Recommended Aircraft Maintenance Practices for Commercial Air Tour Operators
This AC describes maintenance practices that we, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), recommend for aircraft that you, a commercial air tour operator, use to perform commercial air tours. (We list these operations in Paragraph 2.) We based these practices, in part, on National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendations. The recommended practices in this AC aren’t mandatory and don’t constitute a regulation. However, we believe that when properly followed, these practices can increase safety in your operation and reduce the number of maintenance-related air tour accidents.
English Language Skill Standards Required by 14 CFR Parts 61,63, and 65
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for airman applicants, training organizations, designated examiners, and aviation safety inspectors (ASI) in determining English language skills currently required for airman certification as required by the Administrator under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 61, 63, and 65.
This advisory circular (AC) provides suggestions to improve sport parachuting safety and disseminates information to assist all parties associated with sport parachuting to be conducted in compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 105. It also contains information for jumpers and riggers on parachuting equipment, on-airport parachuting operations, jump pilot training, aircraft maintenance programs, parachute rigging, and procedures for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization for flight operations with a removed or modified door.
Guidance for Conduction and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations
a. Evaluating Manufactured or Modified Aircraft. It provides a means but not the only means of evaluating manufactured or modified aircraft by the use of standard systems, processes, and tests necessary to determine pilot training and qualification requirements.
b. Differences in Training and Qualification between Aircraft. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of compliance with applicable Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) that provide for differences in training and qualification between aircraft with the same type certificate. It further describes an acceptable means for providing related aircraft differences training and qualification under provision of 14 CFR part 121 between aircraft with different type certificates that have been "designated" by the Administrator as related. Both of these processes use the provision of the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report as the basis for the approval of pilot training and qualification necessary for the operation of aircraft. This AC is intended to enhance safety by:
(1) Providing a standard method of assessing applicant programs.
(2) Directly relating pilot training and qualification requirements to fleet characteristics, operating concepts, and pilot assignments.
(3) Permitting better industry planning and management by outlining what FAA requirements apply, what training resources or devices are needed, and what alternatives are possible.
(4) Encouraging aircraft manufacturers to design with the goal of developing common characteristics between related aircraft
(5) Providing a recommended framework for application of suitable credits or constraints to better address new technology and future safety enhancements.
Standards for Airport Markings
This AC contains the FAA standards for markings used on airport runways, taxiways, and aprons.
Hot Mix Asphalt Paving Handbook
This AC provides general guidance on asphalt paving operations. The Hot-Mix Asphalt Paving Handbook 2000 (handbook) is in Appendix 1 of this AC. The handbook concentrates on field practices for asphalt paving, including plant operations, transportation of materials, surface preparation, laydown, compaction, and quality control processes.
Specification for Wind Cone Assemblies
This AC contains a specification for wind cone assemblies to be used to provide wind information to pilots. This revision revises the equipment qualification requirements to be furnished under the Federal grant assistance program for airports, applies photometric requirements for internally lighted wind cones to both Size 1 and Size 2 windsocks, and makes editorial changes.
Airport Signing and Graphics
This AC provides guidance on airport terminal and landside wayfinding, signing, and graphics. It focuses on four areas of the airport: roadways, parking, curbside and ground transportation, and terminal. This version is a substantial rewrite and incorporates the recommendations and guidelines developed under Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 52, Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside, completed in 2011.
Segmented Circle Airport Marker System
This AC provides standards for a system of airport marking consisting of certain pilot aids and traffic control devices.
Installation Guidance for Domestic Flight Information Services - Broadcast
a. This advisory circular (AC) supports the use of Flight Information Services - Broadcast (FIS-B) weather and other aeronautical data link products for enhanced situation awareness of flight conditions. In this AC, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends one way to gain airworthiness approval for the installation of FIS-B avionics equipment. We identify safety and installation requirements for continued airworthiness of aircraft FIS-B avionics equipment, systems, and applications. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to gain airworthiness approval for your FIS-B avionics equipment. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
b. FIS-B was introduced to improve safety and to increase the utility, efficiency, and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). Timely delivery of quality, accurate, and consistent information is utilized by pilots for assisting in operational decisions.
c. This AC was revised to remove outdated information on the Flight Information Services Data Link (FISDL) program and replace with the current FIS-B system while maintaining alternative third party subscription services.
Development of a Nondestructive Inspection Program/Organization
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the development of organizations and facilities performing nondestructive inspections (NDI). This material is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for developing NDI facilities, as well as organizational and quality manuals. We, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), will consider other methods of demonstrating compliance that you may elect to present. We use the terms “must” and “will” in this AC only to ensure you correctly apply the recommendations of this particular method of compliance, if you choose to do so.
Specification for L-824 Underground Electrical Cable for Airport Lighting Circuits
This AC provides specifications for L-824 underground electrical cable for airport lighting circuits.
Provision of Technical Assistance to Civil Aviation Authorities for Safety Oversight of International Commercial Air Transportation Including by Commercial Technical Assistance Providers
This advisory circular (AC) provides information about the provision of technical assistance to Civil Aviation Authorities (CAA) related to compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards and recommended practices. The AC explains the process the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) uses to provide assistance to CAAs and also provides guidance CAAs can use to obtain technical assistance from commercial providers if the services of the FAA are not available.
Noncompliance with ICAO standards by CAAs is often identified under the FAA’s International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program. The primary focus for the IASA program is for compliance with ICAO Annex 1, Personnel Licensing; Annex 6, Operation of Aircraft, Part 1, International Commercial Air Transport-Aeroplanes; and Annex 8, Airworthiness of Aircraft.
This AC contains information a CAA may use to identify:
Airport Drainage Design
This AC provides guidance for engineers, airport managers, and the public about the design and construction of airport surface storm drainage systems; and subsurface drainage systems for paved runways, taxiways, and aprons. It incorporates the DOD Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) draft document, Surface Drainage Design, dated August 1, 2006. This revision adds guidance that was not included in the original DOD document. See paragraph 5,, "Purpose of this Revision."
Design of Aircraft Deicing Facilities
This AC provides standards and recommendations for use in the design of aircraft deicing facilities.
This AC provides guidance to assist operators in planning, designing, and constructing seaplane bases and associated facilities.
Announcement of Availability of Airport-Related Research and Development Products
This AC explains how to obtain the latest airport-related research and development (R&D) products funded by the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) Airports Organization, particularly the FAA’s Airport Technology Research and Development Branch, the Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP), the Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF), and the Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program (AAPTP).
Airborne Software Assurance
a. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for showing compliance with the applicable airworthiness regulations for the software aspects of airborne systems and equipment certification. This AC is not mandatory and is not a regulation. Other ACs may describe alternate means.
b. We, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), wrote this AC to recognize the following RTCA, Inc. documents (RTCA DO):
(1) RTCA DO-178C, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, dated December 13, 2011.
(2) RTCA DO-330, Software Tool Qualification Considerations, dated December 13, 2011.
(3) RTCA DO-331, Model-Based Development and Verification Supplement to DO178C and DO-278A, dated December 13, 2011.
(4) RTCA DO-332, Object-Oriented Technology and Related Techniques Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A, dated December 13, 2011.
(5) RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A, dated December 13, 2011.
Note: RTCA DO is hereafter referred to as DO.
c. References to use of DO-178C in this AC include use of supplements and DO-330 as applicable.
d. This AC also establishes guidance for transitioning to DO-178C when making modifications to software previously approved using DO-178, DO-178A, or DO-178B.
07/19/2013 AC 20-115C
e. This AC also explains the use of DO-178C for Technical Standard Order (TSO) authorizations.
f. This AC does not obligate the FAA to approve any data or perform any activities as specified within the referenced RTCA documents.
g. If you use the means in this AC as a means of compliance, you must follow it entirely.
Industry Documents To Support Aircraft Lightning Protection Certification
a. This advisory circular (AC) recognizes several SAE Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARPs) and European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)documents as acceptable methods for showing compliance with airworthiness regulations. These industry documents provide guidance on aircraft lightning environment and test waveforms, aircraft lightning zoning, aircraft lightning test methods, and aircraft lightning direct effects.
b. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but is not the only means, to help you to obtain certification for lightning protection.
Institution of Higher Education’s Application for Authority to Certify its Graduates for an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate with Reduced Aeronautical Experience
This advisory circular (AC) provides instructions for institutions of higher education on how to obtain authority to certify students who graduate from the institution’s degree program with an aviation major and otherwise meet the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.160(b), (c), or (d). Graduates of an institution of higher education that has received Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization to certify graduates may be eligible to apply for a restricted privileges airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate. The total flight time requirements for a restricted privileges ATP Certificate based on a degree with an aviation major are:
• 1,250 hours for a graduate who holds an associate’s degree with an aviation major and meets the remaining requirements of § 61.160(c); and
• 1,250 hours for a graduate who holds a bachelor’s
Airline Transport Pilot Certification Training Program
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and courseware guidelines to authorized providers, to aid in the development of a training program which meets the requirements of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, § 61.156.
General Type Certification Guidelines for Turbine Engines
This advisory circular (AC) provides general guidance concerning type certification projects for aircraft turbine engines. This AC applies to certain sections of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 21, 33, and 45, and describes or references methods of compliance that may be acceptable for engine type certification work. This guidance is general in nature, and where necessary, further reference is made to other documents, which may be the primary source for information on a particular subject.
Certification Data Retention Agreements and Government Records
This advisory circular (AC) describes the procedures that you, domestic design approval applicants and design approval holders (DAHs), should follow when entering into a certification data retention agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This AC also defines the type of certification data that constitute a government record.
If you are planning to use an electronic data storage system as your means of retention for your type design data, we recommend you follow the guidance outlined in AC 21-48, Using Electronic Modeling Systems as Primary Type Design Data. AC 21-48 describes an acceptable means for using electronic modeling systems in design, manufacturing, installation, and inspection processes. Although in that AC we define an “electronic modeling system” as a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling system, we encourage you to use the guidance provided because it identifies the criteria for using electronic type design data and includes requirements for how to access and present the data.
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation, but if you elect to follow the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
Reporting Wildlife Aircraft Strikes
This AC explains the importance of reporting collisions between aircraft and wildlife, more commonly referred to as wildlife strikes. It also explains recent improvements in the FAA’s Bird/Other Wildlife Strike Reporting system, how to report a wildlife strike, what happens to the wildlife strike report data, how to access the FAA National Wildlife Strike Database (NWSD), and the FAA’s Feather Identification program.
The purpose of this advisory circular (AC) is to describe enhanced guidelines for autorotations during rotorcraft/helicopter flight training. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has found a need to raise awareness of the risks inherent in performing autorotations in the training environment, and in particular the 180 degree autorotation. In this AC, the FAA recommends procedures that will mitigate safety risk during autorotations. This information is intended to supplement information about autorotation training found in the current edition of the Helicopter Flying Handbook (HFH), FAA-H-8083-21. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of training applicants for a rotorcraft/helicopter airman to meet the qualifications for various rotorcraft/helicopter ratings under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61. You may use alternate methods for training if you establish that those methods meet the requirements of the HFH and FAA practical test standards (PTS).