GPS - Control Segment
The Control Segment of GPS consists of:
Master Control Station: The master control station, located at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado, is responsible for overall management of the remote monitoring and transmission sites. GPS ephemeris being a tabulation of computed positions, velocities and derived right ascension and declination of GPS satellites at specific times, replace "position" with "ephemeris" because the Master Control Station computes not only position but also velocity, right ascension and declination parameters for eventual upload to GPS satellites.
Monitor Stations: Six monitor stations are located at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado, Cape Canaveral, Florida, Hawaii, Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean, Diego Garcia Atoll in the Indian Ocean, and Kwajalein Island in the South Pacific Ocean.Six additional monitoring stations were added in 2005 in Argentina, Bahrain, United Kingdom, Ecuador, Washington DC, and Australia. Each of the monitor stations checks the exact altitude, position, speed, and overall health of the orbiting satellites. The control segment uses measurements collected by the monitor stations to predict the behavior of each satellite's orbit and clock. The prediction data is up-linked, or transmitted, to the satellites for transmission back to the users. The control segment also ensures that the GPS satellite orbits and clocks remain within acceptable limits. A station can track up to 11 satellites at a time. This "check-up" is performed twice a day, by each station, as the satellites complete their journeys around the earth. Noted variations, such as those caused by the gravity of the moon, sun and the pressure of solar radiation, are passed along to the master control station.
Ground Antennas: Four ground antennas monitor and track the satellites from horizon to horizon. They also transmit correction information to individual satellites.