Provided here is the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide in a web-based format. This web-based version is designed to easily reference chart symbology while providing access for all devices. For now, the downloadable PDF version is still available at the bottom of this page.

INTRODUCTION

This Chart User's Guide is an introduction to the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aeronautical charts and publications. It is useful to new pilots as a learning aid, and to experienced pilots as a quick reference guide.

The FAA publishes charts for each stage of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) air navigation including training, planning, and departures, enroute (for low and high altitudes), approaches, and taxiing charts. For Procurement, contact an Authorized FAA Chart Sales Agent. Visit Agents Listing Search for an agent near you. For digital products, contact FAA, AeroNav Products at 1-800-638-8972.

The FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Pilot/Controller Glossary defines in detail, all terms and abbreviations used throughout this publication. Unless otherwise indicated, miles are nautical miles (NM), altitudes indicate feet above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and times used are Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

The Notices to Airmen Publication (NOTAM) includes current Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs. NOTAMs alert pilots of new regulatory requirements and reflect changes to Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs), flight restrictions, and aeronautical chart revisions. This publication is prepared every 28 days by the FAA, and is available by subscription from the Government Printing Office.

In addition to NOTAMs, the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) and the Safety Alerts/Charting Notices page of the AeroNav Products website are also useful to pilots.

KEEP YOUR CHARTS CURRENT

Aeronautical information changes rapidly, so it is important that pilots check the effective dates on each aeronautical chart and publication. To avoid danger, it is important to always use current editions and discard obsolete charts and publications.

To confirm that a chart or publication is current, refer to the next scheduled edition date printed on the cover. Pilots should also check Aeronautical Chart Bulletins and NOTAMs for important updates between chart and publication cycles that are essential for safe flight.

All information in this guide is effective through September 2013. All graphics used in this guide are for educational purposes. Please do not use them for flight navigation.

REPORTING CHART DISCREPANCIES

Your experience as a pilot is valuable and your feedback is important. We make every effort to display accurate information on all FAA charts and publications, so we appreciate your input. Please notify us concerning any requests for changes, or potential discrepancies you see while using our charts and related products.

FAA, AeroNav Products
SSMC4 Sta. 4503
1305 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281

Telephone Toll-Free 1-800-626-3677
E-mail: 9-AMC-Aerochart@faa.gov

For reference purposes the 12th Edition of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide is available in a pdf format for download. Due to the large file size we recommend that you use a broadband internet connection to reduce the download time.

Warning: Some dial-up internet service providers may time out while downloading large files.

Aeronautical Chart User's Guide (PDF, 22.17 MB)

EXPLANATION OF VFR TERMS AND SYMBOLS

This chapter covers the Sectional Aeronautical Chart (Sectional). These charts include the most current data at a scale of (1:500,000) which is large enough to be read easily by pilots flying by sight under Visual Flight Rules. Sectionals are named after a major city within its area of coverage.
The chart legend includes aeronautical symbols and information about drainage, terrain, the contour of the land, and elevation. You can learn to identify aeronautical, topographical, and obstruction symbols (such as radio and television towers) by using the legend.
A brief description next to a small black square indicates the exact location for many of the landmarks easily recognized from the air, such as stadiums, pumping stations, refineries, etc. A small open circle indicates an Oil Well. Small black circles with a label show the location of water, oil and gas tanks. The scale for some items may be increased to make them easier to read on the chart.
AeroNav Products' charts are prepared in accordance with specifications of the Interagency Air Cartographic Committee (IACC) and are approved by representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense (DoD).

WATER FEATURES (HYDROGRAPHY)

open inland water Water features are depicted using two tones of blue, and are considered either "Open Water" or "Inland Water." "Open Water," a lighter blue tone, shows the shoreline limitations of all coastal water features at the average (mean) high water levels for oceans and seas. Light blue also represents the connecting waters like bays, gulfs, sounds, fjords, and large estuaries.
Exceptionally large lakes like the Great Lakes, Great Salt Lake, and Lake Okeechobee, etc., are considered Open Water features. The Open Water tone extends inland as far as necessary to adjoin the darker blue "Inland Water" tones. All other bodies of water are marked as "Inland Water" in the darker blue tone.

LAND FEATURES (TERRAIN) AND OBSTRUCTIONS

The elevation and configuration of the Earth's surface is important to pilots. Our Aeronautical Information Specialists are devoted to showing the contour of the earth and any obstructions clearly and accurately on our charts. We use five different techniques: contour lines, shaded relief, color tints, obstruction symbols, and Maximum Elevation Figures (MEF).

terrain contours 1. Contour lines join points of equal elevation. On Sectionals, basic contours are spaced at 500' intervals. Intermediate contours are typically at 250' intervals in moderately level or gently rolling areas. Auxiliary contours at 50', 100', 125', or 150' intervals occasionally show smaller relief features in areas of relatively low relief. The pattern of these lines and their spacing gives the pilot a visual concept of the terrain. Widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes, while closely spaced contours represent steep slopes.

shaded relief 2. Shaded relief shows how terrain may appear from the air. Shadows are shown as if light is coming from the northwest, because studies have shown that our visual perception has been conditioned to this view.


hypsotints 3. Different color tints show bands of elevation relative to sea level. These colors range from light green for the lower elevations, to dark brown for the higher elevations.

4. Obstruction symbols show man made vertical features that could affect safe navigation. FAA's Aeronautical Information Management (AIM) maintains a database of over 1,200,000 obstacles in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico and U.S. Pacific Island Territories. Aeronautical Specialists evaluate each obstacle based on charting specifications before adding it to a visual chart. When a Specialist is not able to verify the position or elevation of an obstacle, it is marked UC, meaning it is "under construction" or being reported, but has not been verified.

The FAA uses a Digital Obstacle File (DOF) to collect and disseminate data. Because land and obstructions frequently change, the source data on obstructions and terrain is occasionally incomplete or not accurate enough for use in aeronautical publications. For example, when the FAA receives notification about an obstruction, and there is insufficient detail to determine its position and elevation, the FAA Flight Edit Program conducts an investigation.

The Flight Edit crew visually verifies the cultural, topographic, and obstacle data. Charts are generally flight-checked every four years. This review includes checking for any obstruction that has been recently built, altered, or dismantled without proper notification.

obstacles Sectional Charts and Terminal Area Charts (TACs) typically show manmade obstacles extending more than 200' Above Ground Level (AGL), unless they appear in yellow city tint. Features considered to be hazardous obstacles to low-level flight are; smokestacks, tanks, factories, lookout towers, and antennas, etc. On World Aeronautical Charts (WACs) only those obstacles at 500' AGL and higher are charted.

stack and flag Manmade features used by FAA Air Traffic Control as checkpoints use a graphic symbol shown in black with the required elevation data in blue. The elevation of the top of the obstacle above Mean Sea Level (MSL) and the height of the structure (AGL) is also indicated (when known or can be reliably determined by a Specialist). The AGL height is in parentheses below the MSL elevation. In extremely congested areas, the FAA typically omits the AGL values to avoid confusion.

group obstacle symbol Whenever possible, the FAA depicts specific obstacles on charts. However, in high-density areas like city complexes, only the highest obstacle is represented on the chart using the group obstacle symbol to maximize legibility.
UC Obstacle symbol Obstacles under construction are indicated by placing the letters UC next to the obstacle type.
obstacle symbol high intensity strobe Obstacles with high-intensity strobe lighting systems may operate part-time or by proximity activation and are shown as follows:

maximum elevation figure5. The Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) represents the highest elevation within a quadrant, including terrain and other vertical obstacles (towers, trees, etc.). A quadrant on Sectionals is the area bounded by ticked lines dividing each 30 minutes of latitude and each 30 minutes of longitude. MEF figures are rounded up to the nearest 100' value and the last two digits of the number are not shown.

MEFs over land and open water areas are used in areas containing manmade obstacles such as oil rigs.

In the determination of MEFs, the FAA uses extreme care to calculate the values based on the existing elevation data shown on source material. Aeronautical Information Specialists use the following procedure to calculate MEFs:

When a manmade obstacle is more than 200' above the highest terrain within the quadrant:

1. Determine the elevation of the top of the obstacle above MSL.
2. Add the possible vertical error of the source material to the above figure (100' or 1/2 contour interval when interval on source exceeds 200'. U.S. Geological Survey Quadrangle Maps with contour intervals as small as 10' are normally used).
3. Round the resultant figure up to the next higher hundred-foot level.
mef 2600 example

When a natural terrain feature or natural vertical obstacle (e.g. a tree) is the highest feature within the quadrangle:

1. Determine the elevation of the feature.
2. Add the possible vertical error of the source to the above figure (100' or 1/2 the contour interval when interval on source exceeds 200').
3. Add a 200' allowance for uncharted natural or manmade obstacles. Chart specifications don't require the portrayal of obstacles below minimum height.
4. Round the figure up to the next higher hundred-foot level.
mef 3800 example

Pilots should be aware that while the MEF is based on the best information available to the Specialist, the figures are not verified by field surveys. Also, users should consult the Aeronautical Chart Bulletin in the A/FD or AeroNav Products website to ensure that your chart has the latest MEF data available.

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RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION

On VFR Charts, information about radio aids to navigation (NAVAID)navaid is boxed, as illustrated. Duplication of data is avoided. When two or more radio aids in a general area have the same name with different frequencies, Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) channel numbers, or identification letters, and no misinterpretation can result, the name of the radio aid may be indicated only once within the identification box. Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF) Navigation Aid (NAVAID) names and identification boxes (shown in blue) take precedence. Only those items that differ (e.g., frequency, Morse Code) are repeated in the box in the appropriate color. The choice of separate or combined boxes is made in each case on the basis of economy of space and clear identification of the radio aids.

compass roseA NAVAID that is physically located on an airport may not always be represented as a typical NAVAID symbol. A small open circle indicates the NAVAID location when collocated with an airport icon.
The type of NAVAID will be identified by: "VOR," (VHF Omni-Directional Range) "VORTAC" (VOR Tactical Aircraft Control) or "VOR-DME," (VOR-Distance Measuring Equipment) positioned on and breaking the top line of the NAVAID box.

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AIRPORTS

Airports in the following categories are charted as indicated (additional symbols are shown later in this Section).

airports icons

Hard-surfaced U.S. military runways are depicted like public-use airports. They are identified by abbreviations such as: AAF (Army Air Field), AFB (Air Force Base), MCAS (Marine Corps Air Station), NAS (Naval Air Station), NAF (Naval Air Facility), NAAS (Naval Auxiliary Air Station), etc.
Canadian military airports are identified by the abbreviation DND (Department of National Defense).

services available

airport idAirports are plotted in their true geographic position unless the symbol conflicts with a NAVAID at the same location. In such cases, the airport symbol will be displaced, but the relationship between the airport and the NAVAID will be retained.
Airports are identified by their designated name. Generic parts of long airport names (such as "airport," "field," or "municipal") and the first names of persons are commonly omitted unless they are needed to distinguish one airport from another with a similar name.
The figure at right illustrates the coded data that is provided along with the airport name.
The elevation of an airport is the highest point on the usable portion of the landing areas. Runway length is the length of the longest active runway, including displaced thresholds and excluding overruns. Runway length is shown to the nearest 100', using 70 as the rounding point; a runway 8070' in length is charted as 81, while a runway 8069' in length is charted as 80. If a seaplane base is collocated with an airport, there will be additional seaplane base water information listed for the elevation, lighting and runway.

airport data grouping
Airports with Control Towers (CT) and their related data are shown in blue. All other airports and their related data are shown in magenta. The L symbol symbol indicates that runway lights are on from dusk to dawn. Aasterisk L indicates that the pilot must consult the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) to determine runway lighting limitations, such as: available on request (by radio-call, letter, phone, etc), part-time lighting, or pilot/airport controlled lighting. Lighting codes refer to runway edge lights. The lighted runway may not be the longest runway available, and lights may not be illuminated along the full length of the runway. The A/FD has a detailed description of airport and air navigation lighting aids for each airport. A dash represents no runway edge lights.

The symbol airport beacon star indicates the existence of a rotating or flashing airport beacon operating from dusk to dawn. The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) thoroughly explains the types and uses of airport lighting aids.

Right traffic information is shown using the abbreviation 'RP' for right pattern, followed by the appropriate runway number(s) (RP 18). Special conditions or restrictions to the right pattern are indicated by the use of an asterisk (RP*) to direct the pilot to the Airport/Facility Directory for special instructions and/or restrictions.

An airport with an objectionable airspace will be labeled as such, "OBJECTIONABLE." This airport may adversely affect airspace use. FAA Airports Offices are responsible for airspace determinations and follow FAA Order 7400.2. If an airport owner or chart user wishes to challenge the objectionable status, he or she should contact their FAA Regional Airports Office.

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CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Controlled airspace consists of those areas where some or all aircraft may be subject to air traffic control, such as: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E Surface (SFC) and Class E Airspace.

Class A Airspace within the United States extends from 18,000' up to 60,000' MSL. While visual charts do not depict Class A, it is important to note its existence.

Class B Airspace is shown in abbreviated form on the World Aeronautical Chart (WAC).class b altitudes The Sectional Aeronautical Chart (Sectional) and Terminal Area Chart (TAC) show Class B in greater detail. The MSL ceiling and floor altitudes of each sector are shown in solid blue figures with the last two zeros omitted. Floors extending "upward from above" a certain altitude are preceded by a (+). Operations at and below these altitudes are outside of Class B Airspace. Radials and arcs used to define Class B are prominently shown on TACs. Detailed rules and requirements associated with the particular Class B are shown. The name by which the Class B is shown as las vegas class bfor example.

class c altitudesClass C Airspace is shown in abbreviated form on WACs. Sectionals and TACs show Class C in greater detail. The MSL ceiling and floor altitudes of each sector are shown in solid magenta figures with the last two zeros eliminated.

surface to class b baseThe figure at left identifies a sector that extends from the surface to the base of the Class B.
Class C Airspace is identified by name: burbank class c.

Separate notes, enclosed in magenta boxes, give the approach control frequencies to be used by arriving VFR aircraft to establish two-way radio communication before entering the Class C (generally within 20 NM): class c note.

Class D Airspace is identified with a blue dashed line. Class D operating less than continuous is indicated by the following note: class d notam note.

Ceilings of Class D are shown as follows: class d ceiling.
A minus in front of the figure is used to indicate "from surface to, but not including..."

Class E Surface (SFC) Airspace is symbolized with a magenta dashed line. Class E (SFC) operating less than continuous is indicated by the following note: class e notam note.

class e vignettes Class E Airspace exists at 1200' AGL unless designated otherwise. The lateral and vertical limits of all Class E, (up to, but not including 18,000') are shown by narrow bands of vignette on Sectionals and TACs.

Controlled airspace floors of 700' above the ground are defined by a magenta vignette; floors other than 700' that laterally abuts uncontrolled airspace (Class G) are defined by a blue vignette; differing floors greater than 700' above the ground are annotated by a symbol and a number indicating the floor. airspace floors
If the ceiling is less than 18,000' MSL, the value (preceded by the word "ceiling") is shown along the limits of the controlled airspace. These limits are shown with the same symbol indicated above.

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UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Class G Airspace within the United States extends up to 14,500' Mean Sea Level. At and above this altitude is Class E, excluding the airspace less than 1500' above the terrain and certain special use airspace areas.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE

Special Use Airspace (SUA) confines certain flight activities and restricts entry, or cautions other aircraft operating within specific boundaries. Except for Controlled Firing Areas, SUA areas are depicted on VFR Charts. Controlled Firing Areas are not charted because their activities are suspended immediately when spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout positions indicate an aircraft might be approaching the area. Nonparticipating aircraft are not required to change their flight paths. SUA areas are shown in their entirety (within the limits of the chart), even when they overlap, adjoin, or when an area is designated within another area. The areas are identified by type and identifying name/number, and are positioned either within or immediately adjacent to the area.

alert areas

OTHER AIRSPACE AREAS

Mode C Required Airspace (from the surface to 10,000' MSL) within 30 NM radius of the primary airport(s) for which a Class B is designated, is depicted by a solid magenta line.mode c
Mode C is required, but not depicted for operations within and above all Class C up to 10,000' MSL. Enroute Mode C requirements (at and above 10,000' MSL except in airspace at and below 2500' AGL) are not depicted. See FAR 91.215 and the AIM.

FAR 93 Airports and heliports under Federal Aviation Regulation 93 (FAR 93), (Special Air Traffic Rules and Airport Traffic Patterns), are shown by "boxing" the airport name.
far 93 airport

FAR 91 Airports where fixed wing special visual flight rules operations are prohibited (FAR 91) are shown with the type "NO SVFR" above the airport name.

National Security Areas indicated with a broken magenta line national security area dashes and Special Flight Rules Areas (SFRAs) indicated with the following symbol: sfras , consist of airspace with defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities. Pilots should avoid flying through these depicted areas. When necessary, flight may be temporarily prohibited.

The Washington DC Flight Restricted Zone (FRZ) is related to National Security. It is depicted using the Prohibited/Restricted/Warning Area symbology frz and is located within the SFRA. It is defined as the airspace within approximately a 13 to 15 NM radius of the DCA VOR-DME. Additional requirements are levied upon aviators requesting access to operate inside the National Capital Region.

Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) Areas Relating to National Security are indicated with a broken blue line tfr dashes . A Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) is a type of Notice to Airmen (NOTAM). A TFR defines an area where air travel is restricted due to a hazardous condition, a special event, or a general warning for the entire airspace. The text of the actual TFR contains the fine points of the restriction. It is important to note that only TFRs relating to National Security are charted.

Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZs) are symbolized using the ADIZ symbol: adiz. As defined in Code of Federal Regulations 14 (CFR 14) Part 99, an ADIZ is an area in which the ready identification, location, and control of all aircraft is required in the interest of national security. ADIZ boundaries include Alaska, Canada and the Contiguous U.S.

Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSAs) are shown in their entirety, symbolized by a screened black outline of the entire area including the various sectors within the area trsa.
The outer limit of the entire TRSA is a continuous screened black line. The various sectors within the TRSA are symbolized by narrower screened black lines.
Each sector altitude is identified in solid black color by the MSL ceiling and floor values of the respective sector, eliminating the last two zeros. A leader line is used when the altitude values must be positioned outside the respective sectors because of charting space limitations. The TRSA name is shown near the north position of the TRSA as follows: palm springs trsa . Associated frequencies are listed in a table on the chart border.

Military Training Routes (MTRs) are shown on Sectionals and TACs. They are identified by the route designator: mtr. Route designators are shown in solid black on the route centerline, positioned along the route for continuity. The designator IR or VR is not repeated when two or more routes are established over the same airspace, e.g., IR201-205-227. Routes numbered 001 to 099 are shown as IR1 or VR99, eliminating the initial zeros. Direction of flight along the route is indicated by small arrowheads adjacent to and in conjunction with each route designator.

The following note appears on Sectionals and TACs covering the conterminous United States.

mtr note

There are IFR (IR) and VFR (VR) routes as follows: Route identification:

a. Routes at or below 1500' AGL (with no segment above 1500') are identified by four-digit numbers; e.g., VR1007, etc. These routes are generally developed for flight under Visual Flight Rules.

b. Routes above 1500' AGL (some segments of these routes may be below 1500') are identified by three or fewer digit numbers; e.g., IR21, VR302, etc. These routes are developed for flight under Instrument Flight Rules.

MTRs can vary in width from 4 to 16 miles. Detailed route width information is available in the Flight Information Publication (FLIP) AP/1B (a Department of Defense publication), or through the 56 Day NASR Subscription from the National Flight Data Center (NFDC).

Special Military Activity areas are indicated on Sectionals by a boxed note in black type. The note contains radio frequency information for obtaining area activity status.
special military activity note


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TERMINAL AREA CHART (TAC) COVERAGE

TAC coverage is shown on appropriate Sectionals by a 1/4" masked line as indicated below.
Within this area pilots should use TACs, which provide greater detail. A note indicating that the area is on the TAC appears near the masked boundary line.

tac coverage

INSET COVERAGE

Inset coverage is shown on appropriate Sectionals by a 1/8" masked line as indicated below. A note to this effect appears near the masked boundary line.

inset coverage



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CHART TABULATIONS

Airport Tower Communications are provided in a columnized tabulation for all tower-controlled airports that appear on the respective chart. Airport names are listed alphabetically. If the airport is military, the type of airfield, e.g., AAF, AFB, NAS, is shown after the airfield name. In addition to the airport name, tower operating hours, primary Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF) local Control Tower (CT), Ground Control (GND CON), and Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) frequencies, when available, will be given. An asterisk (*) indicates that the part-time tower frequency is remoted to a collocated full-time Flight Service Station (FSS) for use as Airport Advisory Service (AAS) when the tower is closed. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) and/or Precision Approach Radar (PAR) procedures are listed when available.

Approach Control Communications are provided in a columnized tabulation listing Class B, Class C, Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSA) and Selected Approach Control Facilities when available. Primary VHF/UHF frequencies are provided for each facility. Sectorization occurs when more than one frequency exists and/or is approach direction dependent. Availability of service hours is also provided.

Special Use Airspace (SUA): Prohibited, Restricted and Warning Areas are presented in blue and listed numerically for U.S. and other countries. Restricted, Danger and Advisory Areas outside the U.S. are tabulated separately in blue. A tabulation of Alert Areas (listed numerically) and Military Operations Areas (MOA) (listed alphabetically) appear on the chart in magenta. All are supplemented with altitude, time of use and the controlling agency/contact facility, and its frequency when available. The controlling agency will be shown when the contact facility and frequency data is unavailable.

chart tabulation

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GENERAL INFORMATION
Symbols shown are for World Aeronautical Charts (WACs), Sectional Aeronautical Charts (Sectionals), Terminal Area Charts (TACs), VFR Flyway Planning Charts and Helicopter Route Charts. When a symbol is different on any VFR chart series, it will be annotated, e.g., "WAC" or "Not shown on WAC."

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS

Airports
LANDPLANE:
CIVIL

Airports having control towers (CT) are shown in blue, all others are shown in magenta.

All recognizable runways, including some which may be closed, are shown for visual identification purposes. Refueling and repair facilities for normal traffic.

Runway patterns will be depicted at airports with at least one hard surfaced runway 1500´ or greater in length.

vfr landplane civil

vfr landplane civil



vfr landplane civil
SEAPLANE: CIVIL vfr seaplane civil
LANDPLANE:
CIVIL-MILITARY
vfr landplane civil military
LANDPLANE:
MILITARY

Refueling and repair facilities not indicated.

vfr landplane military
LANDPLANE:
EMERGENCY

No facilities,


or


Complete information is not available.

Add appropriate note as required for hard surfaced runways only: "(CLOSED)"


vfr landplane emergency

vfr landplane emergency vfr landplane emergency
SEAPLANE:
EMERGENCY

No facilities, or complete information is not available.


vfr seaplane emergency
HELIPORT
(Selected)

vfr heliport
ULTRALIGHT
FLIGHT PARK

(Selected)


vfr ultralight
AIRPORT DATA GROUPING
(Pvt): Non-public use having emergency or landmark value.

"OBJECTIONABLE": This airport may adversely affect airspace use.
vfr airport data grouping
vfr airport data grouping 2
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Radio Aids to Navigation
VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL RADIO (VOR) RANGE











VOR




VORTAC
When an NDB NAVAID shares the same name and Morse Code as the VOR NAVAID the frequency can be collocated inside the same box to conserve space.

VOR-DME
vfr vfh vor

vfr vor
vfr vortac







vfr vor-dme
NON-DIRECTIONAL
RADIO BEACON (NDB)







NDB-DME










vfr ndb vfr ndb
NAVAIDS USED TO DEFINE CLASS B AIRSPACE vfr navaids class b
AIR FORCE STATION (AFS)



LONG RANGE RADAR STATION (LRRS)
vfr afs lrrs
OFF AIRPORT AWOS/ASOS vfr awos asos
BROADCAST STATIONS (BS)
On request by the proper authority or when a VFR Checkpoint.
vfr bs
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)

 

 

 

 

 

 

REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO)
vfr fss
ALASKA WEATHER CAMERA
Stand-Alone

Collocated with Airport - Must be within 2 NM to have same name.




vfr alaska weather
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Airspace Information
CLASS B AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL are shown.

(Mode C see FAR 91.215 /AIM)

All mileages are nautical (NM).

All radials are magnetic.
vfr class b

vfr class b msl
CLASS C AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

(Mode C see FAR 91.215/AIM)
vfr class c

vfr class c msl
CLASS D AIRSPACE vfr class d airspace
CLASS E AIRSPACE
The limits of Class E airspace shall be shown by narrow vignettes or by the dashed magenta symbol. Individual units of designated airspace are not necessarily shown; instead, the aggregate lateral and vertical limits shall be defined by the following:

Airspace beginning at the surface (sfc) designated around airports...


Airspace beginning at 700 feet AGL...

Airspace beginning at 700 feet AGL that laterally abuts uncontrolled airspace (Class G)...

Airspace beginning at 1200 feet AGL or greater that laterally abuts uncontrolled airspace
(Class G)...

Differentiates floors of airspace greater than 700 feet above the surface...

When the ceiling is less than 18,000 feet MSL, the value prefixed by the word "ceiling", shall be shown along the limits.
vfr class e airspace











vfr class e airspace vfr class e airspace
vfr class e airspace

 

vfr class e airspace

 

 

vfr class e airspace
OFFSHORE CONTROL AREAS vfr offshore control areas
CANADIAN AIRSPACE
Individual units of designated Canadian airspace are not necessarily shown; instead, the aggregate lateral and vertical limits shall be portrayed as closely as possible to the comparable U.S. airspace.






Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr canadian airspace 1
vfr canadian airspace 2
AIRSPACE
OUTSIDE OF U.S.

Other than Canada
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.


vfr airspace outside us
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIR)

OCEANIC CONTROL AREAS (OCA)

CONTROL AREAS (CTA)

vfr firs
LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAYS VOR AND LF/MF (CLASS E AIRSPACE)
Low altitude Federal Airways are indicated by centerline.

Only the controlled airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

vfr low alt airways
MISCELLANEOUS AIR ROUTES
Combined Federal Airway/RNAV "T" Routes are identified in solid blue type adjacent to the solid magenta federal airway identification.
The joint route symbol is screened magenta.
vfr misc air routes
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

The type of area shall be spelled out in large areas if space permits.
vfr sua
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) vfr mtr
SPECIAL MILITARY ACTIVITY ROUTES (SMAR)


Boxed notes shown adjacent to route.
vfr smar
SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES / AIRPORT PATTERNS (FAR 93)

Appropriate boxed note as required shown adjacent to area.
vfr special air traffic rules
SPACE OPERATIONS AREA (FAR 91.143) vfr space ops area
MODE C (FAR 91.215)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr mode c
MISCELLANEOUS AIRSPACE AREAS
Parachute Jumping Area with Frequency

Glider Operating Area

Ultralight Activity


Hang Glider Activity

Unmanned Aircraft Activity


vfr misc airspace areas
vfr misc airspace areas
vfr misc airspace areas
vfr misc airspace areas
vfr misc airspace areas
not-shown-on-WAC.jpg
SPECIAL CONSERVATION AREAS
National Park, Wildlife Refuge, Primitive and Wilderness Areas, etc.


NOAA Regulated National Marine Sanctuary Designated Areas
vfr special conservation areas 1 vfr special conservation areas 2
SPECIAL AIRSPACE AREAS

SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Example: Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
Note: Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.



vfr special airspace areas sfra
FLIGHT RESTRICTED ZONE (FRZ) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example: Washington DC

vfr frz
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) vfr sfra
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR)
RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Example:

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr tfr
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.



vfr adiz
NATIONAL SECURITY AREA
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr nsa
HIGH ENERGY RADIATION AREAS






Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr high energy radiation areas
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA)


Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr trsa
IFR ROUTES

Arrival

Departure

vfr ifr routes
VFR TRANSITION ROUTES
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
Uni-directional

Bi-directional

vfr transition routes
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Navigational and Procedural Information
ISOGONIC LINE AND VALUE
Isogonic lines and values shall be based on the five year epoch magnetic variation model.

vfr isogonic lines
LOCAL MAGNETIC NOTES
Unreliability Notes
vfr local mag notes
COMPASS ROSETTE
Shown only in areas void of VOR roses.

Compass rosette will be based on the five year epoch magnetic variation model.
vfr compass rosette
AERONAUTICAL LIGHTS
By Request
vfr aeronautical lights
INTERSECTIONS
Named intersections used as reporting points. Arrows are directed toward facilities which establish intersection.
vfr intersections
AIRPORT BEACONS
Rotating or Flashing
vfr airport beacons
MARINE LIGHTS
With Characteristics of Light
vfr marine lights
VFR CHECKPOINTS


Underline indicates proper name of VFR Checkpoint.
vfr checkpoints
VFR WAYPOINTS
RNAV

Stand-Alone

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint

vfr waypoints
OBSTRUCTION vfr obstruction
GROUP OBSTRUCTION vfr group obstruction
HIGH-INTENSITY OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS
High-intensity lights may operate part-time or by proximity activation.
vfr high intensity obstructions
WIND TURBINE FARMS
When highest wind turbine is unverified, UC will be shown after MSL value.
vfr wind turbine
MAXIMUM ELEVATION FIGURE (MEF)
(see VFR Terms tab for explanation)

vfr mef
WARNING AND CAUTION NOTES
Used when specific area is not demarcated.
vfr warning and caution notes
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Chart Limits
OUTLINE ON SECTIONAL OF TERMINAL AREA CHART vfr tac outline
OUTLINE ON SECTIONAL OF INSET CHART vfr outline inset

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Culture
RAILROADS
Single Track



Double Track






More Than Two Tracks



Electric


Non-operating, Abandoned or Under Construction
vfr railroad single track vfr railroad double vfr railroad more than two tracks vfr railroad electric

vfr railroad abandoned or under construction
RAILROAD YARDS
Limiting Track To Scale


Location Only
vfr railroad yard vfr railroad yard location
RAILROAD STATIONS vfr railroad station
RAILROAD SIDINGS AND SHORT SPURS vfr railroad spur
ROADS
Dual-Lane Divided Highway Category 1




Primary
Category 2



Secondary
Category 2

vfr roads highway cat 1 vfr roads primary cat 2 vfr roads secondary
TRAILS
Category 3

Provides symbolization for dismantled railroad when combined with label "dismantled railroad."



vfr trails
ROAD MARKERS
Interstate Route No.


U.S. Route No.

Air Marked Identification Label
vfr road markers
ROAD NAMES vfr road names
ROADS UNDER CONSTRUCTION vfr road under construction
BRIDGES AND VIADUCTS
Railroad
vfr railroad bridge
Road vfr bridges road
OVERPASSES AND UNDERPASSES vfr overpasses and underpasses
CAUSEWAYS vfr causeways
TUNNELS-ROAD AND RAILROAD vfr tunnels
POPULATED PLACES
Large Cities Category 1





Cities and Large Towns Category 2



Towns and Villages Category 3
vfr populated areas
vfr villages
PIPELINES

 

Underground

vfr pipelines
DAMS vfr dams
DAM CARRYING ROAD vfr dam carrying road
PASSABLE LOCKS vfr locks
SMALL LOCKS vfr small locks
WEIRS AND
JETTIES
vfr weirs and jetties
SEAWALLS vfr seawall
BREAKWATERS vfr breakwater
PIERS, WHARFS, QUAYS, ETC.
vfr piers
FERRIES, FERRY SLIPS AND FORDS vfr ferries
BOUNDARIES
International


State or Province


Convention or Mandate Line


Date Line

vfr international boundary
vfr state line vfr convention line
vfr date line
TIME ZONES vfr timezones
MINES OR QUARRIES
Shaft Mines or Quarries
vfr quarries
POWER TRANSMISSION AND TELECOMMUNICATION LINES vfr powerlines
MISCELLANEOUS CULTURAL FEATURES vfr misclaneous cultural features
OUTDOOR
THEATER
vfr outdoor theater
WELLS Other than water vfr wells
RACE TRACKS vfr racetracks
LOOKOUT TOWERS vfr lookout towers
LANDMARK AREAS vfr landmark
TANKS vfr tanks
COAST GUARD STATION vfr coast guard station
AERIAL CABLEWAYS, CONVEYORS, ETC. vfr cableway

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Hydrography
OPEN WATER vfr open water
INLAND WATER vfr inland water
OPEN/INLAND WATER vfr open inland water
SHORELINES
Definite

 

 


Fluctuating

 

 


Unsurveyed
Indefinite

 

 

Man-made

vfr shorelines
LAKES
Label as required.

Perennial
When too numerous to show individual lakes, show representative pattern and descriptive note. Number indicates elevation.

Non-Perennial
(dry, intermittent, etc.) Illustration includes small perennial lake
vfr lakes

vfr lakes




vfr lakes
RESERVOIRS
Natural Shorelines


Man-made Shorelines
Label when necessary for clarity


Too small to show to scale


Under Construction
vfr reservoirs
vfr reservoirs
vfr reservoirs

vfr reservoirs
STREAMS
Perennial

Non-Perennial


Fanned Out
Alluvial fan




Braided




Disappearing



Seasonally Fluctuating
with undefined limits


with maximum bank limits, prominent and constant

Sand Deposits in and along riverbeds
vfr streams perennial non vfr streams fan braid disappearing vfr streams seasonal vfr streams sand deposits
WET SAND AREAS
Within and adjacent to desert areas
vfr wet sand areas
AQUEDUCTS


Abandoned or Under Construction

 


Underground

 

Suspended or Elevated



Tunnels

 

Kanats

 

Underground with air vents

 

vfr aqueducts
vfr aqueducts tunnels

FLUMES, PENSTOCKS AND SIMILAR FEATURES

Elevated



Underground
vfr flumes
FALLS
Double-Line



Single-Line

vfr falls
RAPIDS
Double-Line



Single-Line

vfr rapids
CANALS



To Scale

 

 

Abandoned or Under Construction

 

Abandoned to Scale

vfr canals
SMALL CANALS AND DRAINAGE / IRRIGATION DITCHES
Perennial



Non-Perennial




Abandoned or Ancient



Numerous

Representative pattern and/or descriptive note.

Numerous


Perennial canals Non-Perennial canals Abandoned or Ancient canals Numerous canals

Numerous canals
SALT EVAPORATORS
AND SALT PANS MAN EXPLOITED
vfr salt evaporators
SWAMPS, MARSHES AND BOGS vfr swamp marsh bog
HUMMOCKS AND RIDGES vfr hummocks
MANGROVE AND NIPA vfr mangroves
PEAT BOGS vfr peat bogs
TUNDRA vfr tundra
CRANBERRY BOGS vfr cranberry bog
RICE PADDIES
Extensive areas indicated by label only.
vfr rice paddies
LAND SUBJECT TO INUNDATION vfr land subject to inundation
SPRINGS, WELLS AND WATERHOLES vfr springs wells
GLACIERS vfr glaciers
GLACIAL MORAINES vfr glacial moraines
ICE CLIFFS vfr ice cliffs
SNOWFIELDS, ICE FIELDS AND ICE CAPS vfr snowfields
ICE PEAKS vfr ice peaks
FORESHORE FLATS
Tidal flats exposed at low tide.
vfr foreshore flats
ROCKS-ISOLATED
Bare or Awash
vfr rocks
WRECKS
Exposed


vfr wrecks
REEFS-ROCKY OR CORAL vfr coral
MISCELLANEOUS UNDERWATER FEATURES NOT OTHERWISE SYMBOLIZED vfr shoals
FISH PONDS AND HATCHERIES vfr fish hatchery
ICE

 

Permanent
Polar Ice

 

 

 

Pack Ice

vfr ice

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Relief
CONTOURS
Basic



 

Approximate

 

 

Intermediate

 


Auxiliary

 


Depression
(Illustration includes mound within depression)


Values
vfr contours vfr contours intermediate vfr depression
SPOT ELEVATIONS
Position Accurate

Position Accurate, Elevation Approximate

Highest in General Area

Highest on Chart

vfr spot elevations
vfr highest elevation area
MOUNTAIN PASS vfr mountain pass
HACHURING vfr hachuring
UNSURVEYED AREAS
Label appropriately as required
vfr unsurveyed
UNCONTOURED AREAS
Label appropriately as required
vfr uncontoured
DISTORTED SURFACE AREAS vfr distorted surface
LAVA FLOWS vfr lava flows
SAND OR GRAVEL AREAS vfr sand or gravel
SAND RIDGES
To Scale
vfr sand ridges
SAND DUNES
To Scale
vfr sand dunes
SHADED RELIEF vfr shaded relief
ROCK STRATA OUTCROP vfr rock strata outcrop
QUARRIES TO SCALE vfr quarries to scale
STRIP MINES, MINE DUMPS AND TAILINGS
To Scale
vfr strip mine
CRATERS vfr craters
ESCARPMENTS, BLUFFS, CLIFFS, DEPRESSIONS, ETC. vfr escarpments
LEVEES AND ESKERS vfr levee esker

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HELICOPTER ROUTE CHARTS

Airports
LANDPLANE
All recognizable runways, including some which may be closed, are shown for visual identification.
helicopter airports
HELIPORT heliports
SEAPLANE helicopter seaplane ultralight park
ULTRALIGHT
FLIGHT PARK
helicopter seaplane ultralight park
AIRPORT DATA GROUPING
Boxed airport name indicates airport for which a Special Traffic Rule has been established.
(Pvt): Non-public use having emergency or landmark value.
"OBJECTIONABLE": This airport may adversely affect airspace use.

helicopter airport data grouping

helicopter airport data grouping 2
Radio Aids to Navigation
VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL RADIO (VOR) RANGE

 

 

 

 

 


VOR

 



VORTAC
When an NDB NAVAID shares the same name and Morse Code as the VOR NAVAID the frequency can be collocated inside the same box to conserve space.

VOR-DME
heli vor heli vor heli vortac

 

 

 


heli vor-dme
NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO BEACON (NDB)

 


NDB-DME

helicopter ndb
NAVAIDS USED TO DEFINE CLASS B AIRSPACE heli navaids
BROADCAST STATIONS (BS)
On request by the proper authority or when a VFR Checkpoint.
heli broadcast stations
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)

 

 

 

 

 

REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO)

heli fss rco
Airspace Information
CLASS B AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown. (Mode C see FAR 91.215/AIM)

All mileages are nautical (NM)

All radials are magnetic.

heli class b airspace
CLASS C AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown. (Mode C see FAR 91.215/AIM)
heli class c
CLASS D AIRSPACE heli class d
CLASS E SURFACE (SFC) AIRSPACE heli class e sfc
SPECIAL AIRSPACE AREAS

SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Example: Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.





heli special airspace
FLIGHT RESTRICTED ZONE (FRZ) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example:
Washington DC
heli frz
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.



heli adiz
CANADIAN AIRSPACE Appropriate notes as required may be shown. heli canadian airspace
HELICOPTER
ROUTES
heli helicopter routes
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

The type of area shall be spelled out in large areas if space permits.
heli sua
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) heli mtr
SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES / AIRPORT TRAFFIC AREAS (FAR PART 93)
Appropriate boxed notes as required shown adjacent to area.

heli special air traffic rules
MODE C
(FAR 91.215)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

heli mode c
MISCELLANEOUS
AIRSPACE AREAS

Parachute Jumping Area with Frequency

Glider Operating Area

Ultralight Activity

Hang Glider Activity

Unmanned Aircraft Activity



heli misc
SPECIAL CONSERVATION AREAS
National Park, Wildlife Refuge, Primitive and Wilderness Areas, etc.

NOAA Regulated National Marine Sanctuary Designated Areas

heli special conservation areas



heli special conservation areas
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
heli trsa

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Navigational and Procedural Information
VFR CHECKPOINTS
Underline indicates proper name of VFR Checkpoint.
heli vfr checkpoints
VFR WAYPOINTS
Stand-Alone

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint & Reporting Point

heli vfr waypoints
OBSTRUCTIONS
High-intensity lights may operate part-time or by proximity activation.
heli obstructions
WIND TURBINE FARMS
When highest wind turbine is unverified, UC will be shown after MSL value.

heli wind turbine farms
MAXIMUM ELEVATION FIGURE (MEF)
(see VFR Terms tab for explanation)

heli mef
NAVIGATION DATA heli navigational data
WARNING AND
CAUTION NOTES
heli warning notes
LOCAL MAGNETIC NOTES
Unreliability Notes
heli local mag notes

Back to the Top

Topographic Information

Culture
RAILROADS
Single Track

Double Track

heli railroads
ROADS
Dual-Lane:
Divided Highways

Major Boulevards & Major Streets
Primary
heli roads
BRIDGES heli bridges
POPULATED PLACES
Built-up Areas
heli populated areas
BOUNDARIES
International

State or Province
heli boundaries
POWER
TRANSMISSION LINES
heli power transmission lines
PROMINENT PICTORIALS heli prominent pictorials
LANDMARKS heli landmarks
Hydrography
SHORELINES heli shorelines
MAJOR LAKES AND RIVERS heli major lakes and rivers
RESERVOIRS heli reservoirs
Relief
SPOT ELEVATIONS
Position Accurate
heli spot elevations

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VFR FLYWAY PLANNING CHARTS

Airports
LANDPLANE
No distinction is made between airports with services and those without services. Runways may be exaggerated to clearly portray the pattern. Hard-surfaced runways which are closed but still exist are included in the charted pattern.

FAR 91 - Fixed wing special VFR operations prohibited.
flyway airports







flyway airports
LANDPLANE
(continued)

(Pvt): Non-public use having emergency or landmark value. "OBJECTIONABLE": This airport may adversely affect airspace use.

ABANDONED - Depicted for landmark value or to prevent confusion with an adjacent usable landing area. Only portrayed beneath or close to the VFR flyway routes or requested by the FAA. (Normally at least 3000' paved).

flyway airports




flyway airports
Radio Aids to Navigation
VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL
RADIO RANGE (VOR)
VOR

VORTAC


VOR-DME

flyway vor
NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO BEACON
(NDB)

NDB-DME

flyway ndb
NAVAIDS USED TO DEFINE CLASS B AIRSPACE flyway navaids
Airspace Information
CLASS B AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

(Mode C see
FAR 91.215 /AIM)

All mileages are nautical (NM).

All radials are magnetic.
flyway class b
CLASS C AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

(Mode C see
FAR 91.215/AIM)
flyway class c
CLASS D AIRSPACE flyway class d
CLASS E SURFACE (SFC) AIRSPACE flyway class e
SPECIAL AIRSPACE AREAS

SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA)
RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY


Example:
Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.




flyway special airspace
FLIGHT RESTRICTED ZONE (FRZ) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example:
Washington DC
flyway frz
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR)
RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Example:

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

flyway tfr
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.



flyway adiz
SUGGESTED VFR FLYWAY AND ALTITUDE flyway suggested flyway and altitude
IFR ROUTES

Arrival

Departure
flyway ifr routes
VFR TRANSITION ROUTES
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
Uni-directional

Bi-directional

flyway transition routes
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

The type of area shall be spelled out in large areas if space permits.

flyway special use airspace
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) flyway mtr
SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES/AIRPORT TRAFFIC AREAS (FAR Part 93)
Appropriate boxed note as required shown adjacent to area.


flyway special air traffic rules areas
MODE C (FAR 91.215)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

flyway mode c
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA) flyway trsa
MISCELLANEOUS AIRSPACE AREAS
Parachute Jumping Area

Glider Operating Area

Ultralight Activity

Hang Glider Activity

Unmanned Aircraft Activity



flyway misc airspace areas
SPECIAL CONSERVATION AREAS
NOAA Regulated
National Marine
Sanctuary Designated
Areas

flyway special conservation areas
Navigational and Procedural Information
VFR CHECKPOINTS
Underline indicates proper name of VFR Checkpoint
flyway vfr checkpoints
VFR WAYPOINTS
Stand-Alone

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint
vfr waypoints
NAVIGATIONAL DATA flyway navigational data
OBSTRUCTIONS
Only obstacles greater than 999' above ground level (AGL) or specified by the local ATC Facility shall be shown.

AGL heights are not shown.
High-intensity lights may operate part-time or by proximity activation.

Under Construction or reported and position/elevation unverified.


flyway obstructions


flyway obstructions

flyway obstructions

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Topographic Information

Culture
RAILROADS
Single and Multiple Tracks
flyway railroads
ROADS
Dual-Lane

Divided Highway Primary
flyway roads
POPULATED PLACES

Built-up Areas

Towns


flyway populated areas
BOUNDARIES
International
flyway boundaries
POWER TRANSMISSION LINES flyway power transmission lines
PROMINENT PICTORIALS flyway prominent pictorials
LANDMARKS flyway landmarks
Hydrography
SHORELINES flyway shorelines
MAJOR LAKES AND RIVERS flyway major lakes and rivers
RESERVOIRS flyway reservoirs
Relief
SPOT ELEVATIONS
Position Accurate Mountain Peaks

flyway spot elevation

Back to the Top

vfr airspace classes table

vfr airspace classes diagram

U.S. Airspace depiction as shown on Visual Aeronautical Charts

vfr tac snapshot

Excerpt from Detroit Sectional Chart

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EXPLANATION OF IFR TERMS AND SYMBOLS

FAA charts are prepared in accordance with specifications of the Interagency Air Cartographic Committee (IACC), and are approved by representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of Defense (DoD). Some information on these charts may only apply to military pilots.

The explanations of symbols used on Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) Charts and examples in this section are based primarily on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Other IFR products use similar symbols in various colors. The chart legends portray aeronautical symbols with a brief description of what each symbol depicts. This section provides more details of the symbols and how they are used on IFR charts.

AIRPORTS

Active airports with hard-surfaced runways of 3,000' or longer are shown on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts - U.S. for the contiguous United States. Airports with hard or soft runways of 3,000' or longer are shown on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts - Alaska. Airports with hard-surfaced runways of 5,000' or longer are shown on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts - U.S. for the contiguous United States. Airports with hard or soft runways of 4000' or longer are shown on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts - Alaska. Public heliports with an Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) or requested by the FAA or DoD are depicted on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Seaplane bases requested by the FAA or DoD are depicted on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Active airports with approved instrument approach procedures are also shown regardless of runway length or composition. On IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts a tabulation, is provided which identifies airport names, IDs and the panels they are located on. Charted airports are classified according to the following criteria:
ifr high low
Blue - Airports with an Instrument Approach Procedure and/or RADAR MINIMA published in the high altitude DoD Flight Information Publications (FLIPs)
Green - Airports which have an approved Instrument Approach Procedure and/or RADAR MINIMA published in either the U.S. Terminal Procedures Publications (TPPs) or the DoD FLIPs
Brown - Airports without a published Instrument Approach Procedure or RADAR MINIMA

Airports are plotted at their true geographic position, unless the symbol conflicts with a radio aid to navigation (NAVAID) at the same location. In such cases, the airport symbols are displaced. The relationship between the airport and the NAVAID is retained.
Airports are identified by the airport name. In the case of military airports, Air Force Base (AFB), Naval Air Station (NAS), Naval Air Facility (NAF), Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Army Air Field (AAF), etc., the abbreviated letters appear as part of the airport name.
Airports marked "Pvt" immediately following the airport name are not for public use, but otherwise meet the criteria for charting as specified above.
Runway length is the length of the longest active runway (including displaced thresholds but excluding overruns) and is shown to the nearest 100 feet using 70 feet as the division point; e.g., a runway of 8,070' is labeled 81. The following runway compositions (materials) constitute a hard-surfaced runway: asphalt, bitumen, chip seal, concrete, and tar macadam. Runways that are not hard-surfaced have a small letter "s" following the runway length, indicating a soft surface.
ifr legend

A ifr-L symbol following the elevation under the airport name means that runway lights are in operation sunset to sunrise. Aifr pilot controlled lighting symbol indicates there is Pilot Controlled Lighting. A ifr part time lighting symbol means the lighting is part-time or on request, the pilot should consult the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) or appropriate Supplement for light operating procedures. The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) thoroughly explains the types and uses of airport lighting aids.

RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION

All IFR radio NAVAIDs that have been flight checked and are operational are shown on all IFR Enroute Charts. Very High Frequency/Ultrahigh Frequency (VHF/UHF) NAVAIDs, Very high frequency Omnidirectional Radio range (VORs), Tactical Air Navigation (TACANs) are shown in black, and Low Frequency/Medium Frequency (LF/MF) NAVAIDs, (Compass Locators and Aeronautical or Marine NDBs) are shown in brown.
On IFR Enroute Charts, information about NAVAIDs is boxed as illustrated below. To avoid duplication of data, when two or more NAVAIDs in a general area have the same name, the name is usually printed only once inside an identification box with the frequencies, TACAN channel numbers, identification letters, or Morse Code Identifications of the different NAVAIDs are shown in appropriate colors.
NAVAIDS in a shutdown status have the frequency and channel number crosshatched. Use of the NAVAID status "shutdown" is only used when a facility has been decommissioned but cannot be published as such because of pending airspace actions.
ifr navaid data

CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Controlled airspace consists of those areas where some or all aircraft are subjected to air traffic control within the following airspace classifications of A, B, C, D, & E.
Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) are established to provide Air Traffic Control to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace, particularly during the enroute phase of flight. Boundaries of the ARTCCs are shown in their entirety using the symbol below.
ARTCC

The responsible ARTCC Center names are shown adjacent and parallel to the boundary line.
ARTCC sector frequencies are shown in boxes outlined by the same symbol.
ARTCC SECTOR FREQUENCIES

Class A Airspace is depicted as open area (white) on the IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. It consists of airspace from 18,000 Mean Sea Level (MSL) to 60,000 MSL. In aviation terms those altitudes are written as FL 180 to FL 600, (18,000 MSL, is Flight Level (FL)180, 60,000 MSL, is FL 600.

Class B Airspace is depicted as screened blue area with a solid line encompassing the area.

Class C Airspace is depicted as screened blue area with a dashed line encompassing the area with a following the airport name.
Class B and Class C Airspace consist of controlled airspace extending upward from the surface or a designated floor to specified altitudes, within which all aircraft and pilots are subject to the operating rules and requirements specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 71. Class B and C Airspace are shown in abbreviated forms on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. A general note adjacent to Class B airspace refers the user to the appropriate VFR Terminal Area Chart.

Class D Airspace (airports with an operating control tower) are depicted as open area (white) with a following the airport name.

Class E Airspace is depicted as open area (white) on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. It consists of airspace below FL180.

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UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Class G Airspace within the United States extends to 14,500' MSL. This uncontrolled airspace is shown as screened brown.
On Area Charts any uncontrolled airspace boundaries are depicted with a .012" brown line and a .060" screen brown band on the uncontrolled side, so as to be seen over the terrain.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE

Special Use Airspace (SUA) confines certain flight activities, restricts entry, or cautions other aircraft operating within specific boundaries. SUA areas are shown in their entirety, even when they overlap, adjoin, or when an area is designated within another area. SUA with altitudes from the surface and above are shown on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Similarly, SUA that extends above 18,000' MSL are shown on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. On IFR Enroute Altitude Charts tabulations, identify the type of SUA, ID, effective altitudes, times of use, controlling agency and the panel it is located on.
ifr special use airspace

OTHER AIRSPACE

FAR 91 Special Air Traffic Rules are shown with the type NO SVFR above the airport name.
ifr no svfr
FAR 93 Special Airspace Traffic Rules are shown with a solid line box around the airport name, indicating
FAR 93 Special Requirements see Directory/Supplement.
Mode C Required Airspace (from the surface to 10,000' MSL) within 30 NM radius of the primary airport(s) for which a Class B airspace is designated, is depicted on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts as a blue circle labeled MODE C 30 NM.
ifr mode C
Mode C is also required for operations within and above all Class C airspace up to 10,000' MSL, but not depicted. See FAR 91.215 and the AIM.

INSTRUMENT AIRWAYS

The FAA has established two fixed route systems for air navigation. The VOR and LF/MF system-designated from 1,200' Above Ground Level (AGL) to but not including FL 180 is shown on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts, and the Jet Route system designated from FL 180 to FL 450 inclusive is shown on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts.

VOR LF/MF AIRWAY SYSTEM (IFR LOW ALTITUDE ENROUTE CHARTS)

In this system VOR airways - airways based on VOR or VORTAC NAVAIDs - are depicted in black and identified by a "V" (Victor) followed by the route number (e.g., "V12"). In Alaska and Canada, some segments of low-altitude airways are based on LF/MF NAVAIDs and are charted in brown instead of black. Routes from a UHF facility to a LF/MF facility change from black to brown at the midpoint.
LF/MF airways - airways based on LF/MF NAVAIDs - are sometimes called "colored airways" because they are identified by color name and number (e.g., "Amber One", charted as "A1"). In Alaska Green and Red airways are plotted east and west, and Amber and Blue airways are plotted north and south. Regardless of their color identifier, LF/MF airways are shown in brown in the contiguous U.S.

AIRWAY/ROUTE DATA

On both series of IFR Enroute Charts, airway/route data such as the airway identifications, magnetic courses bearings or radials, mileages, and altitudes (e.g., Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA), Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA), Maximum Authorized Altitude (MAA), are shown aligned with the airway.

As a rule the airway/route data is charted and in the same color as the airway, with one exception. Charted in blue, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) MEAs, identified with a "G" suffix, have been added to "V" and "colored airways" for aircraft flying those airways using Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation.
Airways/Routes predicated on VOR or VORTAC NAVAIDs are defined by the outbound radial from the NAVAID. Airways/Routes predicated on LF/MF NAVAIDs are defined by the inbound bearing.
airway route data

AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) "T" ROUTE SYSTEM

The FAA has created new low altitude area navigation (RNAV) "T" routes for the enroute and terminal environments. The RNAV routes will provide more direct routing for IFR aircraft and enhance the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. To utilize these routes aircraft are required to be equipped with IFR approved GNSS. In Alaska, TSO-145a and 146a equipment is required.
Low altitude RNAV only routes are identified by the prefix "T", and the prefix "TK" for RNAV helicopter routes followed by a three digit number (T-200 to T-500). Routes are depicted in blue on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. RNAV route data (route line, identification boxes, mileages, waypoints, waypoint names, magnetic reference courses and MEAs) will also be printed in blue. Magnetic reference courses will be shown originating from a waypoint, fix/reporting point or NAVAID. GNSS MEA for each segment is established to ensure obstacle clearance and communications reception. GNSS MEAs are identified with a "G" suffix.
T-route
Joint Victor/RNAV routes are charted as outlined above except as noted. The joint Victor route and the RNAV route identification boxes are shown adjacent to each other. Magnetic reference courses are not shown. MEAs are charted above the appropriate identification box or stacked in pairs, GNSS and Victor. On joint routes, RNAV specific information will be printed in blue.
T-route-2

OFF ROUTE OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (OROCA)

The Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude (OROCA) is depicted on IFR Enroute Low Altitude and Pacific charts and is represented in thousands and hundreds of feet above MSL. OROCAs are shown in every 30 x 30 minute quadrant on Area Charts, every one degree by one degree quadrant for IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts - U.S. and every two degree by two degree quadrant on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts - Alaska. The OROCA represents the highest possible obstruction elevation including both terrain and other vertical obstruction data (towers, trees, etc.) bounded by the ticked lines of latitude/longitude including data 4 NM outside the quadrant. In this example the OROCA represents 12,500 feet.
OROCA is computed just as the Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) found on Visual Flight Rule (VFR) Charts except that it provides an additional vertical buffer of 1,000 feet in designated non-mountainous areas and a 2,000 foot vertical buffer in designated mountainous areas within the United States. For areas in Mexico and the Caribbean, located outside the U.S. Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), the OROCA provides obstruction clearance with a 3,000 foot vertical buffer. Evaluating the area around the quadrant provides the chart user the same lateral clearance an airway provides should the line of intended flight follow a ticked line of latitude or longitude. OROCA does not provide for NAVAID signal coverage, communication coverage and would not be consistent with altitudes assigned by Air Traffic Control. OROCAs can be found over all land masses and open water areas containing man-made obstructions (such as oil rigs).
OROCA

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MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTRs)

Military Training Routes (MTRs) are routes established for the conduct of low-altitude, high-speed military flight training (generally below 10,000 feet MSL at airspeeds in excess of 250 knots Indicated Air Speed). These routes are depicted in brown on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts, and are not shown on inset charts or on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts depict all IFR Military Training Routes (IRs) and VFR Military Training Routes (VRs), except those VRs that are entirely at or below 1,500 feet AGL.
MTRs are identified by designators (IR-107, VR-134) which are shown in brown on the route centerline. Arrows are shown to indicate the direction of flight along the route. The width of the route determines the width of the line that is plotted on the chart:

Route segments with a width of 5 NM or less, both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .02" line.
MTR-IR

Route segments with a width greater than 5 NM, either or both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .035" line.MTR-VR

MTRs for particular chart pairs (ex. L1/2, etc.) are alphabetically, then numerically tabulated. The tabulation includes MTR type and unique identification and altitude range.

JET ROUTE SYSTEM (HIGH ALTITUDE ENROUTE CHARTS)

Jet routes are based on VOR or VORTAC NAVAIDs, and are depicted in black with a "J" identifier followed by the route number (e.g., "J12"). In Alaska, Russia and Canada some segments of jet routes are based on LF/MF NAVAIDs and are shown in brown instead of black. Routes from a UHF facility to a LF/MF facility change from black to brown at the midpoint.

AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) "Q" ROUTE SYSTEM (IFR Enroute HIGH ALTITUDE CHARTS)

The FAA has adopted certain amendments to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations which paved the way for the development of new area high altitude navigation (RNAV) "Q" routes in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS). These amendments enable the FAA to take advantage of technological advancements in navigation systems such as the GPS. RNAV "Q" Route MEAs are shown when other than FL 180 MEAs for DME/DME/ Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) RNAV aircraft have a "D" suffix.
High Alt RNAV
RNAV routes and associated data are charted in blue.
"Q" Routes on the IFR Gulf of Mexico charts are shown in black. Magnetic reference courses are shown originating from a waypoint, fix/reporting point, or NAVAID.
Joint Jet/RNAV route identification boxes will be located adjacent to each other with the route charted in black. With the exception of Q-Routes in the Gulf of Mexico, GNSS or DME/DME/IRU RNAV are required, unless otherwise indicated. DME/DME/IRU RNAV aircraft should refer to the A/FD or appropriate Supplement for DME information. Altitude values are stacked highest to lowest.
Joint Jet RNAV

TERRAIN CONTOURS ON AREA CHARTS

Based on a recommendation of the National Transportation Safety Board, terrain contours have been added to the Enroute Area Charts and are intended to increase pilots' situational awareness for safe flight over changes in terrain. The following Area Charts portray terrain: Anchorage, Denver, Fairbanks, Juneau, Los Angeles, Nome, Phoenix, San Francisco, Vancouver and Washington.
When terrain rises at least a 1,000 feet above the primary airports' elevation, terrain is charted using shades of brown with brown contour lines and values. The initial contour will be 1,000 or 2,000 feet above the airports' elevation. Subsequent intervals will be 2,000 or 3,000 foot increments.
Contours are supplemented with a representative number of spots elevations and are shown in solid black. The highest elevation on an Area Chart is shown with a larger spot and text.
The following boxed note is added to the affected Area Charts.
Terrain boxed note

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IFR ENROUTE LOW/HIGH ALTITUDE (U.S., PACIFIC AND ALASKA CHARTS)

Airports
AIRPORT DATA ifr airport data
AIRPORT DATA DEPICTION ifr-airport-data-depiction
CIVIL ifr civil
CIVIL AND MILITARY ifr civil military
MILITARY ifr military
SEAPLANE - CIVIL ifr seaplane civil
HELIPORT ifr heliport
EMERGENCY USE ONLY ifr emergency use only
Radio Aids to Navigation
VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RADIO RANGE (VOR) ifr vor
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) ifr dme
TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION (TACAN) ifr tacan
NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIOBEACON (NDB)



MARINE RADIOBEACON (RBN)

ifr ndb
COMPASS LOCATOR BEACON ifr compass locator beacon
ILS LOCALIZER ifr ils localizer
VOR/DME RNAV WAYPOINT DATA ifr vor dme rnav waypoint data
NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION BOXES ifr navigation and communication boxes
ifr nav and comm boxes
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Airspace Information
LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAYS ifr low altitude airways
HIGH ALTITUDE ROUTES ifr high altitude routes
SINGLE DIRECTION ROUTES ifr single direction routes
DIRECTION OF FLIGHT INDICATOR ifr direction of flight indicator
SUBSTITUTE ROUTE ifr substitute route
UNUSABLE ROUTE ifr unusable route
BY-PASS ROUTE ifr by-pass route
AIRWAY RESTRICTION ifr airway restriction
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) ifr mtr
FIXES/ATC REPORTING REQUIREMENTS ifr fixes
ifr fixes
RADIALS AND BEARINGS
All radials and bearings are magnetic.
ifr radials and bearings
FACILITY LOCATORS ifr facility locators
MILEAGES
All Mileages are Nautical (NM)
ifr mileages
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) FIX ifr dme fix
MINIMUM ENROUTE ALTITUDE (MEA)
All Altitudes Are MSL Unless Otherwise Noted.
ifr mea
MINIMUM ENROUTE ALTITUDE (MEA) GAP ifr mea gap
MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE (MAA)
All Altitudes Are MSL Unless Otherwise Noted.
ifr maa
MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (MOCA)
All Altitudes Are MSL Unless Otherwise Noted.
ifr moca
CHANGEOVER POINT ifr changeover point
ALTITUDE CHANGE ifr altitude change
MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE (MCA) ifr mca
MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE (MRA) ifr mra
HOLDING PATTERNS
RNAV Holding Pattern Magnetic Reference Bearing is determined by the isogonic value at the waypoint or fix.
ifr holding patterns
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ) ifr adiz
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER (ARTCC) ifr artcc
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE IDENTIFICATION DATA ifr air traffic service identification data
ALTIMETER SETTING CHANGE ifr altimeter setting change
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIR) ifr fir
CONTROL AREAS (CTA) ifr control areas
UPPER INFORMATION REGIONS (UIR)

UPPER CONTROL AREAS (UTA)

ifr uir
ADDITIONAL CONTROL AREAS ifr additional control areas
OFF ROUTE OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (OROCA) ifr oroca
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE ifr sua
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE ifr controlled airspace
UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE ifr uncontrolled airspace
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE
Canada Only
ifr controlled airspace canada only
CANADIAN AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
ifr canadian airspace
AIRSPACE OUTSIDE OF U.S.
Other than Canada

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

ifr airspace outside us
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Navigational and Procedural Information
ISOGONIC LINE AND VALUE ifr isogonic
TIME ZONE ifr time zone
ENLARGEMENT AREA ifr enlargement area
MATCH MARK ifr match mark
NOTES ifr notes
MORSE CODE ifr morse code
CRUISING ALTITUDES
U.S. only
ifr cruising altitudes
Culture
BOUNDARIES
International
ifr boundaries
U.S./Russia Maritime Line ifr us russia maritime line
Date Line ifr date line
Hydrography
SHORELINES ifr shoreline
Topography
TERRAIN
Area Charts
ifr terrain

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Oceanic Route Planning Charts

Airports
AIRPORT DATA ifr oceanic airport data
LANDPLANE-CIVIL
Refueling and repair facilities for normal traffic.
ifr oceanic landplane civil
LANDPLANE-CIVIL AND MILITARY
Refueling and repair facilities for normal traffic.
ifr oceanic civil military
LANDPLANE-MILITARY
Refueling and repair facilities for normal traffic.
ifr oceanic landplane military
Radio Aids to Navigation
VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RADIO RANGE (VOR) ifr oceanic vor
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) ifr oceanic vor dme
VOR TACAN (VORTAC) ifr oceanic vortac
TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION (TACAN) ifr oceanic tacan
NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIOBEACON (NDB) ifr oceanic ndb
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) ifr oceanic ndb dme
IDENTIFICATION BOX ifr oceanic id box
Airspace Information
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) / OCEANIC ROUTES
Note: Mileages are Nautical (NM)
ifr oceanic ats
ATS SINGLE DIRECTION ROUTE ifr oceanic single direction route
AERIAL REFUELING TRACKS ifr oceanic refueling tracks
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ) ifr oceanic adiz
AIR ROUTE
TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER (ARTCC)
ifr oceanic artcc
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIR) AND/OR (CTA) ifr oceanic fir
UPPER INFORMATION REGIONS (UIR)

UPPER CONTROL AREAS (UTA)
ifr oceanic uir
OCEANIC CONTROL AREAS (OCA) AND/OR (CTA/FIR) ifr oceanic oca
ADDITIONAL OCEANIC CONTROL AREAS
Note: Limits not shown when coincident with Warning Areas.
ifr oceanic control area
BUFFER ZONE ifr oceanic buffer zone
NON-FREE FLYING ZONE ifr oceanic non free flying zones
NORTH ATLANTIC/ MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS (NAT/MNPS) ifr oceanic nat mnps
FIXES/ATC REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
In congested areas select fixes have coordinates, use, compl / noncompl tabulated.
ifr oceanic fixes
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Warning Area

12 Mile Limit
ifr oceanic sua
ifr oceanic 12 mile limit
UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE ifr oceanic uncontrolled airspace
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Navigational and Procedural Information
MILEAGE CIRCLES
Note: Mileages are Nautical (NM)
ifr oceanic mileage circles
TIME ZONE
Note: All time is Coordinated Universal (Standard) Time (UTC)
ifr oceanic time zone
OVERLAP MARKS
North Pacific Route Chart (NPRC) Only
ifr oceanic overlap marks
COMPASS ROSE
Note: Compass Roses oriented to Magnetic North

NPRC Only
ifr oceanic compass rose
NOTES
Warning

NPRC Only
ifr oceanic notes
Cultural Boundaries
INTERNATIONAL ifr oceanic international
MARITIME
NPRC Only
ifr oceanic maritime
DATE LINE
NPRC Only
ifr oceanic date line
Hydrography
SHORELINES ifr oceanic shoreline

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U.S. TERMINAL PROCEDURES PUBLICATION

The U.S. Terminal Procedure Publications include the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPS), Standard Instrument Departure Procedures (SIDs), Standard Terminal Arrivals (STARs), IFR Takeoff Minimums and (Obstacle) Departure Procedures (ODPs), IFR Alternate Minimums, and Radar Instrument Approach Minimums for use by civil and military aviation.

EXPLANATION OF TPP TERMS AND SYMBOLS

The discussions and examples in this section will be based primarily on the IFR (Instrument Flight Rule) Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP). Other IFR products use similar symbols in various colors (see Section 2 of this guide). The publication legends list aeronautical symbols with a brief description of what each symbol depicts. This section will provide a more detailed discussion of some of the symbols and how they are used on TPP charts.
FAA charts are prepared in accordance with specifications of the Interagency Air Cartographic Committee (IACC), which are approved by representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Department of Defense. Some information on these charts may only apply to military pilots.

PILOT BRIEFING INFORMATION

The pilot briefing information format consists of three horizontal rows of boxed procedure-specific information along the top edge of the chart. Frequencies and channel, course and elevation values are charted in bold type. The top row contains the primary procedure navigation information, final approach course, landing distance available, touchdown zone, threshold and airport elevations. tpp-10266r12
The middle row contains procedure notes and limitations, icons indicating if nonstandard alternate and/or takeoff minimums apply, approach lighting symbology, and the full text description of the missed approach procedure. The bottom row contains air to ground communication facilities and frequencies in the order in which they are used during an approach with the tower frequency box bolded.
When tpp tri-tappears in the Notes section, it signifies the airport has IFR takeoff minimums and/or Departure Procedures published in Section L of the TPP.
CIVIL USERS NOTE: FAR 91 prescribes standard takeoff rules and establishes takeoff minimums for certain operators as follows: (1) Aircraft having two engines or less - one statute mile. (2) Aircraft having more than two engines - one-half statute mile. These standard minima apply in the absence of any different minima listed in Section L of the TPP.
ALL USERS: Airports that have Departure Procedures (DPs) designed specifically to assist pilots in avoiding obstacles during the climb to the minimum enroute altitude, and/or airports that have civil IFR takeoff minimums other than standard, are listed in Section L of the TPP by city. Takeoff Minimums and Departure Procedures apply to all runways unless otherwise specified. Altitudes, unless otherwise indicated, are minimum altitudes in MSL.
DPs specifically designed for obstacle avoidance may be described in Section L of the TPP in text or published as a graphic procedure. Its name will be listed, and it can be found in either the TPPs (civil) or a separate Departure Procedure volume (military), as appropriate. Users will recognize graphic obstacle DPs by the word "(OBSTACLE)" included in the procedure title; e.g., TETON TWO (OBSTACLE). If not specifically assigned a departure procedure (i.e., ODP, SID, or radar vector) as part of an IFR clearance, an ODP may be required to be flown for obstacle clearance, even though not specifically stated in the IFR clearance. When doing so in this manner, ATC should be informed when the ODP being used contains a specified route to be flown, restrictions before turning, and/or altitude restrictions.
Graphic DPs designed by ATC to standardize traffic flows, ensure aircraft separation and enhance capacity are referred to as "Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs)." SIDs also provide obstacle clearance and are published under the appropriate airport section. ATC clearance must be received prior to flying a SID.
NOTE: Graphic Departure Procedures that have been designed primarily to assist Air Traffic Control in providing air traffic separation (as well as providing obstacle clearance) are usually assigned by name in an ATC clearance and are not listed by name in Section L of the TPP.
When tpp-tri-A appears in the Notes section of the approach chart, it indicates non-standard IFR alternate minimums exist for the airport. When an alternate airport is required, standard IFR alternate minimums apply. Precision approach procedures require a 600' ceiling and 2 statute miles visibility; nonprecision approaches require an 800' ceiling and 2 statute miles visibility. This information is found in Section M of the TPP. If tpp tri-a-na appears, alternate minimums are not authorized due to unmonitored facility or absence of weather reporting service. Civil pilots see FAR 91.

The tpp-w symbol indicates that outages of the WAAS vertical guidance may occur daily at this location due to initial system limitations. WAAS NOTAMs for vertical outages are not provided for this approach. Use LNAV minima for flight planning at these locations, whether as a destination or alternate. For flight operations at these locations, when the WAAS avionics indicate that LNAV/VNAV or LPV service is available, then vertical guidance may be used to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. Should an outage occur during the procedure, reversion to LNAV minima may be required. As the WAAS coverage is expanded, the tpp-w will be removed.

PLANVIEW

The data on the planview is drawn to scale, unless one of the following three charting devices are utilized: concentric rings, scale breaks or inset box(es). In many cases, obstructions close to the airport can be depicted within the parameters of the airport sketch.

Terrain Depiction
Terrain will be depicted with contour lines in shades of brown, in the planview portion of all IAPs at airports that meet the following criteria:
- If the terrain within the planview exceeds 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, or
- If the terrain within a 6.0 nautical mile radius of the Airport Reference Point (ARP) rises to at least 2,000 feet above the airport elevation.
Approximately 1200 airports throughout the US currently meet the above criteria.

tpp-planview

MISSED APPROACH ICONS

Boxed MAP icons, placed in the profile section, are intended to provide quick at-a-glance intuitive guidance to the pilot to supplement, not replace, the textual missed approach instructions in the briefing strip. These step-by-step instructional graphics depict direction of turn, next heading/course/bearing/track, next altitude, etc. to give the pilot the "up and out" initial steps of the missed approach.
tpp-missed-approach-icons


IFR LANDING MINIMA

The United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) is the approved criteria for formulating instrument approach procedures. Landing minima are established for six aircraft categories (ABCDE and COPTER). In the absence of COPTER MINIMA, helicopters may use the CAT A minimums of other procedures.


tpp-ifr-landing-minima

TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREAS (TAAs)

The objective of the Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) is to provide a seamless transition from the enroute structure to the terminal environment for arriving aircraft equipped with Flight Management System (FMS) and/or Global Positioning System (GPS) navigational equipment. The underlying instrument approach procedure is an area navigation (RNAV) procedure. The TAA contains within it a "T" structure that normally provides for a No Procedure Turn (NoPT) for aircraft using the approach. The TAA provides the pilot and air traffic controller with a very efficient method for routing traffic into the terminal environment with little required air traffic control interface, and with minimum altitudes depicted that provide standard obstacle clearance compatible with the instrument procedure associated with it. The TAA will not be found on all RNAV procedures, particularly in areas of heavy concentration of air traffic. When the TAA is published, it replaces the MSA for that approach procedure. TAAs may appear on GPS and RNAV IAP charts.
NOTE: Additional information for the TAAs can be found in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Para 5-4-5-d.

tpp-instrument approach

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U.S. TERMINAL PROCEDURES PUBLICATION SYMBOLS
GENERAL INFORMATION

Symbols shown are for the Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP) which includes Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), Departure Procedures (DPs), Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) and Airport Diagrams.
tpp legend

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Approach Lighting System
RUNWAY TOUCHDOWN ZONE AND CENTERLINE LIGHTING SYSTEMS tpp-tdz
APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM

ALSF-2
tpp-alsf2
ALSF-1 tpp-alsf1
SHORT APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM tpp salsf
SIMPLIFIED SHORT APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM WITH RUNWAY ALIGNMENT INDICATOR LIGHTS tpp ssalr
MEDIUM INTENSITY OR SIMPLIFIED SHORT APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEMS tpp mals
MEDIUM INTENSITY APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM WITH RUNWAY ALIGNMENT INDICATOR LIGHTS tpp malsr
VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR tpp VASI
T - VISUAL APROACH SLOPE INDICATOR tpp TVASI
VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR tpp VASI 3
PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR tpp PAPI
PULSATING VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR tpp PVASI
TRI-COLOR VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR tpp TRCV
ALIGNMENT OF ELEMENT SYSTEMS tpp APAP

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Airport Diagram/Sketch
ARRESTING GEAR tpp arresting gear
REFERENCE FEATURES tpp reference features
NOTES tpp notes
RUNWAYS tpp runways

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Instrument Approach Procedures Planview
TERMINAL ROUTES tpp terminal routes
HOLDING PATTERNS tpp holding patterns
FIXES/ATC REPORTING REQUIREMENTS tpp fixes
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION tpp radio aids to navigation
MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE tpp minimum safe altitude
TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREAS tpp terminal arrival areas
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE tpp special use airspace
OBSTACLES tpp obstacles
ALTITUDES tpp altitudes
MISCELLANEOUS tpp misclaneous
AIRPORTS tpp airports
INDICATED AIRSPEED tpp indicated airspeed

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Instrument Approach Procedures Profile View
PROFILE VIEW tpp profile view

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