement. It also briefly introduces other types of nondestructive measuring equipment to illustrate how supplementing NDT data with other test data may improve the quality and reliability of the pavement evaluation. This version updates Chapter 8, NDT-Based Evaluation and Design Updates, to reflect the requirements of the pavement design program FAARFIELD rather than the previous design program LEDFAA.
See also Airport Design Software.
Airside Applications for Artificial Turf
Provides guidance for the planning, design, installation, and maintenance of aviation grade artificial turf in areas adjacent to the operational areas of an airport.
Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems
This advisory circular (AC) recognizes the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754A, Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems, dated December 21, 2010, as an acceptable method for establishing a development assurance process. SAE ARP 4754A discusses the development of aircraft and systems taking into account the overall aircraft operating environment and functions. This includes validation of requirements and verification of the design implementation for certification and process assurance.
Nationally Scheduled FAA-Approved Industry-Conducted Flight Instructor Refresher Course
This advisory circular (AC) provides information for the preparation and approval of training course outlines (TCO) for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-approved, industry-conducted flight instructor refresher courses (FIRC) in accordance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.197(a)(2)(iii). The FIRC is intended to keep flight instructors informed of the changing world of General Aviation (GA) flight training, and to enhance aviation safety through continued refresher training of the flight instructor cadre. It is one of several methods by which a flight instructor may renew his or her flight instructor certificate. Adherence to this AC provides one acceptable method by which the FAA may approve the FIRC program. Effective August 4, 1997, the holder of a pilot school certificate issued under 14 CFR part 141 may also obtain approval to provide a FIRC program under the authority of part 141 appendix K, paragraph 11. The holder of a part 141 pilot school certificate that desires to offer a FIRC program under their Air Agency Certificate should refer to this AC, which may be helpful as guidance in developing the TCO for FAA approval.
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Systems
Contains the FAA standards for the Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) systems, which provides pilots with visual glideslope guidance during approach for landing.
Specification for L-890 Airport Lighting Control and Monitoring System (ALCMS)
Specifies the minimum requirements for an Airport Lighting Control and Monitoring System (ALCMS). The ALCMS simplifies the control and monitoring of lighted visual aids and enhances airport safety. The basic function of the system remains the same whether for a general aviation airport that supports only a few operations in a day or a large commercial airport which caters to hundreds of operations on any given day.
Operational Safety on Airports During Construction
Provides guidelines for operational safety on airports during construction. Principal changes include prohibiting construction in safety areas when associated runway or taxiway is open, providing guidance for incorporating safety risk management, and including checklists for writing Construction Safety and Phasing Plans (CSPP) and for daily inspections.
Installation of Electronic Flight Bag Components
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance material on the installation of electronic flight bag (EFB) components including aircraft connectivity provisions. In it, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) describes certification considerations for individual EFB components and for installing EFB aircraft connectivity provisions by addressing the principal elements, or “components,” which comprise a typical EFB device or system.
This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 23, 25, 27, or 29. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it entirely. The term “must” is used to indicate mandatory requirements when following the guidance in this AC. The terms “should” and “recommend” are used when following the guidance is recommended but not required to comply with this AC.
Applicant’s Showing of Compliance and Certifying Statement of Compliance
We, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), wrote this advisory circular (AC) to describe how to comply with the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 21.20, 21.97 and 21.303(a)(5).
Specification for L-853, Runway and Taxiway Retroreflective Markers
Contains the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards for retroreflective markers for airport runways and taxiways. Version D changes Paragraph 18.104.22.168, Cylindrical Markers, to increase the marker diameter and surface area, and Paragraph 22.214.171.124, Mounting System, to clarify Type II marker mounting and tethering requirements.
Effective six months after the issue date of this AC, only equipment qualified per these specifications will be listed in AC 150/5345-53, Airport Lighting Equipment Certification Program.
Aircraft Electrical and Electronic System Lightning Protection
This advisory circular (AC) provides you with information and guidance on how you can protect aircraft electrical and electronic systems from the effects of lightning. This AC describes a means, but not the only means, for you to show compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 23.1306, 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316, Electrical and electronic system lightning protection, as they pertain to the type or supplemental type certification of your aircraft.
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. However, if you use the means described in this AC to comply with 14 CFR 23.1306, 25 .1316, 27.1316, and 29.131 6, you must follow it in its entirety.
The term "must" is used to indicate mandatory requirements when following the guidance in this AC in its entirety. The terms "should" and "recommend" are used when following the guidance is recommended but not required to comply with this AC.
Development of State Standards for Nonprimary Airports
Provides guidelines for the development of State standards for and the use of State highway specifications for pavement construction at nonprimary public-use airports as provided for in title 49 United States Code (USC), Sections 47105(c) and 47114(d)(5), respectively.
Fatigue Management Programs for In-Service Issues
a.This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on developing and implementing a Fatigue Management Program (FMP) to address in-service issues for metallic fatigue critical structure. An applicant may develop an FMP as one method to address an unsafe condition when the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) determines an airplane type design has a demonstrated risk of catastrophic failure due to fatigue. In such cases, the FMP should incorporate damage-tolerance based inspections or a part replacement/modification program to mitigate the demonstrated risk. The FMP should also incorporate other fatigue critical structure inspections to address the broader risk posed by potential cracking of these structures in the airplane. The FAA will mandate the FMP by Airworthiness Directive (AD). The FAA may also approve the FMP as an alternative method of compliance (AMOC) to an AD.
b.This AC includes guidance relevant to developing FMPs for other purposes such as life extensions, type certification requirements, or non-mandatory maintenance programs. This guidance supplements other ACs that contain guidance for developing damage-tolerance based inspection programs to look proactively for potential cracks. Such guidance includes AC 91?56B, Continuing Structural Integrity Program for Airplanes, AC 25.571?1D, Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Structure, and AC 23?13A, Fatigue, Fail-Safe, and Damage-Tolerance Evaluation of Metallic Structure for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes. Applicants should use product specific guidance in conjunction with this AC.
c. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for maintaining the continued operational safety for airplane type designs that have a demonstrated risk. In this AC, the FAA uses terms such as “must” or “require” only in the sense of ensuring applicability of a particular method of compliance when using a specific acceptable method of compliance described herein.
Compliance with Requirements of § 121.321, Operations in Icing
This advisory circular (AC) describes an acceptable means for showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 121.321, Operations in Icing. Part 121 contains the aircraft operating requirements applicable to domestic, flag, and supplemental operations. This AC provides guidance for:
a. Using visible moisture and temperature as a means for the flightcrew to know when the airframe ice protection system (IPS) must be activated.
b. Developing acceptable procedures for activating and deactivating the airframe IPS.
c. Installing a primary or advisory ice detection system.
Development of Training/Qualification Programs for Composite Maintenance Technicians
This document is intended as a guideline for organizations to develop a formal training program for qualification of composite technicians. This advisory circular (AC) contains recommendations for the experience, training, qualification, and examination of persons performing maintenance and repair of aircraft composite structures or other aviation composite components. It recommends criteria for the qualification of personnel to be able to understand the technical principles involved in the maintenance and repair of aircraft composites. This document applies to those individuals directly responsible for providing training, supervision, or oversight of composite maintenance personnel. Organizations may use the information contained in this AC to develop a written program describing the guidelines used to train and qualify personnel.This AC provides a means, but not the only means, of developing a composite maintenance training program.
Specification for Series to Series Isolation Transformers for Airport Lighting Systems
Contains the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) specifications for series to series isolation transformers for use in airport lighting systems.
Engine and Turbosupercharger Rotor Overspeed Requirements of 14 CFR § 33.27.
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance and acceptable methods, but not the only methods, for demonstrating compliance with the rotor strength (overspeed) requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 33.27.