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Number Office Title Date
91-35 AAM-620 Noise, Hearing Damage, and Fatigue in General Aviation Pilots Acquaints pilots with the hazards of regular exposure to cockpit noise. Especially pertinent are piston-engine, fixed-wing, and rotary-wing aircraft. 03-28-1972
91.11-1 AAM-620 Guide to Drug Hazards in Aviation Medicine Lists all commonly used drugs by pharmacological effect on airmen with side effects and recommendations. 07-19-1963
91-76A AAM-630 Hazard Associated with Sublimation of Solid Carbon Dioxide (Dry Ice) Aboard Aircraft 05-22-2009
91-82 ACE-100 Fatigue Management Programs for Airplanes with Demonstrated Risk of Catastrophic Failure Due to Fatigue

a. This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on developing and implementing a Fatigue Management Program (FMP). An applicant may develop an FMP as one method to address the unsafe condition that arises when the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has determined an airplane type design has an unsafe condition associated with a demonstrated risk of catastrophic failure due to fatigue (hereinafter referred to as demonstrated risk). An FMP incorporates damage-tolerance based inspections or a part replacement/modification program to mitigate the demonstrated risk. An FMP also incorporates inspections based on service history and engineering judgment to address the broader risk posed by potential cracking of other fatigue critical structure in the airplane. The FAA may mandate an FMP by Airworthiness Directive (AD) only in cases in which the FAA has determined that airworthiness action is necessary to address an unsafe condition. The FAA may also approve an FMP as an alternative method of compliance (AMOC) to an AD. b. This AC provides guidance for actions once the FAA determines that an AD is necessary to address the unsafe condition associated with a demonstrated risk. Existing FAA guidance supports development of damage-tolerance based inspection programs for transport category airplanes to look proactively for potential cracks. Such guidance includes AC 91-56B, Continuing Structural Integrity Program for Airplanes, and AC 25.571-1C, Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Structure. These existing ACs do not describe all the actions that should be used to address a demonstrated risk. c. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for maintaining the continued operational safety for airplane type designs that have a demonstrated risk. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in all important aspects. In this AC, we use terms such as “must” or “require” only in the sense of ensuring applicability of a particular method of compliance when you use a specific acceptable method of compliance described herein.

91-86 AEE-100 Guidance on Carrying Noise Certification Documents On Board Aircraft Operating Outside the United States

a. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is amending its operating rules to require U.S. operators flying outside the United States to carry aircraft noise certification information on board the aircraft.

b. This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance to affected U.S. operators that operate aircraft outside the United States with aircraft that were never required to be noise certified. If you have such an aircraft, this AC outlines the noise certification requirement dates so you can confirm that your aircraft indeed pre-dates the requirements and should be considered acceptable. We use the term “grandfathered” for these aircraft. We strongly recommend operators of such aircraft to use the FAA form in Appendix 1 that includes a grandfather clause.

91-73B AFS-200 Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot, Flight School Procedures During Taxi Operations

This advisory circular (AC) provides guidelines for the development and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOP) for conducting safe aircraft operations during taxiing to avoid causing a runway incursion. In accordance with the current edition of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 7050.1, Runway Safety Program, the definition of a runway incursion is, any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. This AC is intended for use by persons operating aircraft single pilot under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 91 and 135, and flight schools. The FAA recommends that these guidelines become an integral part of all SOPs, Flight Operations Manuals (FOM), and formal flight training programs.

91-6A AFS-223 Water, Slush, and Snow on the Runway Provides background and guidelines concerning the operation of turbojet aircraft with water, slush, and/or snow on the runway. 05-24-1978
91-59A AFS-300 Inspection and Care of General Aviation Aircraft Exhaust Systems 07-23-2007
91-26 AFS-310 Maintenance and Handling of Airdriven Gyroscopic Instruments Advises operators of general aviation aircraft of the need for proper maintenance of air-driven gyroscopic instruments and associated air filters. 07-02-1969
91-42D AFS-310 Hazards of Rotating Propeller and Helicopter Rotor Blades Updates statistical information on propellers-and rotor-to-person accidents and offers suggestions to reduce the frequency of such accidents. 03-03-1983
91-55 AFS-310 Reduction of Electrical System Failures following Aircraft Engine Starting Warns general aviation aircraft owner/pilots and maintenance personnel of possible total electrical system failure following aircraft engine starting. 10-28-1980
91-14D AFS-340 Altimeter Setting Sources Provides the aviation public and industry with guidelines for setting up reliable altimeter setting sources. 04-09-1979
91-46 AFS-350 Gyroscopic Instruments - Good Operating Practices Issued to re-emphasize to general aviation instrument-rated pilots the need to determine the proper operation of gyroscopic instruments, the importance of instrument crosschecks and proficiency in partial-panel operations. 02-04-1977
91.21-1B AFS-350 Use of Portable Electronic Devices Aboard Aircraft Provides aircraft operators with information and guidance for assistance in the compliance to FAR Section 91.21. 08-25-2006
91-70A AFS-400 Oceanic and International Operations


This advisory circular (AC) contains general information and guidance for operators planning oceanic flights, including authorizations needed for operations outside the continental United States. This includes Special Areas of Operation (SAO) such as North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (NAT/MNPS), Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM), Area Navigation (RNAV), and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) airspace.

a. Initiatives.


In all geographic regions, the evolution of communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management (CNS/ATM) is the catalyst for initiatives such as data link, RNP, RNAV, Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS), and RVSM.

b. Critical Areas and Procedures.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identifies critical areas and procedures such as Strategic Lateral Offset Procedures (SLOP).

c. Revisions.

The dynamics of oceanic operations are such that they are constantly evolving and it is incumbent on the operators to closely monitor any changes. The FAA revised this AC to point the reader to the most current sources of international material. In many cases, the references are to a Web site. The material, however, is still found at www.faa.gov or by calling an FAA navigation specialist. This AC includes specific guidance for authorizations and other FAA policy issues. A detailed study of the FAA Web site is the best source for introduction information about oceanic, international, and remote operations.

91-70 AFS-400 Large AC] Oceanic Operations Contains information and guidance to be used by operators and pilots planning oceanic flights. 09-06-1994
91-75 AFS-400 Attitude Indicator Provides a method to substitute an approved attitude indicator for the rate-of-turn indicator mandated by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, section 91.205(d)(3). This AC excludes airplanes covered by section 91.205(d)(3)(i) and (ii). This AC is applicable to part 23-certificated airplanes (or airplanes certificated under earlier equivalent regulations) that weigh less than 12,500 pounds and are operated under part 91. 06-25-2003
91-85 AFS-400 Approval of Aircraft and Operators for flight in Reduced Vertical 08-21-2009
91-74A AFS-800 Pilot Guide: Flight in Icing Conditions 12-31-2007
91-78 AFS-800 Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) This advisory circular (AC) provides aircraft owners, operators, and pilots operating aircraft under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, with information for removal of paper aeronautical charts and other documentation from the cockpit through the use of either portable or installed cockpit displays (electronic flight bags (EFB). 07-20-2007
91-84 AFS-800 Fractional Ownership Programs This advisory circular (AC) provides backgroung information, and describes fractional ownership programs and te application process for obtaining management specifications (MSpecs) to operate under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14CFR) part 91 subpart k (part 91K) 03-31-2009
91-61 AFS-800/AAM-500 A Hazard in Aerobatics: Effects of G-Forces of Pilots Provides background information on G-forces, their effect on the human body and their role in safe flying, and offers suggestions for avoiding problems caused by acceleration encountered in aerobatic maneuvers. 02-28-1984
91-45C AFS-810 Waivers: Aviation Events Provides prospective aviation event sponsors and other interested parties with information necessary to assist in planning and conducting a safe aviation event. In addition, it provides information on the application process for a certificate of Waiver or Authorization. 02-01-1990
91-13C AFS-820 Cold Weather Operation of Aircraft Provides background and guidelines relating to operation of aircraft in the colder climates where wide temperature changes may occur. 07-24-1979
91-16 AFS-820 Category II Operations - General Aviation Airplanes Sets forth acceptable means by which Category II operations may be approved in accordance with FAR Parts 23, 25, 61, 91, 97, and 135. 08-07-1967

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